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Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 546


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed mouse

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11003, RRID:AB_2534071)


polyclonal antibody


Applications: IF (4 µg/mL), ICC (4 µg/mL), Flow (1-10 µg/mL)

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Serpin Facilitates Tumor-Suppressive Cell Competition by Blocking Toll-Mediated Yki Activation in Drosophila.

  • Katsukawa M
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Normal epithelial tissue exerts an intrinsic tumor-suppressive effect against oncogenically transformed cells. In Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic polarity-deficient cells mutant for scribble (scrib) or discs large (dlg) are eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify Serpin5 (Spn5), a secreted negative regulator of Toll signaling, as a crucial factor for epithelial cells to eliminate scrib mutant clones from epithelium. Downregulation of Spn5 in wild-type cells leads to elevation of Toll signaling in neighboring scrib cells. Strikingly, forced activation of Toll signaling or Toll-related receptor (TRR) signaling in scrib clones transforms scrib cells from losers to supercompetitors, resulting in tumorous overgrowth of mutant clones. Mechanistically, Toll activation in scrib clones leads to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and F-actin accumulation, which cause strong activation of the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie that blocks cell death and promotes cell proliferation. Our data suggest that Spn5 secreted from normal epithelial cells acts as a component of the extracellular surveillance system that facilitates elimination of pre-malignant cells from epithelium.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA097214(United States)

The Epigenetic State of PRDM16-Regulated Enhancers in Radial Glia Controls Cortical Neuron Position.

  • Baizabal JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


The epigenetic landscape is dynamically remodeled during neurogenesis. However, it is not understood how chromatin modifications in neural stem cells instruct the formation of complex structures in the brain. We report that the histone methyltransferase PRDM16 is required in radial glia to regulate lineage-autonomous and stage-specific gene expression programs that control number and position of upper layer cortical projection neurons. PRDM16 regulates the epigenetic state of transcriptional enhancers to activate genes involved in intermediate progenitor cell production and repress genes involved in cell migration. The histone methyltransferase domain of PRDM16 is necessary in radial glia to promote cortical neuron migration through transcriptional silencing. We show that repression of the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase PDZRN3 by PRDM16 determines the position of upper layer neurons. These findings provide insights into how epigenetic control of transcriptional enhancers in radial glial determines the organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA109038-04(United States)

Rapid Rebalancing of Excitation and Inhibition by Cortical Circuitry.

  • Moore AK
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Excitation is balanced by inhibition to cortical neurons across a wide range of conditions. To understand how this relationship is maintained, we broadly suppressed the activity of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory neurons and asked how this affected the balance of excitation and inhibition throughout auditory cortex. Activating archaerhodopsin in PV+ neurons effectively suppressed them in layer 4. However, the resulting increase in excitation outweighed Arch suppression and produced a net increase in PV+ activity in downstream layers. Consequently, suppressing PV+ neurons did not reduce inhibition to principal neurons (PNs) but instead resulted in a tightly coordinated increase in both excitation and inhibition. The increase in inhibition constrained the magnitude of PN spiking responses to the increase in excitation and produced nonlinear changes in spike tuning. Excitatory-inhibitory rebalancing is mediated by strong PN-PV+ connectivity within and between layers and is likely engaged during normal cortical operation to ensure balance in downstream neurons.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 AG000320-06(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC015828()

Recurrent Circuitry for Balancing Sleep Need and Sleep.

