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Alexa Fluor® 488-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) antibody

RRID:AB_2313584

Antibody ID

AB_2313584

Target Antigen

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 711-545-152, RRID:AB_2313584)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Note curators could not find the material data sheet on 4/7/2014

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Generation of six multiple sclerosis patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines.

  • Miquel-Serra L
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to gliosis, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal death. The MS disease aetiology is unknown, though a polymorphism of the TNFRSF1A gene, rs1800693, is known to confer an increased risk for MS. Using retroviral delivery of reprogramming transgenes, we generated six MS patient-specific iPSC lines with two distinct genotypes, CC or TT, of the polymorphism rs1800693. iPSC lines had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency genes and differentiated into the three germ layers. These lines offer a good tool to study MS pathomechanisms and for drug testing.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK075386(United States)

Astrocytic Activation Generates De Novo Neuronal Potentiation and Memory Enhancement.

  • Adamsky A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and were shown to be necessary for plasticity and memory. To test whether astrocytic activity is also sufficient to generate synaptic potentiation and enhance memory, we expressed the Gq-coupled receptor hM3Dq in CA1 astrocytes, allowing their activation by a designer drug. We discovered that astrocytic activation is not only necessary for synaptic plasticity, but also sufficient to induce NMDA-dependent de novo long-term potentiation in the hippocampus that persisted after astrocytic activation ceased. In vivo, astrocytic activation enhanced memory allocation; i.e., it increased neuronal activity in a task-specific way only when coupled with learning, but not in home-caged mice. Furthermore, astrocytic activation using either a chemogenetic or an optogenetic tool during acquisition resulted in memory recall enhancement on the following day. Conversely, directly increasing neuronal activity resulted in dramatic memory impairment. Our findings that astrocytes induce plasticity and enhance memory may have important clinical implications for cognitive augmentation treatments.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - DP1 DA028871(Canada)

Thalamostriatal and cerebellothalamic pathways in a songbird, the Bengalese finch.

  • Nicholson DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The thalamostriatal system is a major network in the mammalian brain, originating principally from the intralaminar nuclei of thalamus. Its functions remain unclear, but a subset of these projections provides a pathway through which the cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia. Both the cerebellum and basal ganglia play crucial roles in motor control. Although songbirds have yielded key insights into the neural basis of vocal learning, it is unknown whether a thalamostriatal system exists in the songbird brain. Thalamic nucleus DLM is an important part of the song system, the network of nuclei required for learning and producing song. DLM receives output from song system basal ganglia nucleus Area X and sits within dorsal thalamus, the proposed avian homolog of the mammalian intralaminar nuclei that also receives projections from the cerebellar nuclei. Using a viral vector that specifically labels presynaptic axon segments, we show in Bengalese finches that dorsal thalamus projects to Area X, the basal ganglia nucleus of the song system, and to surrounding medial striatum. To identify the sources of thalamic input to Area X, we map DLM and cerebellar-recipient dorsal thalamus (DTCbN ). Surprisingly, we find both DLM and dorsal anterior DTCbN adjacent to DLM project to Area X. In contrast, the ventral medial subregion of DTCbN projects to medial striatum outside Area X. Our results suggest the basal ganglia in the song system, like the mammalian basal ganglia, integrate feedback from the thalamic region to which they project as well as thalamic regions that receive cerebellar output.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014364()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01DK089565(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084844()

Neurotransmitter diversity in pre-synaptic terminals located in the parvicellular neuroendocrine paraventricular nucleus of the rat and mouse hypothalamus.

