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Alexa Fluor 647-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) (min X Bov,Ck,Gt,GP,Sy Hms,Hrs,Hu,Ms,Rat,Shp Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_2492288

Antibody ID

AB_2492288

Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 711-605-152, RRID:AB_2492288)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product; consolidated with RRID:AB_2340624 by curator due to duplicate detection

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

VIP-immunoreactive interneurons within circuits of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

  • Rhomberg T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cortical structures, principal cell activity is tightly regulated by different GABAergic interneurons (INs). In particular, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) INs innervate preferentially other INs, providing a structural basis for temporal disinhibition of principal cells. However, relatively little is known about VIP+ INs in the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLA). In this study, we report that VIP+ INs have a variable density in the distinct subdivisions of the mouse BLA. Based on different anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, VIP+ INs could be identified as interneuron-selective INs and basket cells expressing CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Whole-cell recordings of VIP+ interneuron-selective INs revealed 3 different spiking patterns, which did not associate with the expression of calretinin. Genetic targeting combined with optogenetics and in vitro recordings allowed us to identify several types of BLA INs innervated by VIP+ INs, including other interneuron-selective INs, basket and neurogliaform cells. Moreover, light stimulation of VIP+ basket cell axon terminals, characterized by CB1 sensitivity, evoked IPSPs in ∼20% of principal neurons. Finally, we show that VIP+ INs receive a dense innervation from both GABAergic, although only 10% from other VIP+ INs, and distinct glutamatergic inputs, identified by their expression of different vesicular glutamate transporters.In conclusion, our study provides a wide-range analysis of single-cell properties of VIP+ INs in the mouse BLA and of their intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. Our results reinforce the knowledge that VIP+ INs are structurally and functionally heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity could mediate different roles in amygdala-dependent functions.Significance statement:We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of VIP+ interneurons across the entire mouse BLA, as well as of their morphological and physiological properties. VIP+ interneurons in the neocortex preferentially target other interneurons to form a disinhibitory network that facilitates principal cell firing. Our study is the first to demonstrate the presence of such a disinhibitory circuitry in the BLA. We observed structural and functional heterogeneity of these INs and characterized their input/output connectivity. We also identified several types of BLA interneurons postsynaptic to VIP+ INs, whose inhibition may provide a temporal window for principal cell firing and facilitate associative plasticity, e.g. in fear learning. Disinhibition, thus, is emerging as a general mechanism, not limited to the neocortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM055962(United States)

Optogenetic Editing Reveals the Hierarchical Organization of Learned Action Sequences.

  • Geddes CE
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The organization of action into sequences underlies complex behaviors that are essential for organismal survival and reproduction. Despite extensive studies of innate sequences in relation to central pattern generators, how learned action sequences are controlled and whether they are organized as a chain or a hierarchy remain largely unknown. By training mice to perform heterogeneous action sequences, we demonstrate that striatal direct and indirect pathways preferentially encode different behavioral levels of sequence structure. State-dependent closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of the striatal direct pathway can selectively insert a single action element into the sequence without disrupting the overall sequence length. Optogenetic manipulation of the striatal indirect pathway completely removes the ongoing subsequence while leaving the following subsequence to be executed with the appropriate timing and length. These results suggest that learned action sequences are not organized in a serial but rather a hierarchical structure that is distinctly controlled by basal ganglia pathways.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1100312(United Kingdom)

Long chain n-3 fatty acids attenuate oncogenic KRas-driven proliferation by altering plasma membrane nanoscale proteolipid composition.