  • Donlea JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Sleep-promoting neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of Drosophila are integral to sleep homeostasis, but how these cells impose sleep on the organism is unknown. We report that dFB neurons communicate via inhibitory transmitters, including allatostatin-A (AstA), with interneurons connecting the superior arch with the ellipsoid body of the central complex. These "helicon cells" express the galanin receptor homolog AstA-R1, respond to visual input, gate locomotion, and are inhibited by AstA, suggesting that dFB neurons promote rest by suppressing visually guided movement. Sleep changes caused by enhanced or diminished allatostatinergic transmission from dFB neurons and by inhibition or optogenetic stimulation of helicon cells support this notion. Helicon cells provide excitation to R2 neurons of the ellipsoid body, whose activity-dependent plasticity signals rising sleep pressure to the dFB. By virtue of this autoregulatory loop, dFB-mediated inhibition interrupts processes that incur a sleep debt, allowing restorative sleep to rebalance the books. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC010301-16(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 NS096290()
  • Wellcome Trust - 090309()
  • Wellcome Trust - R01 DA030601()

Abrogating Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mouse Hearts Accelerates Mitochondrial Senescence.

  • Song M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Mitochondrial fusion and fission are critical to heart health; genetically interrupting either is rapidly lethal. To understand whether it is loss of, or the imbalance between, fusion and fission that underlies observed cardiac phenotypes, we engineered mice in which Mfn-mediated fusion and Drp1-mediated fission could be concomitantly abolished. Compared to fusion-defective Mfn1/Mfn2 cardiac knockout or fission-defective Drp1 cardiac knockout mice, Mfn1/Mfn2/Drp1 cardiac triple-knockout mice survived longer and manifested a unique pathological form of cardiac hypertrophy. Over time, however, combined abrogation of fission and fusion provoked massive progressive mitochondrial accumulation that severely distorted cardiomyocyte sarcomeric architecture. Mitochondrial biogenesis was not responsible for mitochondrial superabundance, whereas mitophagy was suppressed despite impaired mitochondrial proteostasis. Similar but milder defects were observed in aged hearts. Thus, cardiomyopathies linked to dynamic imbalance between fission and fusion are temporarily mitigated by forced mitochondrial adynamism at the cost of compromising mitochondrial quantity control and accelerating mitochondrial senescence.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL059888()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL128071()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R35 HL135736()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01-HD45595(United States)

Primary Cilia Signaling Shapes the Development of Interneuronal Connectivity.

  • Guo J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 7

Literature context:


Appropriate growth and synaptic integration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are essential for functional neural circuits in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of primary cilia function following the selective loss of ciliary GTPase Arl13b in interneurons impairs interneuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity, leading to altered excitatory/inhibitory activity balance. The altered morphology and connectivity of cilia mutant interneurons and the functional deficits are rescued by either chemogenetic activation of ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling or the selective induction of Sstr3, a ciliary GPCR, in Arl13b-deficient cilia. Our results thus define a specific requirement for primary cilia-mediated GPCR signaling in interneuronal connectivity and inhibitory circuit formation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK074038()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH060929()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS045892()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090029()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS090029()

Sonic hedgehog signalling mediates astrocyte crosstalk with neurons to confer neuroprotection.

  • Ugbode CI
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 9

Literature context:


Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a glycoprotein associated with development that is also expressed in the adult CNS and released after brain injury. Since the SHH receptors patched homolog-1 and Smoothened are highly expressed on astrocytes, we hypothesized that SHH regulates astrocyte function. Primary mouse cortical astrocytes derived from embryonic Swiss mouse cortices, were treated with two chemically distinct agonists of the SHH pathway, which caused astrocytes to elongate and proliferate. These changes are accompanied by decreases in the major astrocyte glutamate transporter-1 and the astrocyte intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein. Multisite electrophysiological recordings revealed that the SHH agonist, smoothened agonist suppressed neuronal firing in astrocyte-neuron co-cultures and this was abolished by the astrocyte metabolic inhibitor ethylfluoroacetate, revealing that SHH stimulation of metabolically active astrocytes influences neuronal firing. Using three-dimensional co-culture, MAP2 western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we show that SHH-stimulated astrocytes protect neurons from kainate-induced cell death. Altogether the results show that SHH regulation of astrocyte function represents an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.

Wnt-Dependent Inactivation of the Groucho/TLE Co-repressor by the HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Hyd/UBR5.

