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Anti-Goat IgG (H+L), made in rabbit antibody

RRID:AB_2336126

Antibody ID

AB_2336126

Target Antigen

IgG goat

Proper Citation

(Vector Laboratories Cat# BA-5000, RRID:AB_2336126)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Biotinylated

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Vector Laboratories

Regional distribution of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brain of two carnivore species: The feliform banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and the caniform domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

  • Pillay S
  • J. Chem. Neuroanat.
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brains of two species of carnivore, the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), is presented. The banded mongoose belongs to the feliform suborder and the domestic ferret to the caniform suborder, having last shared a common ancestor approximately 53 million years ago; however, they have a very similar overall morphology and life history, presenting an interesting opportunity to examine the extent of evolutionary plasticity in these systems. The brains of the two carnivore species were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The overall organization and complement of the nuclei of these systems was identical between the two species, although minor differences were noted. Moreover, this overall organization is identical to other studies undertaken in the domestic cat and dog. While for the most part the nuclei forming these systems are similar to those observed in other mammals, two species differences, which appear to be carnivore-specific, were noted. First, cholinergic neurons were observed in the lateral septal nucleus of both species, an apparently carnivore specific feature not recorded previously in other mammals. Second, the serotonergic neurons of the peripheral division of the dorsal raphe complex exhibited a significant caudad expansion, intermingling with the cholinergic and catecholaminergic nuclei of the pons, a carnivore specific feature. These carnivore specific features likely have functional consequences related to coping with stress and the expression of sleep.

Molecular conservation of marsupial and eutherian placentation and lactation.

  • Guernsey MW
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Eutherians are often mistakenly termed 'placental mammals', but marsupials also have a placenta to mediate early embryonic development. Lactation is necessary for both infant and fetal development in eutherians and marsupials, although marsupials have a far more complex milk repertoire that facilitates morphogenesis of developmentally immature young. In this study, we demonstrate that the anatomically simple tammar placenta expresses a dynamic molecular program that is reminiscent of eutherian placentation, including both fetal and maternal signals. Further, we provide evidence that genes facilitating fetal development and nutrient transport display convergent co-option by placental and mammary gland cell types to optimize offspring success.

The centrifugal visual system of a palaeognathous bird, the Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria).

  • Krabichler Q
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The avian centrifugal visual system, which projects from the brain to the retina, has been intensively studied in several Neognathous birds that have a distinct isthmo-optic nucleus (ION). However, birds of the order Palaeognathae seem to lack a proper ION in histologically stained brain sections. We had previously reported in the palaeognathous Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria) that intraocular injections of Cholera Toxin B subunit retrogradely label a considerable number of neurons, which form a diffuse isthmo-optic complex (IOC). In order to better understand how this IOC-based centrifugal visual system is organized, we have studied its major components by means of in vivo and in vitro tracing experiments. Our results show that the IOC, though structurally less organized than an ION, possesses a dense core region consisting of multipolar neurons. It receives afferents from neurons in L10a of the optic tectum, which are distributed with a wider interneuronal spacing than in Neognathae. The tecto-IOC terminals are delicate and divergent, unlike the prominent convergent tecto-ION terminals in Neognathae. The centrifugal IOC terminals in the retina are exclusively divergent, resembling the terminals from "ectopic" centrifugal neurons in Neognathae. We conclude that the Tinamou's IOC participates in a comparable general IOC-retina-TeO-IOC circuitry as the neognathous ION. However, the connections between the components are structurally different and their divergent character suggests a lower spatial resolution. Our findings call for further comparative studies in a broad range of species for advancing our understanding of the evolution, plasticity and functional roles of the avian centrifugal visual system.

Mice deficient of Myc super-enhancer region reveal differential control mechanism between normal and pathological growth.

  • Dave K
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gene desert upstream of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8q24 contains susceptibility loci for several major forms of human cancer. The region shows high conservation between human and mouse and contains multiple MYC enhancers that are activated in tumor cells. However, the role of this region in normal development has not been addressed. Here we show that a 538 kb deletion of the entire MYC upstream super-enhancer region in mice results in 50% to 80% decrease in Myc expression in multiple tissues. The mice are viable and show no overt phenotype. However, they are resistant to tumorigenesis, and most normal cells isolated from them grow slowly in culture. These results reveal that only cells whose MYC activity is increased by serum or oncogenic driver mutations depend on the 8q24 super-enhancer region, and indicate that targeting the activity of this element is a promising strategy of cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

A novel relay nucleus between the inferior colliculus and the optic tectum in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

  • Niederleitner B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Processing multimodal sensory information is vital for behaving animals in many contexts. The barn owl, an auditory specialist, is a classic model for studying multisensory integration. In the barn owl, spatial auditory information is conveyed to the optic tectum (TeO) by a direct projection from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). In contrast, evidence of an integration of visual and auditory information in auditory generalist avian species is completely lacking. In particular, it is not known whether in auditory generalist species the ICX projects to the TeO at all. Here we use various retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques both in vivo and in vitro, intracellular fillings of neurons in vitro, and whole-cell patch recordings to characterize the connectivity between ICX and TeO in the chicken. We found that there is a direct projection from ICX to the TeO in the chicken, although this is small and only to the deeper layers (layers 13-15) of the TeO. However, we found a relay area interposed among the IC, the TeO, and the isthmic complex that receives strong synaptic input from the ICX and projects broadly upon the intermediate and deep layers of the TeO. This area is an external portion of the formatio reticularis lateralis (FRLx). In addition to the projection to the TeO, cells in FRLx send, via collaterals, descending projections through tectopontine-tectoreticular pathways. This newly described connection from the inferior colliculus to the TeO provides a solid basis for visual-auditory integration in an auditory generalist bird. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:513-534, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32DA7290(United States)

Suppression of C9orf72 RNA repeat-induced neurotoxicity by the ALS-associated RNA-binding protein Zfp106.

  • Celona B
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expanded GGGGCC repeats in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene represent the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the mechanisms underlying repeat-induced disease remain incompletely resolved. One proposed gain-of-function mechanism is that repeat-containing RNA forms aggregates that sequester RNA binding proteins, leading to altered RNA metabolism in motor neurons. Here, we identify the zinc finger protein Zfp106 as a specific GGGGCC RNA repeat-binding protein, and using affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we show that Zfp106 interacts with multiple other RNA binding proteins, including the ALS-associated factors TDP-43 and FUS. We also show that Zfp106 knockout mice develop severe motor neuron degeneration, which can be suppressed by transgenic restoration of Zfp106 specifically in motor neurons. Finally, we show that Zfp106 potently suppresses neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of C9orf72 ALS. Thus, these studies identify Zfp106 as an RNA binding protein with important implications for ALS.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX001108()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL089707()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL064658()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG019724()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG023501()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS098516()
  • RRD VA - I01 RX002133()

Axon terminals from the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis control the ascending retinotectofugal output through direct synaptic contact with tectal ganglion cell dendrites.

  • González-Cabrera C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The optic tectum in birds and its homologue the superior colliculus in mammals both send major bilateral, nontopographic projections to the nucleus rotundus and caudal pulvinar, respectively. These projections originate from widefield tectal ganglion cells (TGCs) located in layer 13 in the avian tectum and in the lower superficial layers in the mammalian colliculus. The TGCs characteristically have monostratified arrays of brush-like dendritic terminations and respond mostly to bidimensional motion or looming features. In birds, this TGC-mediated tectofugal output is controlled by feedback signals from the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc). The Ipc neurons display topographically organized axons that densely ramify in restricted columnar terminal fields overlapping various neural elements that could mediate this tectofugal control, including the retinal terminals and the TGC dendrites themselves. Whether the Ipc axons make synaptic contact with these or other tectal neural elements remains undetermined. We double labeled Ipc axons and their presumptive postsynaptic targets in the tectum of chickens (Gallus gallus) with neural tracers and performed an ultrastructural analysis. We found that the Ipc terminal boutons form glomerulus-like structures in the superficial and intermediate tectal layers, establishing asymmetric synapses with several dendritic profiles. In these glomeruli, at least two of the postsynaptic dendrites originated from TGCs. We also found synaptic contacts between retinal terminals and TGC dendrites. These findings suggest that, in birds, Ipc axons control the ascending tectal outflow of retinal signals through direct synaptic contacts with the TGCs.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21-MH099812(United States)

Internal organization of medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle neurons in the C group of the oculomotor nucleus in monkey.

  • Tang X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which innervates the medial rectus (MR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle. To explore the organization of both cell groups within the C group, we performed small injections of choleratoxin subunit B into the myotendinous junction of MR or IR in monkeys. In three animals the IR and MR myotendinous junction of one eye was injected simultaneously with different tracers (choleratoxin subunit B and wheat germ agglutinin). This revealed that both muscles were supplied by two different, nonoverlapping populations in the C group. The IR neurons lie adjacent to the dorsomedial border of the oculomotor nucleus, whereas MR neurons are located farther medially. A striking feature was the differing pattern of dendrite distribution of both cell groups. Whereas the dendrites of IR neurons spread into the supraoculomotor area bilaterally, those of the MR neurons were restricted to the ipsilateral side and sent a focused bundle dorsally to the preganglionic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, which are involved in the "near response." In conclusion, MR and IR are innervated by independent neuron populations from the C group. Their dendritic branching pattern within the supraoculomotor area indicates a participation in the near response providing vergence but also reflects their differing functional roles.