  • Fuentes NR
  • Cancer Res.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ras signaling originates from transient nanoscale compartmentalized regions of the plasma membrane composed of specific proteins and lipids. The highly specific lipid composition of these nanodomains, termed nanoclusters, facilitates effector recruitment and therefore influences signal transduction. This suggests that Ras nanocluster proteolipid composition could represent a novel target for future chemoprevention interventions. There is evidence that consumption of fish oil containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) may reduce colon cancer risk in humans, yet the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA reduce the lateral segregation of cholesterol-dependent and -independent nanoclusters, suppressing phosphatidic acid-dependent oncogenic KRas effector interactions, via their physical incorporation into plasma membrane phospholipids. This results in attenuation of oncogenic Ras-driven colonic hyperproliferation in both Drosophila and murine models. These findings demonstrate the unique properties of dietary n-3 PUFA in the shaping of Ras nanoscale proteolipid complexes and support the emerging role of plasma membrane-targeted therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA161026-01(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197707()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P30 ES023512()

Synaptotagmin 4 Regulates Pancreatic β Cell Maturation by Modulating the Ca2+ Sensitivity of Insulin Secretion Vesicles.

  • Huang C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Islet β cells from newborn mammals exhibit high basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we show that β cells of newborns secrete more insulin than adults in response to similar intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, suggesting differences in the Ca2+ sensitivity of insulin secretion. Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), a non-Ca2+ binding paralog of the β cell Ca2+ sensor Syt7, increased by ∼8-fold during β cell maturation. Syt4 ablation increased basal insulin secretion and compromised GSIS. Precocious Syt4 expression repressed basal insulin secretion but also impaired islet morphogenesis and GSIS. Syt4 was localized on insulin granules and Syt4 levels inversely related to the number of readily releasable vesicles. Thus, transcriptional regulation of Syt4 affects insulin secretion; Syt4 expression is regulated in part by Myt transcription factors, which repress Syt4 transcription. Finally, human SYT4 regulated GSIS in EndoC-βH1 cells, a human β cell line. These findings reveal the role that altered Ca2+ sensing plays in regulating β cell maturation.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - 12183(United Kingdom)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK050203()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK090570()

PRC1 Fine-tunes Gene Repression and Activation to Safeguard Skin Development and Stem Cell Specification.

  • Cohen I
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) 1 and 2 are essential chromatin regulators of cell identity. PRC1, a dominant executer of Polycomb-mediated control, functions as multiple sub-complexes that possess catalytic-dependent H2AK119 mono-ubiquitination (H2AK119ub) and catalytic-independent activities. Here, we show that, despite its well-established repressor functions, PRC1 binds to both silent and active genes. Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, we show that global PRC1 function is essential for skin development and stem cell (SC) specification, whereas PRC1 catalytic activity is dispensable. Further dissection demonstrated that both canonical and non-canonical PRC1 complexes bind to repressed genes, marked by H2AK119ub and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3. Interestingly, loss of canonical PRC1, PRC1 catalytic activity, or PRC2 leads to expansion of mechanosensitive Merkel cells in neonatal skin. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes, however, also bind to and promote expression of genes critical for skin development and SC formation. Together, our findings highlight PRC1's diverse roles in executing a precise developmental program.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R00 AR057817()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR063724()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS055261(United States)

Structural and Functional Rescue of Chronic Metabolically Stressed Optic Nerves through Respiration.

  • Harun-Or-Rashid M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axon degeneration can arise from metabolic stress, potentially a result of mitochondrial dysfunction or lack of appropriate substrate input. In this study, we investigated whether the metabolic vulnerability observed during optic neuropathy in the DBA/2J (D2) model of glaucoma is due to dysfunctional mitochondria or impaired substrate delivery to axons, the latter based on our observation of significantly decreased glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in D2 optic nerve (ON), human ON, and mice subjected to acute glaucoma injury. We placed both sexes of D2 mice destined to develop glaucoma and mice of a control strain, the DBA/2J-Gpnmb+, on a ketogenic diet to encourage mitochondrial function. Eight weeks of the diet generated mitochondria, improved energy availability by reversing monocarboxylate transporter decline, reduced glial hypertrophy, protected retinal ganglion cells and their axons from degeneration, and maintained physiological signaling to the brain. A robust antioxidant response also accompanied the response to the diet. These results suggest that energy compromise and subsequent axon degeneration in the D2 is due to low substrate availability secondary to transporter downregulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show axons in glaucomatous optic nerve are energy depleted and exhibit chronic metabolic stress. Underlying the metabolic stress are low levels of glucose and monocarboxylate transporters that compromise axon metabolism by limiting substrate availability. Axonal metabolic decline was reversed by upregulating monocarboxylate transporters as a result of placing the animals on a ketogenic diet. Optic nerve mitochondria responded capably to the oxidative phosphorylation necessitated by the diet and showed increased number. These findings indicate that the source of metabolic challenge can occur upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, the intervention was successful despite the animals being on the cusp of significant glaucoma progression.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022358()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026662()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS058802(United States)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Visual and Motor Deficits in Grown-up Mice with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

