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Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), made in goat antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

IgG rabbit

Proper Citation

(Vector Laboratories Cat# PI-1000, RRID:AB_2336198)



Host Organism



Vector Laboratories

Cat Num


Somatic Accumulation of GluA1-AMPA Receptors Leads to Selective Cognitive Impairments in Mice.

  • Bannerman DM
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Jul 11

Literature context:


The GluA1 subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) plays a crucial, but highly selective, role in cognitive function. Here we analyzed AMPAR expression, AMPAR distribution and spatial learning in mice (Gria1R/R ), expressing the "trafficking compromised" GluA1(Q600R) point mutation. Our analysis revealed somatic accumulation and reduction of GluA1(Q600R) and GluA2, but only slightly reduced CA1 synaptic localization in hippocampi of adult Gria1R/R mice. These immunohistological changes were accompanied by a strong reduction of somatic AMPAR currents in CA1, and a reduction of plasticity (short-term and long-term potentiation, STP and LTP, respectively) in the CA1 subfield following tetanic and theta-burst stimulation. Nevertheless, spatial reference memory acquisition in the Morris water-maze and on an appetitive Y-maze task was unaffected in Gria1R/R mice. In contrast, spatial working/short-term memory during both spontaneous and rewarded alternation tasks was dramatically impaired. These findings identify the GluA1(Q600R) mutation as a loss of function mutation that provides independent evidence for the selective role of GluA1 in the expression of short-term memory.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG002899(United States)

Genome-wide Control of Heterochromatin Replication by the Telomere Capping Protein TRF2.

  • Mendez-Bermudez A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Hard-to-replicate regions of chromosomes (e.g., pericentromeres, centromeres, and telomeres) impede replication fork progression, eventually leading, in the event of replication stress, to chromosome fragility, aging, and cancer. Our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the stability of these regions is essentially limited to telomeres, where fragility is counteracted by the shelterin proteins. Here we show that the shelterin subunit TRF2 ensures progression of the replication fork through pericentromeric heterochromatin, but not centromeric chromatin. In a process involving its N-terminal basic domain, TRF2 binds to pericentromeric Satellite III sequences during S phase, allowing the recruitment of the G-quadruplex-resolving helicase RTEL1 to facilitate fork progression. We also show that TRF2 is required for the stability of other heterochromatic regions localized throughout the genome, paving the way for future research on heterochromatic replication and its relationship with aging and cancer.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Balance of Go1α and Go2α expression regulates motor function via the striatal dopaminergic system.

  • Baron J
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


The heterotrimeric G-protein Go with its splice variants, Go1α and Go2α, seems to be involved in the regulation of motor function but isoform specific effects are still unclear. We found that Go1α-/- knockouts performed worse on the rota-rod than Go2α-/- and wild type (WT) mice. In Go1+2α-/- mice motor function was partially recovered. Furthermore, Go1+2α-/- mice showed an increased spontaneous motor activity. Compared to wild types or Go2α-/- mice, Go1+2α-/- mice developed increased behavioural sensitization following repetitive cocaine treatment, but failed to develop conditioned place preference. Analysis of dopamine concentration and expression of D1 and D2 receptors unravelled splice-variant specific imbalances in the striatal dopaminergic system: In Go1α-/- mice dopamine concentration and vesicular monoamine uptake were increased compared to wild types. The expression of the D2 receptor was higher in Go1α-/- compared to wild type littermates, but unchanged in Go2α-/- mice. Deletion of both Go1α and Go2α re-established both dopamine and D2 receptor levels comparable to those in the wild type. Cocaine treatment had no effect on the ratio of D1 receptor to D2 receptor in Go1+2α-/- mutants, but decreased this ratio in Go2α-/- mice. Finally, we observed that the deletion of Go1α led to a threefold higher striatal expression of Go2α. Taken together our data suggest that a balance in the expression of Go1α and Go2α sustains normal motor function. Deletion of either splice variant results in divergent behavioural and molecular alterations in the striatal dopaminergic system. Deletion of both splice variants partially restores the behavioural and molecular changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM-62142(United States)

Juvenile treatment with mGluR2/3 agonist prevents schizophrenia-like phenotypes in adult by acting through GSK3β.