  • Johnson CS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons. Here we use immunohistochemistry with high-resolution 3-dimensional image analyses to examine the arrangement of single- and co-occurring GABA, glutamate, and catecholamine markers in synaptophysin-defined pre-synaptic terminals in the PVHmpd of unstressed rats and Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 transgenic mice: respectively, vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase (PNMT). Just over half of all PVHmpd pre-synaptic terminals contain VGAT, with slightly less containing VGluT2. The vast majority of terminal appositions with mouse CRH neurons occur non-somatically. However, there are significantly more somatic VGAT than VGluT2 appositions. In the rat PVHmpd, about five times as many pre-synaptic terminals contain PNMT than DBH only. However, because epinephrine release has never been detected in the PVH, PNMT terminals may functionally be noradrenergic not adrenergic. PNMT and VGluT2 co-occur in some pre-synaptic terminals indicating the potential for co-transmission of glutamate and norepinephrine. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for how GABA/glutamate/catecholamine interactions enable adrenocortical responses to fast-onset interosensory stimuli, and more broadly, how combinations of PVH neurotransmitters and neuromodulators interact dynamically to control adrenocortical activity.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS029728()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS048843(United States)

Size-Dependent Segregation Controls Macrophage Phagocytosis of Antibody-Opsonized Targets.

  • Bakalar MH
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Macrophages protect the body from damage and disease by targeting antibody-opsonized cells for phagocytosis. Though antibodies can be raised against antigens with diverse structures, shapes, and sizes, it is unclear why some are more effective at triggering immune responses than others. Here, we define an antigen height threshold that regulates phagocytosis of both engineered and cancer-specific antigens by macrophages. Using a reconstituted model of antibody-opsonized target cells, we find that phagocytosis is dramatically impaired for antigens that position antibodies >10 nm from the target surface. Decreasing antigen height drives segregation of antibody-bound Fc receptors from the inhibitory phosphatase CD45 in an integrin-independent manner, triggering Fc receptor phosphorylation and promoting phagocytosis. Our work shows that close contact between macrophage and target is a requirement for efficient phagocytosis, suggesting that therapeutic antibodies should target short antigens in order to trigger Fc receptor activation through size-dependent physical segregation.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - 071002(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114671()

C-Fos marking of identified midbrain neurons co-active after nicotine administration in-vivo.

  • Lingelbach K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the reduced life expectancy and staggering financial burden of medical treatment associated with tobacco smoking, the molecular, cellular and ensemble adaptations associated with chronic nicotine consumption remain poorly understood. Complex circuitry interconnecting dopaminergic and cholinergic regions of the midbrain and mesopontine tegmentum are critical for nicotine associated reward. Yet our knowledge of the nicotine activation of these regions is incomplete, in part due to their cell type diversity. We performed double immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene and surrogate activity sensor, c-Fos, and markers for either cholinergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic cell types in mice treated with nicotine. Both acute (0.5 mg/kg) and chronic (0.5 mg/kg/day for 7 days) nicotine strongly activated GABAergic neurons of the interpeduncular nucleus and medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract (MT). Acute but not chronic nicotine also activated small percentages of dopaminergic and other neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as well as non-cholinergic neurons in the pedunculotegmental and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (PTg/LDTg). 24 h of nicotine withdrawal after chronic nicotine treatment suppressed c-Fos activation in the MT. In comparison to nicotine, a single dose of cocaine caused a similar activation in the PTg/LDTg but not the VTA where GABAergic cells were strongly activated but dopaminergic neurons were not affected. These results indicate the existence of drug of abuse specific ensembles. The loss of ensemble activation in the VTA and PTg/LDTg after chronic nicotine represents a molecular and cellular tolerance which may have implications for the mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK062292(United States)

VIP-immunoreactive interneurons within circuits of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