  • Cui L
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human infants with congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection exhibit a range of symptoms including microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, macular atrophy and arthrogryposis. More importantly, prognosis data have lagged far behind the recent outbreak of ZIKV in 2015. In this work, we allow congenitally ZIKV-infected mice to grow into puberty. These mice exhibited motor incoordination and visual dysfunctions, which can be accounted by anatomical defects in the retina and cerebellar cortex. In contrary, anxiety level of the ZIKV-infected mice is normal. The spectrum of anatomical and behavioral deficits is consistent across different mice. Our data provided evidence that may help predict the public health burden in terms of prognosis of ZIKV-related congenital brain malformations in an animal model. Our study provided behavioral evaluation for the prognosis of congenital ZIKV infection and provides a platform for screening and evaluation of drugs candidates and treatment aiming at improving regeneration of infected neurons to prevent sequelae caused by ZIKV infection of fetus.

DNER and NFIA are expressed by developing and mature AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

  • Keeley PW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study has taken advantage of publicly available cell type specific mRNA expression databases in order to identify potential genes participating in the development of retinal AII amacrine cells. We profile two such genes, Delta/Notch-like EGF repeat containing (Dner) and nuclear factor I/A (Nfia), that are each heavily expressed in AII amacrine cells in the mature mouse retina, and which conjointly identify this retinal cell population in its entirety when using antibodies to DNER and NFIA. DNER is present on the plasma membrane, while NFIA is confined to the nucleus, consistent with known functions of each of these two proteins. DNER also identifies some other subsets of retinal ganglion and amacrine cell types, along with horizontal cells, while NFIA identifies a subset of bipolar cells as well as Muller glia and astrocytes. During early postnatal development, NFIA labels astrocytes on the day of birth, AII amacrine cells at postnatal (P) day 5, and Muller glia by P10, when horizontal cells also transiently exhibit NFIA immunofluorescence. DNER, by contrast, is present in ganglion and amacrine cells on P1, also labeling the horizontal cells by P10. Developing AII amacrine cells exhibit accumulating DNER labeling at the dendritic stalk, labeling that becomes progressively conspicuous by P10, as it is in maturity. This developmental time course is consistent with a prospective role for each gene in the differentiation of AII amacrine cells.

Sonic Hedgehog Is a Remotely Produced Cue that Controls Axon Guidance Trans-axonally at a Midline Choice Point.

  • Peng J
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro, contralateral RGC axons, which secrete Shh, repel ipsilateral RGCs in a Boc- and Smo-dependent manner. Finally, knockdown of Shh in the contralateral retina causes a decrease in the proportion of ipsilateral RGCs in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These findings reveal a role for axon-axon interactions in ipsilateral RGC guidance, and they establish that remotely produced cues can act at axon guidance midline choice points.

Distribution and diversity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in tree shrew.

