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Anti-Pax-2 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone Z-RX2

RRID:AB_2533990

Antibody ID

AB_2533990

Target Antigen

Pax-2 fish, human, mouse, other, rat, xenopus, human, mouse, rat, xenopus and zebrafish

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# 71-6000, RRID:AB_2533990)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: WB (Assay Dependent), ELISA (Assay Dependent), IP (Assay Dependent), IHC (Assay Dependent), IF (Assay Dependent)

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Lateral line placodes of aquatic vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved in mammals.

  • Washausen S
  • Biol Open
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Placodes are focal thickenings of the surface ectoderm which, together with neural crest, generate the peripheral nervous system of the vertebrate head. Here we examine how, in embryonic mice, apoptosis contributes to the remodelling of the primordial posterior placodal area (PPA) into physically separated otic and epibranchial placodes. Using pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis-associated caspases, we find evidence that apoptosis eliminates hitherto undiscovered rudiments of the lateral line sensory system which, in fish and aquatic amphibia, serves to detect movements, pressure changes or electric fields in the surrounding water. Our results refute the evolutionary theory, valid for more than a century that the whole lateral line was completely lost in amniotes. Instead, those parts of the PPA which, under experimental conditions, escape apoptosis have retained the developmental potential to produce lateral line placodes and the primordia of neuromasts that represent the major functional units of the mechanosensory lateral line system.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI091036(United States)

Functional Divergence of Delta and Mu Opioid Receptor Organization in CNS Pain Circuits.

  • Wang D
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular interactions between delta and mu opioid receptors (DORs and MORs), including heteromerization, are thought to regulate opioid analgesia. However, the identity of the nociceptive neurons in which such interactions could occur in vivo remains elusive. Here we show that DOR-MOR co-expression is limited to small populations of excitatory interneurons and projection neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn and unexpectedly predominates in ventral horn motor circuits. Similarly, DOR-MOR co-expression is rare in parabrachial, amygdalar, and cortical brain regions processing nociceptive information. We further demonstrate that in the discrete DOR-MOR co-expressing nociceptive neurons, the two receptors internalize and function independently. Finally, conditional knockout experiments revealed that DORs selectively regulate mechanical pain by controlling the excitability of somatostatin-positive dorsal horn interneurons. Collectively, our results illuminate the functional organization of DORs and MORs in CNS pain circuits and reappraise the importance of DOR-MOR cellular interactions for developing novel opioid analgesics.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA042014(United States)

Conditional deletion of Neurog1 in the cerebellum of postnatal mice delays inhibitory interneuron maturation.

  • Obana EA
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcriptional programs that drive the generation of diverse GABAergic neuron populations from their common progenitor pools in the developing cerebellum remain unclear. Neurog1 is a pro-neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in GABAergic progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of embryos and subsequently in the presumptive white matter (pWM) tracts of developing postnatal mice. Genetic inducible fate-mapping labels Purkinje cells and all inhibitory interneuron cell types of the cerebellar cortex. As conventional Neurog1Neo knockout (KO) mice are neonatal lethal, we generated Neurog1loxP mutant mice to examine the effects of conditional Neurog1 deletion on the postnatal development of the cerebellum. Targeted Neurog1 loss-of-function in the developing cerebellum does not result in significant differences in cerebellar morphology or in the number of GABAergic neurons in the cerebellar cortex of mice at postnatal day 21 (P21). To determine the effects of Neurog1 deletion on GABAergic progenitors, we quantified rates of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression or re-entry in embryonic Neurog1Neo and postnatal Neurog1loxP mutants. The data revealed no significant effect of Neurog1 loss-of-function on embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) VZ progenitors or on P5 and P6 progenitors in the pWM at P7. However, 4-5 day pulse-labeling of P5 and P6 progenitors revealed reductions in inhibitory interneuron dispersal from the pWM to the cerebellar cortex in P10 conditional Neurog1loxP/loxP KO mice. Thus, our conditional Neurog1 KO approach reveals a requirement for Neurog1 activity in inhibitory interneuron cell dispersal from pWM tracts in the developing cerebellum of postnatal mice.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK059958(United States)

The Ancient Origins of Neural Substrates for Land Walking.