  • Xing B
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model. We found that a medium dose of LY37 prevents learning deficits in MAM rats. These effects were mediated through postsynaptic mGluR2/3 via improving GluN2B-NMDAR function by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, dendritic spine loss and learning and memory deficits observed in adult MAM rats were restored by juvenile LY37 treatment, which did not change prefrontal neuronal excitability and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in adult normal rats. Our results provide a mechanism for mGluR2/3 agonists against NMDAR hypofunction, which may prove to be beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of SZ.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R56AI1691785(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085666()

Lithium Inhibits GSK3β and Augments GluN2A Receptor Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex.

  • Monaco SA
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 17

Literature context:


Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in both psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease; therefore regulating its activity has become an important strategy for treatment of cognitive impairments in these disorders. This study examines the effects of lithium on GSK3β and its interaction with β-catenin and NMDA receptors within the prefrontal cortex. Lithium, a clinically relevant drug commonly prescribed as a mood stabilizer for psychiatric disorders, significantly increased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β serine 9, an inhibitory phosphorylation site, and decreased β-catenin ser33/37/thr41 phosphorylation in vitro, indicating GSK3β inhibition and reduced β-catenin degradation. GluN2A subunit levels were concurrently increased following lithium treatment. Similar alterations were also demonstrated in vivo; lithium administration increased GSK3β serine 9 phosphorylation and GluN2A levels, suggesting a reduced GSK3β activity and augmented GluN2A expression. Correspondingly, we observed that the amplitudes of evoked GluN2A-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons were significantly increased following lithium administration. Our data suggest that GSK3β activity negatively regulates GluN2A expression, likely by mediating upstream β-catenin phosphorylation, in prefrontal cortical neurons. Furthermore, our biochemical and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that lithium mediates a specific increase in GluN2A subunit expression, ultimately augmenting GluN2A-mediated currents in the prefrontal cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA100193(United States)

Drp1 Mitochondrial Fission in D1 Neurons Mediates Behavioral and Cellular Plasticity during Early Cocaine Abstinence.

  • Chandra R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Altered brain energy homeostasis is a key adaptation occurring in the cocaine-addicted brain, but the effect of cocaine on the fundamental source of energy, mitochondria, is unknown. We demonstrate an increase of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), the mitochondrial fission mediator, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after repeated cocaine exposure and in cocaine-dependent individuals. Mdivi-1, a demonstrated fission inhibitor, blunts cocaine seeking and locomotor sensitization, while blocking c-Fos induction and excitatory input onto dopamine receptor-1 (D1) containing NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Drp1 and fission promoting Drp1 are increased in D1-MSNs, consistent with increased smaller mitochondria in D1-MSN dendrites after repeated cocaine. Knockdown of Drp1 in D1-MSNs blocks drug seeking after cocaine self-administration, while enhancing the fission promoting Drp1 enhances seeking after long-term abstinence from cocaine. We demonstrate a role for altered mitochondrial fission in the NAc, during early cocaine abstinence, suggesting potential therapeutic treatment of disrupting mitochondrial fission in cocaine addiction.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140198(United States)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA024845()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA037257()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA038613()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM055036()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - SC2 GM109811()

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) - enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) network regulates lipid metabolism and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma.

  • Ahmad F
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Elevated expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, was observed in gliomas harboring telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Given the known involvement of TERT and EZH2 in glioma progression, the correlation between the two and subsequently its involvement in metabolic programming was investigated. Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase either pharmacologically or through genetic manipulation not only decreased EZH2 expression, but also (i) abrogated FASN levels, (ii) decreased de novo fatty acid accumulation, and (iii) increased ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation levels. Conversely, diminished TERT and FASN levels upon siRNA-mediated EZH2 knockdown indicated a positive correlation between TERT and EZH2. Interestingly, ATM kinase inhibitor rescued TERT inhibition-mediated decrease in FASN and EZH2 levels. Importantly, TERT promoter mutant tumors exhibited greater microsatellite instability, heightened FASN levels and lipid accumulation. Coherent with in vitro findings, pharmacological inhibition of TERT by costunolide decreased lipid accumulation and elevated ATM expression in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. By bringing TERT-EZH2 network at the forefront as driver of dysregulated metabolism, our findings highlight the non-canonical but distinct role of TERT in metabolic reprogramming and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma.