  • Johnson EN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates. They are highly visual, diurnal animals with a cone-dominated retina and a geniculo-cortical organization resembling that of primates. We identified cells with morphological similarities to M1 and M2 cells described previously in rodents and primates. M1-like cells typically had somas in the ganglion cell layer, with 23% displaced to the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, unlike M1 cells, they had bistratified dendritic fields ramifying in S1 and S5 that collectively tiled space. M2-like cells had dendritic fields restricted to S5 that were smaller and more densely branching. A novel third type of melanopsin immunopositive cell was identified. These cells had somata exclusively in the INL and monostratified dendritic fields restricted to S1 that tiled space. Surprisingly, these cells immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key component in dopamine synthesis. These cells immunolabeled for an RGC marker, not amacrine cell markers, suggesting that they are dopaminergic ipRGCs. We found no evidence for M4 or M5 ipRGCs, described previously in rodents. These results identify some organizational features of the ipRGC system that are canonical versus species-specific.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024567()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY027193()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004401(United States)

Injury Induces Endogenous Reprogramming and Dedifferentiation of Neuronal Progenitors to Multipotency.

  • Lin B
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion. These results suggest that the apparent hierarchy of neuronal differentiation is not irreversible and that lineage commitment can be overridden following severe tissue injury. We elucidate a previously unappreciated pathway for endogenous tissue repair by a highly regenerative neuroepithelium and introduce a system to study the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the OE that can be adapted for other tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F30 DC013962()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014398()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014637()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC002167()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC015889()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 8 P20 GM103414-10(United States)

Rapid DNA replication origin licensing protects stem cell pluripotency.

  • Matson JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Complete and robust human genome duplication requires loading minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complexes at many DNA replication origins, an essential process termed origin licensing. Licensing is restricted to G1 phase of the cell cycle, but G1 length varies widely among cell types. Using quantitative single-cell analyses, we found that pluripotent stem cells with naturally short G1 phases load MCM much faster than their isogenic differentiated counterparts with long G1 phases. During the earliest stages of differentiation toward all lineages, MCM loading slows concurrently with G1 lengthening, revealing developmental control of MCM loading. In contrast, ectopic Cyclin E overproduction uncouples short G1 from fast MCM loading. Rapid licensing in stem cells is caused by accumulation of the MCM loading protein, Cdt1. Prematurely slowing MCM loading in pluripotent cells not only lengthens G1 but also accelerates differentiation. Thus, rapid origin licensing is an intrinsic characteristic of stem cells that contributes to pluripotency maintenance.

Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

  • Basu R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022073()

Xenopus laevis M18BP1 Directly Binds Existing CENP-A Nucleosomes to Promote Centromeric Chromatin Assembly.

  • French BT
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. We demonstrate that Xenopus M18BP1 binds CENP-A nucleosomes using a motif that is widely conserved except in mammals. The M18BP1 motif resembles a CENP-A nucleosome binding motif in CENP-C, and we show that CENP-C competes with M18BP1 for CENP-A nucleosome binding at centromeres. We show that both CENP-C and M18BP1 recruit HJURP to centromeres for new CENP-A assembly. This study defines cellular mechanisms for recruiting CENP-A assembly factors to existing CENP-A nucleosomes for the epigenetic inheritance of centromeres.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074728()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007276()

Gli1+ Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are a Key Driver of Bone Marrow Fibrosis and an Important Cellular Therapeutic Target.

  • Schneider RK
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) develops in various hematological and non-hematological conditions and is a central pathological feature of myelofibrosis. Effective cell-targeted therapeutics are needed, but the cellular origin of BMF remains elusive. Here, we show using genetic fate tracing in two murine models of BMF that Gli1+ mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited from the endosteal and perivascular niche to become fibrosis-driving myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1+ cells abolished BMF and rescued bone marrow failure. Pharmacological targeting of Gli proteins with GANT61 inhibited Gli1+ cell expansion and myofibroblast differentiation and attenuated fibrosis severity. The same pathway is also active in human BMF, and Gli1 expression in BMF significantly correlates with the severity of the disease. In addition, GANT61 treatment reduced the myofibroblastic phenotype of human MSCs isolated from patients with BMF, suggesting that targeting of Gli proteins could be a relevant therapeutic strategy.

Amino Acid Transporter Slc38a5 Controls Glucagon Receptor Inhibition-Induced Pancreatic α Cell Hyperplasia in Mice.