  • Flack JE
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Extracellular signals are transduced to the cell nucleus by effectors that bind to enhancer complexes to operate transcriptional switches. For example, the Wnt enhanceosome is a multiprotein complex associated with Wnt-responsive enhancers through T cell factors (TCF) and kept silent by Groucho/TLE co-repressors. Wnt-activated β-catenin binds to TCF to overcome this repression, but how it achieves this is unknown. Here, we discover that this process depends on the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Hyd/UBR5, which is required for Wnt signal responses in Drosophila and human cell lines downstream of activated Armadillo/β-catenin. We identify Groucho/TLE as a functionally relevant substrate, whose ubiquitylation by UBR5 is induced by Wnt signaling and conferred by β-catenin. Inactivation of TLE by UBR5-dependent ubiquitylation also involves VCP/p97, an AAA ATPase regulating the folding of various cellular substrates including ubiquitylated chromatin proteins. Thus, Groucho/TLE ubiquitylation by Hyd/UBR5 is a key prerequisite that enables Armadillo/β-catenin to activate transcription.

Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Protects Synapses against Aβ Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease Model.

  • Diniz LP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 12

Literature context:


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity, and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine whether this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses. We found that AβOs interact with astrocytes, cause astrocyte activation and trigger abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species, which is accompanied by impairment of astrocyte neuroprotective potential in vitro We further show that both murine and human astrocyte conditioned media (CM) increase synapse density, reduce AβOs binding, and prevent AβO-induced synapse loss in cultured hippocampal neurons. Both a neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) antibody and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGF-β1, previously identified as an important synaptogenic factor secreted by astrocytes, abrogated the protective action of astrocyte CM against AβO-induced synapse loss. Notably, TGF-β1 prevented hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received an intracerebroventricular infusion of AβOs. Results suggest that astrocyte-derived TGF-β1 is part of an endogenous mechanism that protects synapses against AβOs. By demonstrating that AβOs decrease astrocyte ability to protect synapses, our results unravel a new mechanism underlying the synaptotoxic action of AβOs in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, mainly attributed to synaptotoxicity of the amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Here, we investigated the impact of AβOs in astrocytes, a less known subject. We show that astrocytes prevent synapse loss induced by AβOs, via production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). We found that AβOs trigger morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes, and impair their neuroprotective potential. Notably, TGF-β1 reduced hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received intracerebroventricular infusions of AβOs. Our results describe a new mechanism underlying the toxicity of AβOs and indicate novel therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease, mainly focused on TGF-β1 and astrocytes.

Nicotinamide Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in a Human iPSC Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

  • Saini JS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a cell monolayer essential for photoreceptor survival, and is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. There are no disease-altering therapies for dry AMD, which is characterized by accumulation of subretinal drusen deposits and complement-driven inflammation. We report the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients with diagnosed AMD, including two donors with the rare ARMS2/HTRA1 homozygous genotype. The hiPSC-derived RPE cells produce several AMD/drusen-related proteins, and those from the AMD donors show significantly increased complement and inflammatory factors, which are most exaggerated in the ARMS2/HTRA1 lines. Using a panel of AMD biomarkers and candidate drug screening, combined with transcriptome analysis, we discover that nicotinamide (NAM) ameliorated disease-related phenotypes by inhibiting drusen proteins and inflammatory and complement factors while upregulating nucleosome, ribosome, and chromatin-modifying genes. Thus, targeting NAM-regulated pathways is a promising avenue for developing therapeutics to combat AMD.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - F32 EY025931()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022079()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG042932()

Pacer Mediates the Function of Class III PI3K and HOPS Complexes in Autophagosome Maturation by Engaging Stx17.