Different Forms of AMPA Receptor Mediated LTP and Their Correlation to the Spatial Working Memory Formation.

  • Shimshek DR
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Spatial working memory (SWM) and the classical, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3/CA1 synapses are dependent on L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA1 subunits as demonstrated by knockout mice lacking GluA1. In GluA1 knockout mice LTP and SWM deficits could be partially recovered by transgenic re-installation of full-length GluA1 in principle forebrain neurons. Here we partially restored hippocampal LTP in GluA1-deficient mice by forebrain-specific depletion of the GluA2 gene, by the activation of a hypomorphic GluA2(Q) allele and by transgenic expression of PDZ-site truncated GFP-GluA1(TG). In none of these three mouse lines, the partial LTP recovery improved the SWM performance of GluA1-deficient mice suggesting a specific function of intact GluA1/2 receptors and the GluA1 intracellular carboxyl-terminus in SWM and its associated behavior.

Reciprocal regulation of ARPP-16 by PKA and MAST3 kinases provides a cAMP-regulated switch in protein phosphatase 2A inhibition.

  • Musante V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


ARPP-16, ARPP-19, and ENSA are inhibitors of protein phosphatase PP2A. ARPP-19 and ENSA phosphorylated by Greatwall kinase inhibit PP2A during mitosis. ARPP-16 is expressed in striatal neurons where basal phosphorylation by MAST3 kinase inhibits PP2A and regulates key components of striatal signaling. The ARPP-16/19 proteins were discovered as substrates for PKA, but the function of PKA phosphorylation is unknown. We find that phosphorylation by PKA or MAST3 mutually suppresses the ability of the other kinase to act on ARPP-16. Phosphorylation by PKA also acts to prevent inhibition of PP2A by ARPP-16 phosphorylated by MAST3. Moreover, PKA phosphorylates MAST3 at multiple sites resulting in its inhibition. Mathematical modeling highlights the role of these three regulatory interactions to create a switch-like response to cAMP. Together, the results suggest a complex antagonistic interplay between the control of ARPP-16 by MAST3 and PKA that creates a mechanism whereby cAMP mediates PP2A disinhibition.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA010044()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091336()

The medial amygdala-medullary PrRP-synthesizing neuron pathway mediates neuroendocrine responses to contextual conditioned fear in male rodents.

  • Yoshida M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Fear responses play evolutionarily beneficial roles, although excessive fear memory can induce inappropriate fear expression observed in posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and phobia. To understand the neural machineries that underlie these disorders, it is important to clarify the neural pathways of fear responses. Contextual conditioned fear induces freezing behavior and neuroendocrine responses. Considerable evidence indicates that the central amygdala plays an essential role in expression of freezing behavior after contextual conditioned fear. On the other hand, mechanisms of neuroendocrine responses remain to be clarified. The medial amygdala (MeA), which is activated after contextual conditioned fear, was lesioned bilaterally by infusion of N-methyl-d-aspartate after training of fear conditioning. Plasma oxytocin, ACTH, and prolactin concentrations were significantly increased after contextual conditioned fear in sham-lesioned rats. In MeA-lesioned rats, these neuroendocrine responses but not freezing behavior were significantly impaired compared with those in sham-lesioned rats. In contrast, the magnitudes of neuroendocrine responses after exposure to novel environmental stimuli were not significantly different in MeA-lesioned rats and sham-lesioned rats. Contextual conditioned fear activated prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-synthesizing neurons in the medulla oblongata. In MeA-lesioned rats, the percentage of PrRP-synthesizing neurons activated after contextual conditioned fear was significantly decreased. Furthermore, neuroendocrine responses after contextual conditioned fear disappeared in PrRP-deficient mice. Our findings suggest that the MeA-medullary PrRP-synthesizing neuron pathway plays an important role in neuroendocrine responses to contextual conditioned fear.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - Z01-HD008776(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103432(United States)