  • Kim J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucagon supports glucose homeostasis by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, in part by promoting the uptake and conversion of amino acids into gluconeogenic precursors. Genetic disruption or pharmacologic inhibition of glucagon signaling results in elevated plasma amino acids and compensatory glucagon hypersecretion involving expansion of pancreatic α cell mass. Recent findings indicate that hyperaminoacidemia triggers pancreatic α cell proliferation via an mTOR-dependent pathway. We confirm and extend these findings by demonstrating that glucagon pathway blockade selectively increases expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5 in a subset of highly proliferative α cells and that Slc38a5 controls the pancreatic response to glucagon pathway blockade; most notably, mice deficient in Slc38a5 exhibit markedly decreased α cell hyperplasia to glucagon pathway blockade-induced hyperaminoacidemia. These results show that Slc38a5 is a key component of the feedback circuit between glucagon receptor signaling in the liver and amino-acid-dependent regulation of pancreatic α cell mass in mice.

Select noxious stimuli induce changes on corneal nerve morphology.

  • Hegarty DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology, and function. We tested whether noxious stimulation of the corneal surface can alter nerve morphology and neurochemistry. We used concentrations of menthol, capsaicin, and hypertonic saline that evoked comparable levels of nocifensive eye wipe behaviors when applied to the ocular surface of an awake rat. Animals were sacrificed and corneal nerves were examined using immunocytochemistry and three-dimensional volumetric analyses. We found that menthol and capsaicin both caused a significant reduction in corneal nerve density as detected with β-tubulin immunoreactivity 2 hr after stimulation. Hypertonic saline did not reduce nerve density, but did cause qualitative changes in nerves including enlarged varicosities that were also seen following capsaicin and menthol stimulation. All three types of noxious stimuli caused a depletion of CGRP from corneal nerves, indicating that all modalities of noxious stimuli evoked peptide release. Our findings suggest that studies aimed at understanding the relationship between corneal nerve morphology and chronic disease may also need to consider the effects of acute stimulation on corneal nerve morphology.

Interferon-λ Mediates Non-redundant Front-Line Antiviral Protection against Influenza Virus Infection without Compromising Host Fitness.

  • Galani IE
  • Immunity
  • 2017 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lambda interferons (IFNλs) or type III IFNs share homology, expression patterns, signaling cascades, and antiviral functions with type I IFNs. This has complicated the unwinding of their unique non-redundant roles. Through the systematic study of influenza virus infection in mice, we herein show that IFNλs are the first IFNs produced that act at the epithelial barrier to suppress initial viral spread without activating inflammation. If infection progresses, type I IFNs come into play to enhance viral resistance and induce pro-inflammatory responses essential for confronting infection but causing immunopathology. Central to this are neutrophils which respond to both cytokines to upregulate antimicrobial functions but exhibit pro-inflammatory activation only to type I IFNs. Accordingly, Ifnlr1-/- mice display enhanced type I IFN production, neutrophilia, lung injury, and lethality, while therapeutic administration of PEG-IFNλ potently suppresses these effects. IFNλs therefore constitute the front line of antiviral defense in the lung without compromising host fitness.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS063391(United States)

TCF7L1 promotes skin tumorigenesis independently of β-catenin through induction of LCN2.

  • Ku AT
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor TCF7L1 is an embryonic stem cell signature gene that is upregulated in multiple aggressive cancer types, but its role in skin tumorigenesis has not yet been defined. Here we document TCF7L1 upregulation in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and demonstrate that TCF7L1 overexpression increases tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and malignant progression in the chemically induced mouse model of skin SCC. Additionally, we show that downregulation of TCF7L1 and its paralogue TCF7L2 reduces tumor growth in a xenograft model of human skin SCC. Using separation-of-function mutants, we show that TCF7L1 promotes tumor growth, enhances cell migration, and overrides oncogenic RAS-induced senescence independently of its interaction with β-catenin. Through transcriptome profiling and combined gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identified LCN2 as a major downstream effector of TCF7L1 that drives tumor growth. Our findings establish a tumor-promoting role for TCF7L1 in skin and elucidate the mechanisms underlying its tumorigenic capacity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA125123()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194062()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194617()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024574()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL092332()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI036211()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC00189.(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM088129()

