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Anti-SOX2 antibody

RRID:AB_2341193

Antibody ID

AB_2341193

Target Antigen

sox2

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab97959, RRID:AB_2341193)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Immunohistochemistry Consolidated with AB_10013822 on 08/18/16; Rated by ISCC, Intestinal Stem Cell Consortium (check ratings https://iscc.coh.org/)

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Stable STIM1 Knockdown in Self-Renewing Human Neural Precursors Promotes Premature Neural Differentiation.

  • Gopurappilly R
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ca2+ signaling plays a significant role in the development of the vertebrate nervous system where it regulates neurite growth as well as synapse and neurotransmitter specification. Elucidating the role of Ca2+ signaling in mammalian neuronal development has been largely restricted to either small animal models or primary cultures. Here we derived human neural precursor cells (NPCs) from human embryonic stem cells to understand the functional significance of a less understood arm of calcium signaling, Store-operated Ca2+ entry or SOCE, in neuronal development. Human NPCs exhibited robust SOCE, which was significantly attenuated by expression of a stable shRNA-miR targeted toward the SOCE molecule, STIM1. Along with the plasma membrane channel Orai, STIM is an essential component of SOCE in many cell types, where it regulates gene expression. Therefore, we measured global gene expression in human NPCs with and without STIM1 knockdown. Interestingly, pathways down-regulated through STIM1 knockdown were related to cell proliferation and DNA replication processes, whereas post-synaptic signaling was identified as an up-regulated process. To understand the functional significance of these gene expression changes we measured the self-renewal capacity of NPCs with STIM1 knockdown. The STIM1 knockdown NPCs demonstrated significantly reduced neurosphere size and number as well as precocious spontaneous differentiation toward the neuronal lineage, as compared to control cells. These findings demonstrate that STIM1 mediated SOCE in human NPCs regulates gene expression changes, that in vivo are likely to physiologically modulate the self-renewal and differentiation of NPCs.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U54 AI057153(United States)

An Intermediate Pluripotent State Controlled by MicroRNAs Is Required for the Naive-to-Primed Stem Cell Transition.

  • Du P
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The embryonic stem cell (ESC) transition from naive to primed pluripotency is marked by major changes in cellular properties and developmental potential. ISY1 regulates microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, yet its role and relevance to ESC biology remain unknown. Here, we find that highly dynamic ISY1 expression during the naive-to-primed ESC transition defines a specific phase of "poised" pluripotency characterized by distinct miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes and widespread poised cell contribution to mouse chimeras. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments reveal that ISY1 promotes exit from the naive state and is necessary and sufficient to induce and maintain poised pluripotency, and that persistent ISY1 overexpression inhibits the transition from the naive to the primed state. We identify a large subset of ISY1-dependent miRNAs that can rescue the inability of miRNA-deficient ESCs to establish the poised state and transition to the primed state. Thus, dynamic ISY1 regulates poised pluripotency through miRNAs to control ESC fate.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA78412(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM086386()

Permanent Whisker Removal Reduces the Density of c-Fos+ Cells and the Expression of Calbindin Protein, Disrupts Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Affects Spatial-Memory-Related Tasks.

  • Gonzalez-Perez O
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus. Our data indicated that the permanent deprivation of whiskers reduced in 4-fold the density of c-Fos+ cells (a calcium-dependent immediate early gene) in cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2 and CA3) and 4.5-fold the dentate gyrus (DG). A significant reduction in the expression of calcium-binding proteincalbindin-D28k was also observed in granule cells of the DG. Notably, these changes coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the proliferation of neural precursor cells in the DG, which ultimately reduced the number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+NeuN+ mature neurons generated after whisker elimination. These abnormalities in the hippocampus were associated with a significant impairment of spatial memory and navigation skills. This is the first evidence indicating that tactile inputs from vibrissal follicles strongly modify the expression of c-Fos and calbindin in the DG, disrupt different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, and support the notion that spatial memory and navigation skills strongly require tactile information in the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL097817(United States)

Tumor initiating cells induce Cxcr4-mediated infiltration of pro-tumoral macrophages into the brain.

  • Chia K
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is now clear that microglia and macrophages are present in brain tumors, but whether or how they affect initiation and development of tumors is not known. Exploiting the advantages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model, we showed that macrophages and microglia respond immediately upon oncogene activation in the brain. Overexpression of human AKT1 within neural cells of larval zebrafish led to a significant increase in the macrophage and microglia populations. By using a combination of transgenic and mutant zebrafish lines, we showed that this increase was caused by the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the brain mediated via Sdf1b-Cxcr4b signaling. Intriguingly, confocal live imaging reveals highly dynamic interactions between macrophages/microglia and pre-neoplastic cells, which do not result in phagocytosis of pre-neoplastic cells. Finally, depletion of macrophages and microglia resulted in a significant reduction of oncogenic cell proliferation. Thus, macrophages and microglia show tumor promoting functions already during the earliest stages of the developing tumor microenvironment.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - Career Establishment Award, C49916/A17494()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI052237(United States)

Derivation of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line lacking DMD exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50).

  • Spaltro G
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Nov 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and is clinically characterised by childhood muscle degeneration and cardiomyopathy. We produced an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a DMD patient's dermal fibroblasts by electroporation with episomal vectors containing: hL-MYC, hLIN28, hSOX2, hKLF4, hOCT3/4. The resultant DMD iPSC line (CCMi001DMD-A-3) displayed iPSC morphology, expressed pluripotency markers, possessed trilineage differentiation potential and was karyotypically normal. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi001DMD-A-3 showed a deletion of exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50).

The Wound Microenvironment Reprograms Schwann Cells to Invasive Mesenchymal-like Cells to Drive Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

  • Clements MP
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cell dedifferentiation from a myelinating to a progenitor-like cell underlies the remarkable ability of peripheral nerves to regenerate following injury. However, the molecular identity of the differentiated and dedifferentiated states in vivo has been elusive. Here, we profiled Schwann cells acutely purified from intact nerves and from the wound and distal regions of severed nerves. Our analysis reveals novel facets of the dedifferentiation response, including acquisition of mesenchymal traits and a Myc module. Furthermore, wound and distal dedifferentiated Schwann cells constitute different populations, with wound cells displaying increased mesenchymal character induced by localized TGFβ signaling. TGFβ promotes invasion and crosstalks with Eph signaling via N-cadherin to drive collective migration of the Schwann cells across the wound. Consistently, Tgfbr2 deletion in Schwann cells resulted in misdirected and delayed reinnervation. Thus, the wound microenvironment is a key determinant of Schwann cell identity, and it promotes nerve repair through integration of multiple concerted signals. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Transcriptional profiling of human neural precursors post alcohol exposure reveals impaired neurogenesis via dysregulation of ERK signaling and miR-145.

  • Louis LK
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gestational alcohol exposure causes a range of neuropsychological disorders by modulating neurodevelopmental genes and proteins. The extent of damage depends on the stage of the embryo as well as dosage, duration and frequency of exposure. Here, we investigated the neurotoxic effects of alcohol using human embryonic stem cells. Multiple read-outs were engaged to assess the proliferation and differentiation capacity of neural precursor cells upon exposure to 100 mM ethanol for 48 h corresponding to the blood alcohol levels for binge drinkers. Whole-genome analysis revealed a spatiotemporal dysregulation of neuronal- and glial-specific gene expression that play critical roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. Alterations observed in the transcriptome may be attributed to epigenetic constitution witnessed by differential histone H3 Lys-4/Lys-27 modifications and acetylation status. In-depth mRNA and protein expression studies revealed abrogated extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling in alcohol-treated cells. Consistent with this finding, ingenuity pathway analysis and micro-RNA profiling demonstrated up-regulation of miR-145 by targeting the neural specifier Sox-2. We also show that the neurite branching complexity of tubulin, beta 3 class III+ neurons was greatly reduced in response to alcohol. Finally, in vivo studies using zebrafish embryos reconfirmed the in vitro findings. Employing molecular endpoints in a human model, this report indicates for the first time that acute alcohol exposure could lead to impaired brain development via perturbation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway and miR-145. However, it still needs to be addressed whether these modulations sustain throughout development, compromising the ability of the individual during adulthood and aging.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA070907(United States)