  • Rhomberg T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cortical structures, principal cell activity is tightly regulated by different GABAergic interneurons (INs). In particular, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) INs innervate preferentially other INs, providing a structural basis for temporal disinhibition of principal cells. However, relatively little is known about VIP+ INs in the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLA). In this study, we report that VIP+ INs have a variable density in the distinct subdivisions of the mouse BLA. Based on different anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, VIP+ INs could be identified as interneuron-selective INs and basket cells expressing CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Whole-cell recordings of VIP+ interneuron-selective INs revealed 3 different spiking patterns, which did not associate with the expression of calretinin. Genetic targeting combined with optogenetics and in vitro recordings allowed us to identify several types of BLA INs innervated by VIP+ INs, including other interneuron-selective INs, basket and neurogliaform cells. Moreover, light stimulation of VIP+ basket cell axon terminals, characterized by CB1 sensitivity, evoked IPSPs in ∼20% of principal neurons. Finally, we show that VIP+ INs receive a dense innervation from both GABAergic, although only 10% from other VIP+ INs, and distinct glutamatergic inputs, identified by their expression of different vesicular glutamate transporters.In conclusion, our study provides a wide-range analysis of single-cell properties of VIP+ INs in the mouse BLA and of their intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. Our results reinforce the knowledge that VIP+ INs are structurally and functionally heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity could mediate different roles in amygdala-dependent functions.Significance statement:We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of VIP+ interneurons across the entire mouse BLA, as well as of their morphological and physiological properties. VIP+ interneurons in the neocortex preferentially target other interneurons to form a disinhibitory network that facilitates principal cell firing. Our study is the first to demonstrate the presence of such a disinhibitory circuitry in the BLA. We observed structural and functional heterogeneity of these INs and characterized their input/output connectivity. We also identified several types of BLA interneurons postsynaptic to VIP+ INs, whose inhibition may provide a temporal window for principal cell firing and facilitate associative plasticity, e.g. in fear learning. Disinhibition, thus, is emerging as a general mechanism, not limited to the neocortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM055962(United States)

Maintenance of Mouse Gustatory Terminal Field Organization is Dependent on BDNF at Adulthood.

  • Sun C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The rodent peripheral gustatory system is especially plastic during early postnatal development and maintains significant anatomical plasticity into adulthood. Thus, taste information carried from the tongue to the brain is built and maintained on a background of anatomical circuits that have the capacity to change throughout the animal's lifespan. Recently, the neurotrophin, Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), was shown to be required in the tongue to maintain normal levels of innervation in taste buds at adulthood, indicating that BDNF is a key molecule in the maintenance of nerve/target matching in taste buds. Here, we tested if maintenance of the central process of these gustatory nerves at adulthood also relies on BDNF by using male and female transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Keratin 14 promoter or under control of the Ubiquitin promoter to remove Bdnf from the tongue or from all tissues, respectively. We found that the terminal fields of gustatory nerves in the nucleus of the solitary tract were expanded when Bdnf was removed from the tongue at adulthood, and with even larger and more widespread changes in mice where Bdnf was removed from all tissues. Removal of Bdnf did not affect numbers of ganglion cells that made up the nerves and did not affect peripheral, whole-nerve taste responses. We conclude that normal expression of Bdnf in gustatory structures is required to maintain normal levels of innervation at adulthood, and that the central effects of Bdnf removal are opposite of those in the tongue.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTBDNF plays a major role in the development and maintenance of proper innervation of taste buds. However, the importance of BDNF in maintaining innervation patterns of gustatory nerves into central targets has not been assessed. Here, we tested if Bdnf removal from the tongue or from all structures in adult mice impacts the maintenance of how taste nerves project to the first central relay. Deletion of Bdnf from the tongue and from all tissues led to a progressively greater expansion of terminal fields. This demonstrates, for the first time, that BDNF is necessary for the normal maintenance of central gustatory circuits at adulthood and further highlights a level of plasticity not seen in other sensory system subcortical circuits.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC000407(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006938(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC007176(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS051305(United States)

Differential inputs to striatal cholinergic and parvalbumin interneurons imply functional distinctions.