Synaptic distribution of individually labeled mitral cells in the external plexiform layer of the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Matsuno T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To understand output regulation of mitral cells better, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, reconstructed three dimensionally with light microscopy, and serial sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ∼200 μm from the somata), and primary dendrites. The ratio of presynaptic sites (60%) and reciprocal synapses (60% presynaptic and 80% postsynaptic sites) were similar in each region. Characteristically, primary dendrite synapses were distributed mainly within the inner half of the external plexiform layer (EPL). For comparison, tufted cells were also examined, and the synaptic distribution in two secondary dendrite regions, which corresponded with mitral cells, was analyzed. The results showed that the ratio of reciprocal synapses (80% presynaptic and 90% postsynaptic sites) was greater than in mitral cells. The distribution of symmetrical synapses was also analyzed with synaptic and neuronal markers, such as parvalbumin, vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter, and gephyrin. Parvalbumin-expressing neurons tended to form synapses on secondary dendrites near the somata and were more uniformly distributed on primary dendrites of mitral cells. These results indicate that local mitral cell synaptic circuits are formed in accordance with their functional roles and restricted to the inner half of the EPL. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1633-1648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers Reveals Distinct Sequential Functions of Lgl1 in Neural Stem Cells.

  • Beattie R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The concerted production of neurons and glia by neural stem cells (NSCs) is essential for neural circuit assembly. In the developing cerebral cortex, radial glia progenitors (RGPs) generate nearly all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. RGP proliferation behavior shows a high degree of non-stochasticity, thus a deterministic characteristic of neuron and glia production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling RGP behavior and proliferation dynamics in neurogenesis and glia generation remain unknown. By using mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based genetic paradigms enabling the sparse and global knockout with unprecedented single-cell resolution, we identified Lgl1 as a critical regulatory component. We uncover Lgl1-dependent tissue-wide community effects required for embryonic cortical neurogenesis and novel cell-autonomous Lgl1 functions controlling RGP-mediated glia genesis and postnatal NSC behavior. These results suggest that NSC-mediated neuron and glia production is tightly regulated through the concerted interplay of sequential Lgl1-dependent global and cell intrinsic mechanisms.

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

A Neural Circuit for Auditory Dominance over Visual Perception.

  • Song YH
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

When conflicts occur during integration of visual and auditory information, one modality often dominates the other, but the underlying neural circuit mechanism remains unclear. Using auditory-visual discrimination tasks for head-fixed mice, we found that audition dominates vision in a process mediated by interaction between inputs from the primary visual (VC) and auditory (AC) cortices in the posterior parietal cortex (PTLp). Co-activation of the VC and AC suppresses VC-induced PTLp responses, leaving AC-induced responses. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the PTLp mainly receive AC inputs, and muscimol inactivation of the PTLp or optogenetic inhibition of its PV+ neurons abolishes auditory dominance in the resolution of cross-modal sensory conflicts without affecting either sensory perception. Conversely, optogenetic activation of PV+ neurons in the PTLp enhances the auditory dominance. Thus, our results demonstrate that AC input-specific feedforward inhibition of VC inputs in the PTLp is responsible for the auditory dominance during cross-modal integration.

Quantitative analyses of cellularity and proliferative activity reveals the dynamics of the central canal lining during postnatal development of the rat.

