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Ki67 Antigen antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Ki67 Antigen

Proper Citation

(Vector Laboratories Cat# VP-K451, RRID:AB_2314701)


polyclonal antibody


Discontinued: 2015; Discontinued on 15 July 2015

Host Organism



Vector Laboratories

Cat Num


Transient external force induces phenotypic reversion of malignant epithelial structures via nitric oxide signaling.

  • Ricca BL
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Non-malignant breast epithelial cells cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form well organized, growth-arrested acini, whereas malignant cells form continuously growing disorganized structures. While the mechanical properties of the microenvironment have been shown to contribute to formation of tissue-specific architecture, how transient external force influences this behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that brief transient compression applied to single malignant breast cells in lrECM stimulated them to form acinar-like structures, a phenomenon we term 'mechanical reversion.' This is analogous to previously described phenotypic 'reversion' using biochemical inhibitors of oncogenic pathways. Compression stimulated nitric oxide production by malignant cells. Inhibition of nitric oxide production blocked mechanical reversion. Compression also restored coherent rotation in malignant cells, a behavior that is essential for acinus formation. We propose that external forces applied to single malignant cells restore cell-lrECM engagement and signaling lost in malignancy, allowing them to reestablish normal-like tissue architecture.

Funding information:
  • National Cancer Institute - PS-OC 60467763-112063-E()
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - F32 GM101911()
  • National Science Foundation - CMMI-1235569()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK068443-03(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM101911()

Abnormal Microglia and Enhanced Inflammation-Related Gene Transcription in Mice with Conditional Deletion of Ctcf in Camk2a-Cre-Expressing Neurons.

  • McGill BE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying 3D chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-Cre. CtcfloxP/loxP;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor coordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age. Ctcf CKO mice also had reduced dendritic spine density in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Microarray analysis of mRNA from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus identified increased transcription of inflammation-related genes linked to microglia. Separate microarray analysis of mRNA isolated specifically from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampal neurons by ribosomal affinity purification identified upregulation of chemokine signaling genes, suggesting crosstalk between neurons and microglia in Ctcf CKO hippocampus. Finally, we found that microglia in Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus had abnormal morphology by Sholl analysis and increased immunostaining for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings confirm that Ctcf KO in postnatal neurons causes a neurobehavioral phenotype in mice and provide novel evidence that CTCF depletion leads to overexpression of inflammation-related genes and microglial dysfunction.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein that organizes nuclear chromatin topology. Mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features in humans. CTCF deficiency in embryonic neurons is lethal in mice, but mice with postnatal CTCF depletion are less well studied. We find that mice lacking Ctcf in Camk2a-expressing neurons (Ctcf CKO mice) have spatial learning/memory deficits, impaired fine motor skills, subtly altered social interactions, and decreased dendritic spine density. We demonstrate that Ctcf CKO mice overexpress inflammation-related genes in the brain and have microglia with abnormal morphology that label positive for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings suggest that inflammation and dysfunctional neuron-microglia interactions are factors in the pathology of CTCF deficiency.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD087011()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM007240(United States)

Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism in male rats.

  • Hamson DK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Gonadal steroids are potent regulators of adult neurogenesis. We previously reported that androgens, such as testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but not estradiol, increased the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the male rat. These results suggest androgens regulate hippocampal neurogenesis via the androgen receptor (AR). To test this supposition, we examined the role of ARs in hippocampal neurogenesis using 2 different approaches. In experiment 1, we examined neurogenesis in male rats insensitive to androgens due to a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the AR (termed testicular feminization mutation) compared with wild-type males. In experiment 2, we injected the AR antagonist, flutamide, into castrated male rats and compared neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus of DHT and oil-treated controls. In experiment 1, chronic T increased hippocampal neurogenesis in wild-type males but not in androgen-insensitive testicular feminization mutation males. In experiment 2, DHT increased hippocampal neurogenesis via cell survival, an effect that was blocked by concurrent treatment with flutamide. DHT, however, did not affect cell proliferation. Interestingly, cells expressing doublecortin, a marker of immature neurons, did not colabel with ARs in the dentate gyrus, but ARs were robustly expressed in other regions of the hippocampus. Together these studies provide complementary evidence that androgens regulate adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus via the AR but at a site other than the dentate gyrus. Understanding where in the brain androgens act to increase the survival of new neurons in the adult brain may have implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY020535(United States)

Conditional ablation and recovery of forebrain neurogenesis in the mouse.

  • Singer BH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 20

Literature context:


Forebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within 2 weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics.