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Cy5-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) (min X Bov,Ck,Gt,GP,Sy Hms,Hrs,Hu,Rb,Shp Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_2340819

Antibody ID

AB_2340819

Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L)

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 715-175-150, RRID:AB_2340819)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Cat Num

715-175-150

Characterization of McDonald's intermediate part of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the rat.

  • Barbier M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The actual organization of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the rat is mostly based on cytoarchitecture and the distribution of several cell types, as described by McDonald in 1982. Four divisions were identified by this author. However, since this original work, one of these divisions, the intermediate part, has not been consistently recognized based on Nissl-stained material. In the present study, we observed that a compact condensation of retrogradely labeled cells is found in the CEA after fluorogold injection in the anterior region of the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area in the rat. We then searched for neurochemical markers of this cell condensation and found that it is quite specifically labeled for calbindin (Cb), but also contains calretinin (Cr), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) immunohistochemical signals. These neurochemical features are specific to this cell group which, therefore, is distinct from the other parts of the CEA. We then performed cholera toxin injections in the mouse LHA (lateral hypothalamic area) to identify this cell group in this species. We found that neurons exist in the medial and rostral CEAl that project into the LHA but they have a less tight organization than in the rat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA116984(United States)

Differential inputs to striatal cholinergic and parvalbumin interneurons imply functional distinctions.

  • Klug JR
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified. Additionally, the external segment of the globus pallidus targets striatal ChAT interneurons, which is sufficient to inhibit tonic ChAT interneuron firing. Finally, we describe a novel excitatory pathway from the pedunculopontine nucleus that innervates ChAT interneurons. These results establish the brain-wide direct inputs of two major types of striatal interneurons and allude to distinct roles in regulating striatal activity and controlling behavior.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01AG047669()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01NS083815()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL073085-08(United States)

Re-evaluating microglia expression profiles using RiboTag and cell isolation strategies.

  • Haimon Z
  • Nat. Immunol.
  • 2018 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcriptome profiling is widely used to infer functional states of specific cell types, as well as their responses to stimuli, to define contributions to physiology and pathophysiology. Focusing on microglia, the brain's macrophages, we report here a side-by-side comparison of classical cell-sorting-based transcriptome sequencing and the 'RiboTag' method, which avoids cell retrieval from tissue context and yields translatome sequencing information. Conventional whole-cell microglial transcriptomes were found to be significantly tainted by artifacts introduced by tissue dissociation, cargo contamination and transcripts sequestered from ribosomes. Conversely, our data highlight the added value of RiboTag profiling for assessing the lineage accuracy of Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice. Collectively, this study indicates method-based biases, reveals observer effects and establishes RiboTag-based translatome profiling as a valuable complement to standard sorting-based profiling strategies.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - EB003537(United States)

DNER and NFIA are expressed by developing and mature AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

  • Keeley PW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study has taken advantage of publicly available cell type specific mRNA expression databases in order to identify potential genes participating in the development of retinal AII amacrine cells. We profile two such genes, Delta/Notch-like EGF repeat containing (Dner) and nuclear factor I/A (Nfia), that are each heavily expressed in AII amacrine cells in the mature mouse retina, and which conjointly identify this retinal cell population in its entirety when using antibodies to DNER and NFIA. DNER is present on the plasma membrane, while NFIA is confined to the nucleus, consistent with known functions of each of these two proteins. DNER also identifies some other subsets of retinal ganglion and amacrine cell types, along with horizontal cells, while NFIA identifies a subset of bipolar cells as well as Muller glia and astrocytes. During early postnatal development, NFIA labels astrocytes on the day of birth, AII amacrine cells at postnatal (P) day 5, and Muller glia by P10, when horizontal cells also transiently exhibit NFIA immunofluorescence. DNER, by contrast, is present in ganglion and amacrine cells on P1, also labeling the horizontal cells by P10. Developing AII amacrine cells exhibit accumulating DNER labeling at the dendritic stalk, labeling that becomes progressively conspicuous by P10, as it is in maturity. This developmental time course is consistent with a prospective role for each gene in the differentiation of AII amacrine cells.

An Essential Postdevelopmental Role for Lis1 in Mice.

  • Hines TJ
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

LIS1 mutations cause lissencephaly (LIS), a severe developmental brain malformation. Much less is known about its role in the mature nervous system. LIS1 regulates the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein), and as LIS1 and dynein are both expressed in the adult nervous system, Lis1 could potentially regulate dynein-dependent processes such as axonal transport. We therefore knocked out Lis1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-induced, Cre-ER-mediated recombination. When an actin promoter was used to drive Cre-ER expression (Act-Cre-ER), heterozygous Lis1 knockout (KO) caused no obvious change in viability or behavior, despite evidence of widespread recombination by a Cre reporter three weeks after tamoxifen exposure. In contrast, homozygous Lis1 KO caused the rapid onset of neurological symptoms in both male and female mice. One tamoxifen-dosing regimen caused prominent recombination in the midbrain/hindbrain, PNS, and cardiac/skeletal muscle within a week; these mice developed severe symptoms in that time frame and were killed. A different tamoxifen regimen resulted in delayed recombination in midbrain/hindbrain, but not in other tissues, and also delayed the onset of symptoms. This indicates that Lis1 loss in the midbrain/hindbrain causes the severe phenotype. In support of this, brainstem regions known to house cardiorespiratory centers showed signs of axonal dysfunction in KO animals. Transport defects, neurofilament (NF) alterations, and varicosities were observed in axons in cultured DRG neurons from KO animals. Because no symptoms were observed when a cardiac specific Cre-ER promoter was used, we propose a vital role for Lis1 in autonomic neurons and implicate defective axonal transport in the KO phenotype.