  • Alexovič Matiašová A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

According to previous opinion, the derivation of neurons and glia from the central canal (CC) lining of the spinal cord in rodents should occur in the embryonic period. Reports of the mitotic activity observed in the lining during postnatal development have often been contradictory, and proliferation was ascribed to the generation of ependymocytes, which are necessary for the elongation of CC walls. Our study quantifies the intensity of proliferation and determines the cellularity of the CC lining in reference to lumbar spinal segment L4 during the postnatal development of rats. The presence of dividing cells peaks in the CC lining on postnatal day 8 (P8), with division occurring in 19.2% ± 3.2% of cells. In adult rats, 3.6% ± 0.9% of cells still proliferate, whereas, in mice, 10.3% ± 2.3% of cells at P8 and only 0.6% ± 0.2% of cells in the CC lining in adulthood are proliferating. In the rat, the length of the cell cycle increases from 100.3 ± 35.7 hours at P1 to 401.4 ± 80.6 hours at P43, with a sudden extension between P15 and P22. Despite the intensive proliferation, the total cellularity of the CC lining at the L4 spinal segment significantly descended in from P8 to P15. According to our calculations, the estimated cellularity was significantly higher compared with the measured cellularity of the CC lining at P15. Our results indicate that CC lining serves as a source of cells beyond ependymal cells during the first postnatal weeks of the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:693-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY008120(United States)

Structural basis for cholinergic regulation of neural circuits in the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Hamamoto M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Odor information is regulated by olfactory inputs, bulbar interneurons, and centrifugal inputs in the olfactory bulb (OB). Cholinergic neurons projecting from the nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca and the magnocellular preoptic nucleus are one of the primary centrifugal inputs to the OB. In this study, we focused on cholinergic regulation of the OB and analyzed neural morphology with a particular emphasis on the projection pathways of cholinergic neurons. Single-cell imaging of a specific neuron within dense fibers is critical to evaluate the structure and function of the neural circuits. We labeled cholinergic neurons by infection with virus vector and then reconstructed them three-dimensionally. We also examined the ultramicrostructure of synapses by electron microscopy tomography. To further clarify the function of cholinergic neurons, we performed confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate whether other neurotransmitters are present within cholinergic axons in the OB. Our results showed the first visualization of complete cholinergic neurons, including axons projecting to the OB, and also revealed frequent axonal branching within the OB where it innervated multiple glomeruli in different areas. Furthermore, electron tomography demonstrated that cholinergic axons formed asymmetrical synapses with a morphological variety of thicknesses of the postsynaptic density. Although we have not yet detected the presence of other neurotransmitters, the range of synaptic morphology suggests multiple modes of transmission. The present study elucidates the ways that cholinergic neurons could contribute to the elaborate mechanisms involved in olfactory processing in the OB. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:574-591, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Olfactory Sensory Activity Modulates Microglial-Neuronal Interactions during Dopaminergic Cell Loss in the Olfactory Bulb.

  • Grier BD
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2016 Jul 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) displays robust activity-dependent plasticity throughout life. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the glomerular layer (GL) of the OB are particularly plastic, with loss of sensory input rapidly reducing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine production, followed by a substantial reduction in DA neuron number. Here, we asked whether microglia participate in activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons in the mouse OB. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in the number of both DA neurons and their synapses in the OB ipsilateral to the occluded naris (occluded OB) within just 7 days of sensory deprivation. Concomitantly, the volume of the occluded OB decreased, resulting in an increase in microglial density. Microglia in the occluded OB also adopted morphologies consistent with activation. Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and histological analysis we then showed that loss of olfactory input markedly altered microglial-neuronal interactions during the time that DA neurons are being eliminated: both microglial process motility and the frequency of wrapping of DA neuron somata by activated microglia increased significantly in the occluded OB. Furthermore, we found microglia in the occluded OB that had completely engulfed components of DA neurons. Together, our data provide evidence that loss of olfactory input modulates microglial-DA neuron interactions in the OB, thereby suggesting an important role for microglia in the activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons and their synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA037741(United States)

Somatostatin 2a receptors are not expressed on functionally identified respiratory neurons in the ventral respiratory column of the rat.