The isthmic nuclei providing parallel feedback connections to the avian tectum have different neurochemical identities: Expression of glutamatergic and cholinergic markers in the chick (Gallus gallus).

  • González-Cabrera C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinal inputs to the optic tectum (TeO) triggered by moving stimuli elicit synchronized feedback signals from two isthmic nuclei: the isthmi parvocelullaris (Ipc) and isthmi semilunaris (SLu). Both of these nuclei send columnar axon terminals back to the same tectal position receiving the retinal input. The feedback signals from the Ipc seem to act as an attentional spotlight by selectively boosting the propagation of retinal inputs from the tectum to higher visual areas. Although Ipc and SLu nuclei are widely considered cholinergic because of their immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), contradictory findings, including the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) mRNA in Ipc neurons, have raised doubts about the purely cholinergic nature of this nucleus. In this study, in chicks, we revise the neurochemical identity of the isthmic nuclei by using in situ hybridization assays for VGluT2 along with three cholinergic markers: the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and ChAT. We found that neurons in the SLu showed strong mRNA expression of all three cholinergic markers, whereas the expression of VAChT mRNA in the Ipc was undetectable in our essays. Instead, Ipc neurons exhibited a strong expression of VGluT2 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry assays showed VGluT2 immunoreactivity in the TeO codistributing with anterogradely labeled Ipc axon-terminal boutons, further supporting a glutamatergic function for the Ipc nucleus. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that, in the chick, whereas the feedback from the SLu to the TeO is indeed cholinergic, the feedback from the Ipc has a marked glutamatergic component.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012957(United States)

Feedback in the brainstem: an excitatory disynaptic pathway for control of whisking.

  • Matthews DW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensorimotor processing relies on hierarchical neuronal circuits to mediate sensory-driven behaviors. In the mouse vibrissa system, trigeminal brainstem circuits are thought to mediate the first stage of vibrissa scanning control via sensory feedback that provides reflexive protraction in response to stimulation. However, these circuits are not well defined. Here we describe a complete disynaptic sensory receptor-to-muscle circuit for positive feedback in vibrissa movement. We identified a novel region of trigeminal brainstem, spinal trigeminal nucleus pars muralis, which contains a class of vGluT2+ excitatory projection neurons involved in vibrissa motor control. Complementary single- and dual-labeling with traditional and virus tracers demonstrate that these neurons both receive primary inputs from vibrissa sensory afferent fibers and send monosynaptic connections to facial nucleus motoneurons that directly innervate vibrissa musculature. These anatomical results suggest a general role of disynaptic architecture in fast positive feedback for motor output that drives active sensation.

β-cell induction in vivo in severely diabetic male mice by changing the circulating levels and pattern of the ratios of estradiol to androgens.

  • Inada A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previously we have generated transgenic (Tg) mice developing severe diabetes early in life with a profound depletion of β-cells with β-cell-directed expression of inducible cAMP early repressor-Iγ. Only male mice continue to demonstrate hyperglycemia throughout life. To investigate this sexual dimorphism, we treated severely diabetic male Tg mice with orchiectomy (ORX) or 17β-estradiol (E2) pellet implantation alone or in combination with ORX and E2-implantation to change the circulating levels and patterns of the ratio of estradiol to androgens. In the Tg-ORX group, the blood-glucose levels decreased to a certain level within several weeks but never reached the female Tg-control level. In contrast, the Tg-ORX+E2 or Tg-E2 group showed a more rapid drop in blood glucose to the basal level with a substantial increase in β-cells, thus preventing the occurrence of severe diabetes in the male mice. The β-cells, not only within islet but also in and adjacent to ducts and scattered β-cell clusters, were strongly induced by 1 week after treatment, and the islet morphology dramatically changed. Enhanced β-cell induction in the ducts occurred concomitantly with markedly increased levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 and related transcription factors. The glucose-lowering and β-cell-increasing effects were independent of the age at which the treatment is started. These data provide evidence that the circulating level of E2 and the ratio of E2 to T greatly affect the blood glucose levels, the β-cell induction, and the islet morphology in diabetic male Tg mice. This novel mechanism offers great potential for developing strategies to increase the number of β-cells in vivo.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 249845(International)