Epitranscriptomic m6A Regulation of Axon Regeneration in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System.

  • Weng YL
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in the adult DRG upon injury. Loss of either m6A methyltransferase complex component Mettl14 or m6A-binding protein Ythdf1 globally attenuates injury-induced protein translation in adult DRGs and reduces functional axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system in vivo. Furthermore, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult central nervous system is attenuated upon Mettl14 knockdown. Our study reveals a critical epitranscriptomic mechanism in promoting injury-induced protein synthesis and axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA84243(United States)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG008935()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS097206()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097370()

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation.

  • Toossi H
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABAARs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABAAR and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 5P01CA013106-38(United States)

Channel Nucleoporins Recruit PLK-1 to Nuclear Pore Complexes to Direct Nuclear Envelope Breakdown in C. elegans.

  • Martino L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD. We identify the central channel nucleoporins NPP-1/Nup58, NPP-4/Nup54, and NPP-11/Nup62 as the critical factors anchoring PLK-1 to the NE in C. elegans. In particular, NPP-1, NPP-4, and NPP-11 primed at multiple Polo-docking sites by Cdk1 and PLK-1 itself physically interact with the PLK-1 PBD. We conclude that nucleoporins play an unanticipated regulatory role in NEBD, by recruiting PLK-1 to the NE thereby facilitating phosphorylation of critical downstream targets.

VGLUT1 synapses and P-boutons on regenerating motoneurons after nerve crush.

  • Schultz AJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stretch-sensitive Ia afferent monosynaptic connections with motoneurons form the stretch reflex circuit. After nerve transection, Ia afferent synapses and stretch reflexes are permanently lost, even after regeneration and reinnervation of muscle by motor and sensory afferents is completed in the periphery. This loss greatly affects full recovery of motor function. However, after nerve crush, reflex muscle forces during stretch do recover after muscle reinnervation and reportedly exceed 140% baseline values. This difference might be explained by structural preservation after crush of Ia afferent synapses on regenerating motoneurons and decreased presynaptic inhibitory control. We tested these possibilities in rats after crushing the tibial nerve (TN), and using Vesicular GLUtamate Transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid-decarboxylase (GAD65) as markers of, respectively, Ia afferent synapses and presynaptic inhibition (P-boutons) on retrogradely labeled motoneurons. We analyzed motoneurons during regeneration (21 days post crush) and after they reinnervate muscle (3 months). The results demonstrate a significant loss of VGLUT1 terminals on dendrites and cell bodies at both 21 days and 3 months post-crush. However, in both cellular compartments, the reductions were small compared to those observed after TN full transection. In addition, we found a significant decrease in the number of GAD65 P-boutons per VGLUT1 terminal and their coverage of VGLUT1 boutons. The results support the hypothesis that better preservation of Ia afferent synapses and a change in presynaptic inhibition could contribute to maintain or even increase the stretch reflex after nerve crush and by difference to nerve transection.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS095528()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS057228()

An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain.

  • Wolff GH
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution.

Diverse stimuli engage different neutrophil extracellular trap pathways.

  • Kenny EF
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which ensnare pathogens and have pathogenic functions in diverse diseases. We examined the NETosis pathways induced by five stimuli; PMA, the calcium ionophore A23187, nigericin, Candida albicans and Group B Streptococcus. We studied NET production in neutrophils from healthy donors with inhibitors of molecules crucial to PMA-induced NETs including protein kinase C, calcium, reactive oxygen species, the enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, carrying mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex or a MPO-deficient patient were examined. We show that PMA, C. albicans and GBS use a related pathway for NET induction, whereas ionophores require an alternative pathway but that NETs produced by all stimuli are proteolytically active, kill bacteria and composed mainly of chromosomal DNA. Thus, we demonstrate that NETosis occurs through several signalling mechanisms, suggesting that extrusion of NETs is important in host defence.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118112()

An Intrinsic Epigenetic Barrier for Functional Axon Regeneration.

  • Weng YL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery. Mechanistically, peripheral nerve injury induces DNA demethylation and upregulation of multiple regeneration-associated genes in a Tet3- and thymine DNA glycosylase-dependent fashion in DRG neurons. In addition, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult CNS is attenuated upon Tet1 knockdown. Together, our study suggests an epigenetic barrier that can be removed by active DNA demethylation to permit axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007814()

p27Kip1 promotes invadopodia turnover and invasion through the regulation of the PAK1/Cortactin pathway.

  • Jeannot P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.