  • Le S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microinjection of somatostatin (SST) causes site-specific effects on respiratory phase transition, frequency, and amplitude when microinjected into the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) of the anesthetized rat, suggesting selective expression of SST receptors on different functional classes of respiratory neurons. Of the six subtypes of SST receptor, somatostatin 2a (sst2a ) is the most prevalent in the VLM, and other investigators have suggested that glutamatergic neurons in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) that coexpress neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), SST, and sst2a are critical for the generation of respiratory rhythm. However, quantitative data describing the distribution of sst2a in respiratory compartments other than preBötC, or on functionally identified respiratory neurons, is absent. Here we examine the medullary expression of sst2a with particular reference to glycinergic/expiratory neurons in the Bötzinger Complex (BötC) and NK1R-immunoreactive/inspiratory neurons in the preBötC. We found robust sst2a expression at all rostrocaudal levels of the VLM, including a large proportion of catecholaminergic neurons, but no colocalization of sst2a and glycine transporter 2 mRNA in the BötC. In the preBötC 54% of sst2a -immunoreactive neurons were also positive for NK1R. sst2a was not observed in any of 52 dye-labeled respiratory interneurons, including seven BötC expiratory-decrementing and 11 preBötC preinspiratory neurons. We conclude that sst2a is not expressed on BötC respiratory neurons and that phasic respiratory activity is a poor predictor of sst2a expression in the preBötC. Therefore, sst2a is unlikely to underlie responses to BötC SST injection, and is sparse or absent on respiratory neurons identified by classical functional criteria. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1384-1398, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31NS077750(United States)

Cerebellar Transcriptome Profiles of ATXN1 Transgenic Mice Reveal SCA1 Disease Progression and Protection Pathways.

  • Ingram M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Mar 16

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Abstract:

SCA1, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by a CAG expansion encoding a polyglutamine stretch in the protein ATXN1. We used RNA sequencing to profile cerebellar gene expression in Pcp2-ATXN1[82Q] mice with ataxia and progressive pathology and Pcp2-ATXN1[30Q]D776 animals having ataxia in absence of Purkinje cell progressive pathology. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis of the cerebellar expression data revealed two gene networks that significantly correlated with disease and have an expression profile correlating with disease progression in ATXN1[82Q] Purkinje cells. The Magenta Module provides a signature of suppressed transcriptional programs reflecting disease progression in Purkinje cells, while the Lt Yellow Module reflects transcriptional programs activated in response to disease in Purkinje cells as well as other cerebellar cell types. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of cholecystokinin (Cck) and subsequent interaction with the Cck1 receptor likely underlies the lack of progressive Purkinje cell pathology in Pcp2-ATXN1[30Q]D776 mice.

Somatostatin in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla: Origins and mechanism of action.

  • Bou Farah L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatostatin (SST) or agonists of the SST-2 receptor (sst2 ) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) lower sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure, and heart rate, or when administered within the Bötzinger region, evoke apneusis. Our aims were to describe the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoinhibitory effects of SST on bulbospinal neurons and to identify likely sources of RVLM SST release. Patch clamp recordings were made from bulbospinal RVLM neurons (n = 31) in brainstem slices prepared from juvenile rat pups. Overall, 58% of neurons responded to SST, displaying an increase in conductance that reversed at -93 mV, indicative of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) mechanism. Blockade of sst2 abolished this effect, but application of tetrodotoxin did not, indicating that the SST effect is independent of presynaptic activity. Fourteen bulbospinal RVLM neurons were recovered for immunohistochemistry; nine were SST-insensitive and did not express sst2a . Three out of five responsive neurons were sst2a -immunoreactive. Neurons that contained preprosomatostatin mRNA and cholera-toxin-B retrogradely transported from the RVLM were detected in: paratrigeminal nucleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area, central nucleus of the amygdala, sublenticular extended amygdala, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure nucleus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Thus, those brain regions are putative sources of endogenous SST release that, when activated, may evoke sympathoinhibitory effects via interactions with subsets of sympathetic premotor neurons that express sst2 .