Persistent Expression of VCAM1 in Radial Glial Cells Is Required for the Embryonic Origin of Postnatal Neural Stem Cells.

  • Hu XL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs. This in turn diminished the embryonic origin of postnatal NSCs, resulting in loss of adult NSCs and defective V-SVZ regeneration. VCAM1 affects the NSC fate by signaling through its intracellular domain to regulate β-catenin signaling in a context-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insight on how stem cells in the embryo are preserved to meet the need for growth and regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS019904(United States)

Lunatic fringe-mediated Notch signaling regulates adult hippocampal neural stem cell maintenance.

  • Semerci F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate inputs from multiple sources to balance quiescence and activation. Notch signaling plays a key role during this process. Here, we report that Lunatic fringe (Lfng), a key modifier of the Notch receptor, is selectively expressed in NSCs. Further, Lfng in NSCs and Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1, expressed by their progeny, together influence NSC recruitment, cell cycle duration, and terminal fate. We propose a new model in which Lfng-mediated Notch signaling enables direct communication between a NSC and its descendants, so that progeny can send feedback signals to the 'mother' cell to modify its cell cycle status. Lfng-mediated Notch signaling appears to be a key factor governing NSC quiescence, division, and fate.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA125123()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024574()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI036211()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006185()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014832()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016167()

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

YAP is essential for mechanical force production and epithelial cell proliferation during lung branching morphogenesis.

  • Lin C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental program for tissue patterning. We show that active YAP, a key mediator of Hippo signaling, is distributed throughout the murine lung epithelium and loss of epithelial YAP severely disrupts branching. Failure to branch is restricted to regions where YAP activity is removed. This suggests that YAP controls local epithelial cell properties. In support of this model, mechanical force production is compromised and cell proliferation is reduced in Yap mutant lungs. We propose that defective force generation and insufficient epithelial cell number underlie the branching defects. Through genomic analysis, we also uncovered a feedback control of pMLC levels, which is critical for mechanical force production, likely through the direct induction of multiple regulators by YAP. Our work provides a molecular pathway that could control epithelial cell properties required for proper morphogenetic movement and pattern formation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K99 NS097627()

Fbxw7 regulates Notch to control specification of neural precursors for oligodendrocyte fate.

  • Snyder JL
  • Neural Dev
  • 2012 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: In the developing vertebrate nervous system elevated levels of Notch signaling activity can block neurogenesis and promote formation of glial cells. The mechanisms that limit Notch activity to balance formation of neurons and glia from neural precursors are poorly understood. RESULTS: By screening for mutations that disrupt oligodendrocyte development in zebrafish we found one allele, called vu56, that produced excess oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Positional cloning revealed that the vu56 allele is a mutation of fbxw7, which encodes the substrate recognition component of a ubiquitin ligase that targets Notch and other proteins for degradation. To investigate the basis of the mutant phenotype we performed in vivo, time-lapse imaging, which revealed that the increase in OPC number resulted from production of extra OPCs by ventral spinal cord precursors and not from changes in OPC proliferation or death. Notch signaling activity was elevated in spinal cord precursors of fbxw7 mutant zebrafish and inhibition of Notch signaling suppressed formation of excess OPCs. CONCLUSION: Notch signaling promotes glia cell formation from neural precursors in vertebrate embryos. Our data indicate that Fbxw7 helps attenuate Notch signaling during zebrafish neural development thereby limiting the number of OPCs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-07718(United States)