  • Jung H
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Walking is the predominant locomotor behavior expressed by land-dwelling vertebrates, but it is unknown when the neural circuits that are essential for limb control first appeared. Certain fish species display walking-like behaviors, raising the possibility that the underlying circuitry originated in primitive marine vertebrates. We show that the neural substrates of bipedalism are present in the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, whose common ancestor with tetrapods existed ∼420 million years ago. Leucoraja exhibits core features of tetrapod locomotor gaits, including left-right alternation and reciprocal extension-flexion of the pelvic fins. Leucoraja also deploys a remarkably conserved Hox transcription factor-dependent program that is essential for selective innervation of fin/limb muscle. This network encodes peripheral connectivity modules that are distinct from those used in axial muscle-based swimming and has apparently been diminished in most modern fish. These findings indicate that the circuits that are essential for walking evolved through adaptation of a genetic regulatory network shared by all vertebrates with paired appendages. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016087()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R00 DC012775()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH096331()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS062822()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS099933()
  • Wellcome Trust - 077368(United Kingdom)

Spinal nociceptive circuit analysis with recombinant adeno-associated viruses: the impact of serotypes and promoters.

  • Haenraets K
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer into genetically defined neuron subtypes has become a powerful tool to study the neuroanatomy of neuronal circuits in the brain and to unravel their functions. More recently, this methodology has also become popular for the analysis of spinal cord circuits. To date, a variety of naturally occurring AAV serotypes and genetically modified capsid variants are available but transduction efficiency in spinal neurons, target selectivity, and the ability for retrograde tracing are only incompletely characterized. Here, we have compared the transduction efficiency of seven commonly used AAV serotypes after intraspinal injection. We specifically analyzed local transduction of different types of dorsal horn neurons, and retrograde transduction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and of neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and the somatosensory cortex (S1). Our results show that most of the tested rAAV vectors have similar transduction efficiency in spinal neurons. All serotypes analyzed were also able to transduce DRG neurons and descending RVM and S1 neurons via their spinal axon terminals. When comparing the commonly used rAAV serotypes to the recently developed serotype 2 capsid variant rAAV2retro, a > 20-fold increase in transduction efficiency of descending supraspinal neurons was observed. Conversely, transgene expression in retrogradely transduced neurons was strongly reduced when the human synapsin 1 (hSyn1) promoter was used instead of the strong ubiquitous hybrid cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter fragments. We conclude that the use of AAV2retro greatly increases transduction of neurons connected to the spinal cord via their axon terminals, while the hSyn1 promoter can be used to minimize transgene expression in retrogradely connected neurons of the DRG or brainstem. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13813.

A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins.

  • François A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds. Unexpectedly, we found that RVM GABAergic neurons facilitate mechanical pain by inhibiting dorsal horn enkephalinergic/GABAergic interneurons. We further demonstrate that these interneurons gate sensory inputs and control pain through temporally coordinated enkephalin- and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory neurons. Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and Human Foxc1 dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms.

  • Haldipur P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously, we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule which echoes the posterior vermis DW 'tail sign' observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate that aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS050375()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072441()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080390()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095733()

Formation of the spinal network in zebrafish determined by domain-specific pax genes.

  • Ikenaga T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the formation of the spinal network, various transcription factors interact to develop specific cell types. By using a gene trap technique, we established a stable line of zebrafish in which the red fluorescent protein (RFP) was inserted into the pax8 gene. RFP insertion marked putative pax8-lineage cells with fluorescence and inhibited pax8 expression in homozygous embryos. Pax8 homozygous embryos displayed defects in the otic vesicle, as previously reported in studies with morpholinos. The pax8 homozygous embryos survived to adulthood, in contrast to mammalian counterparts that die prematurely. RFP is expressed in the dorsal spinal cord. Examination of the axon morphology revealed that RFP(+) neurons include commissural bifurcating longitudinal (CoBL) interneurons, but other inhibitory neurons such as commissural local (CoLo) interneurons and circumferential ascending (CiA) interneurons do not express RFP. We examined the effect of inhibiting pax2a/pax8 expression on interneuron development. In pax8 homozygous fish, the RFP(+) cells underwent differentiation similar to that of pax8 heterozygous fish, and the swimming behavior remained intact. In contrast, the RFP(+) cells of pax2a/pax8 double mutants displayed altered cell fates. CoBLs were not observed. Instead, RFP(+) cells exhibited axons descending ipsilaterally, a morphology resembling that of V2a/V2b interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM078005-05(United States)

Spatiotemporal fate map of neurogenin1 (Neurog1) lineages in the mouse central nervous system.

  • Kim EJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurog1 (Ngn1, Neurod3, neurogenin1) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and subtype specification during embryogenesis. Due to the transient expression of Neurog1 and extensive migration of neuronal precursors, it has been challenging to understand the full complement of Neurog1 lineage cells throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled and followed Neurog1 lineages using inducible Cre-flox recombination systems with Neurog1-Cre and Neurog1-CreER(T2) BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mice. Neurog1 lineage cells are restricted to neuronal fates and contribute to diverse but discrete populations in each brain region. In the forebrain, Neurog1 lineages include mitral cells and glutamatergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb, pyramidal and granule neurons in the hippocampus, and pyramidal cells in the cortex. In addition, most of the thalamus, but not the hypothalamus, arises from Neurog1 progenitors. Although Neurog1 lineages are largely restricted to glutamatergic neurons, there are multiple exceptions including Purkinje cells and other GABAergic neurons in the cerebellum. This study provides the first overview of the spatiotemporal fate map of Neurog1 lineages in the CNS.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 202452(Canada)

Identification of cerebellin2 in chick and its preferential expression by subsets of developing sensory neurons and their targets in the dorsal horn.

  • Yang M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cerebellins are a family of four secreted proteins, two of which, Cbln1 and Cbln3, play an important role in the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. We have identified the chicken homologue of Cbln2 and, through the use of in situ hybridization, shown that it is expressed by specific subsets of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord starting shortly after those neurons are generated. In the developing spinal cord, Cbln2 is highly expressed by dI1, dI3, dI5, and dILB dorsal interneurons and to a lesser extent by dI2, dI4, dI6, and dILA dorsal interneurons, but not by ventral (v0-v3) interneurons. After the spinal cord has matured and neurons have migrated to their final destinations, Cbln2 is abundant in the dorsal horn. In the DRGs, Cbln2 is expressed by TrkB+ and TrkC+ sensory neurons, but not by TrkA+ sensory neurons. Interestingly, regions of the spinal cord where TrkB+ and TrkC+ afferents terminate (i.e., laminae II, III, IV, and VI) exhibit the highest levels of Cbln2 expression. Cbln2 is also expressed by preganglionic sympathetic neurons and their targets in the sympathetic chain ganglia. Thus, the results show that Cbln2 is frequently expressed by synaptically connected neuronal populations. This, in turn, raises the possibility that if Cbln2, like Cbln1, plays a role in the formation and maintenance of synapses, it may somehow mediate bi-directional communication between discrete populations of neurons and their appropriate neuronal targets.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - R01AG036039(United Kingdom)

Development of "Pinceaux" formations and dendritic translocation of climbing fibers during the acquisition of the balance between glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic inputs in developing Purkinje cells.

  • Sotelo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The acquisition of the dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition in developing Purkinje cells, necessary for their proper function, is analyzed. Newborn (P0) mouse cerebellum contains glutamatergic (VGLUT2-IR) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic (VIAAT-IR) axons. The former prevail and belong to climbing fibers, whereas the latter neither colabel with calbindin-expressing fibers nor belong to axons of the cortical GABAergic interneurons. During the first postnatal week, VIAAT-IR axons in the Purkinje cell neighborhood remains very low, and the first synapses with basket fibers are formed at P7, when climbing fibers have already established dense pericellular nets. The descending basket fibers reach the Purkinje cell axon initial segment by P9, immediately establishing axoaxonic synapses. The pinceaux appear as primitive vortex-like arrangements by P12, and by P20 interbasket fiber septate-like junctions, typical of fully mature pinceaux, are still missing. The climbing fiber's somatodendritic translocation occurs later than expected, after the regression of the multiple innervation, and follows the ascending collaterals of the basket axons, which are apparently the optimal substrate for the proper subcellular targeting of the climbing fibers. These results emphasize that chemical transmission in the axon initial segment precedes the electrical inhibition generated by field effects. In addition, GABAergic Purkinje cells, as opposed to glutamatergic projection neurons in other cortical structures, do not begin to receive their excitation to inhibition balance until the end of the first postnatal week, despite the early presence of potentially functional GABAergic axons that possess the required vesicular transport system.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR015455(United States)