  • Cheng X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 16

Literature context:


Class III PI3-kinase (PI3KC3) is essential for autophagy initiation, but whether PI3KC3 participates in other steps of autophagy remains unknown. The HOPS complex mediates the fusion of intracellular vesicles to lysosome, but how HOPS specifically tethers autophagosome to lysosome remains elusive. Here, we report Pacer (protein associated with UVRAG as autophagy enhancer) as a regulator of autophagy. Pacer localizes to autophagic structures and positively regulates autophagosome maturation. Mechanistically, Pacer antagonizes Rubicon to stimulate Vps34 kinase activity. Next, Pacer recruits PI3KC3 and HOPS complexes to the autophagosome for their site-specific activation by anchoring to the autophagosomal SNARE Stx17. Furthermore, Pacer is crucial for the degradation of hepatic lipid droplets, the suppression of Salmonella infection, and the clearance of protein aggregates. These results not only identify Pacer as a crucial multifunctional enhancer in autophagy but also uncover both the involvement of PI3KC3 and the mediators of HOPS's specific tethering activity in autophagosome maturation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK090962(United States)

Influence of Biodentine® - A Dentine Substitute - On Collagen Type I Synthesis in Pulp Fibroblasts In Vitro.

  • Nikfarjam F
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2016 Dec 9

Literature context:


Preserving a patient's own teeth-even in a difficult situation-is nowadays preferable to surgical intervention and therefore promotes development of suitable dental repair materials. Biodentine®, a mineral trioxide aggregate substitute, has been used to replace dentine in a bioactive and biocompatible manner in both the dental crown and the root. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of Biodentine® on pulp fibroblasts in vitro. For this study, one to five Biodentine® discs with a diameter of 5.1mm were incubated in DMEM. To obtain Biodentine® suspensions the media were collected and replaced with fresh medium every 24h for 4 days. Primary pulp cells were isolated from freshly extracted wisdom teeth of 20-23 year old patients and incubated with the Biodentine® suspensions. Proliferation, cell morphology, cell integrity and cell viability were monitored. To evaluate the effect of Biodentine® on collagen type I synthesis, the secretion of the N-terminal domain of pro-collagen type I (P1NP) and the release of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were quantified. None of the Biodentine® suspensions tested influenced cell morphology, proliferation or cell integrity. The cell viability varied slightly depending on the suspension used. However, the concentrations of P1NP of all pulp fibroblast cultures treated for 24h with the moderate to high Biodentine® concentration containing suspensions of day 1 were reduced to 5% of the control. Furthermore, a significant TGF-β1 reduction was observed after treatment with these suspensions. It could be shown that Biodentine® is biocompatible. However, dissolved particles of the moderate to high concentrated Biodentine® suspensions 24h after mixing induce a significant reduction of TGF-β1 release and reduce the secretion of collagen type I of primary pulp fibroblasts.

Loss of Frataxin activates the iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway in mammals.

  • Chen K
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors. Here, we show that loss of Fxn in the nervous system in mice also activates an iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway, indicating that the mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, sphingolipid levels and PDK1 activity are also increased in hearts of FRDA patients, suggesting that a similar pathway is affected in FRDA.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)

Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors.

  • Papale A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 24

Literature context:


Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

Tonic PKA Activity Regulates SK Channel Nanoclustering and Somatodendritic Distribution.

  • Abiraman K
  • J. Mol. Biol.
  • 2016 Jun 5

Literature context:


Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels mediate a potassium conductance in the brain and are involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. SK channels show a distinct subcellular localization that is crucial for their neuronal functions. However, the mechanisms that control this spatial distribution are unknown. We imaged SK channels labeled with fluorophore-tagged apamin and monitored SK channel nanoclustering at the single molecule level by combining atomic force microscopy and toxin (i.e., apamin) pharmacology. Using these two complementary approaches, we found that native SK channel distribution in pyramidal neurons, across the somatodendritic domain, depends on ongoing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) levels, strongly limiting SK channel expression at the pyramidal neuron soma. Furthermore, tonic cAMP-PKA levels also controlled whether SK channels were expressed in nanodomains as single entities or as a group of multiple channels. Our study reveals a new level of regulation of SK channels by cAMP-PKA and suggests that ion channel topography and nanoclustering might be under the control of second messenger cascades.