  • Klug JR
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified. Additionally, the external segment of the globus pallidus targets striatal ChAT interneurons, which is sufficient to inhibit tonic ChAT interneuron firing. Finally, we describe a novel excitatory pathway from the pedunculopontine nucleus that innervates ChAT interneurons. These results establish the brain-wide direct inputs of two major types of striatal interneurons and allude to distinct roles in regulating striatal activity and controlling behavior.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01AG047669()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01NS083815()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL073085-08(United States)

Synaptotagmin 4 Regulates Pancreatic β Cell Maturation by Modulating the Ca2+ Sensitivity of Insulin Secretion Vesicles.

  • Huang C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Islet β cells from newborn mammals exhibit high basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we show that β cells of newborns secrete more insulin than adults in response to similar intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, suggesting differences in the Ca2+ sensitivity of insulin secretion. Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), a non-Ca2+ binding paralog of the β cell Ca2+ sensor Syt7, increased by ∼8-fold during β cell maturation. Syt4 ablation increased basal insulin secretion and compromised GSIS. Precocious Syt4 expression repressed basal insulin secretion but also impaired islet morphogenesis and GSIS. Syt4 was localized on insulin granules and Syt4 levels inversely related to the number of readily releasable vesicles. Thus, transcriptional regulation of Syt4 affects insulin secretion; Syt4 expression is regulated in part by Myt transcription factors, which repress Syt4 transcription. Finally, human SYT4 regulated GSIS in EndoC-βH1 cells, a human β cell line. These findings reveal the role that altered Ca2+ sensing plays in regulating β cell maturation.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - 12183(United Kingdom)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK050203()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK090570()

Generation and characterization of a human iPS cell line from a patient-related control to study disease mechanisms associated with DAND5 p.R152H alteration.

  • Pars S
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

A DAND5-control human iPSC line was generated from the urinary cells of a phenotypically normal donor. Exfoliated renal epithelial (RE) cells were collected and reprogrammed into iPSCs using Sendai virus reprogramming system. The pluripotency, in vitro differentiation potential, karyotype stability, and the transgene-free status of generated iPSC line were analyzed and confirmed. This cell line can be exploited as a control iPSC line to better understand the mechanisms involved in DAND5-associated cardiac disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA177377(United States)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Broad-Spectrum Regulation of Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinases by the Bacterial ADP-Ribosyltransferase EspJ.

  • Pollard DJ
  • MBio
  • 2018 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tyrosine phosphorylation is key for signal transduction from exogenous stimuli, including the defense against pathogens. Conversely, pathogens can subvert protein phosphorylation to control host immune responses and facilitate invasion and dissemination. The bacterial effectors EspJ and SeoC are injected into host cells through a type III secretion system by enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), Citrobacter rodentium, and Salmonella enterica, where they inhibit Src kinase by coupled amidation and ADP-ribosylation. C. rodentium, which is used to model EPEC and EHEC infections in humans, is a mouse pathogen triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia (CCH) and colitis. Enumeration of bacterial shedding and CCH confirmed that EspJ affects neither tolerance nor resistance to infection. However, comparison of the proteomes of intestinal epithelial cells isolated from mice infected with wild-type C. rodentium or C. rodentium encoding catalytically inactive EspJ revealed that EspJ-induced ADP-ribosylation regulates multiple nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in vivo Investigation of the substrate repertoire of EspJ revealed that in HeLa and A549 cells, Src and Csk were significantly targeted; in polarized Caco2 cells, EspJ targeted Src and Csk and the Src family kinase (SFK) Yes1, while in differentiated Thp1 cells, EspJ modified Csk, the SFKs Hck and Lyn, the Tec family kinases Tec and Btk, and the adapter tyrosine kinase Syk. Furthermore, Abl (HeLa and Caco2) and Lyn (Caco2) were enriched specifically in the EspJ-containing samples. Biochemical assays revealed that EspJ, the only bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase that targets mammalian kinases, controls immune responses and the Src/Csk signaling axis.IMPORTANCE Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) strains cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse pathogen used to model EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis in vivo Diarrheal disease is triggered following injection of bacterial effectors, via a type III secretion system (T3SS), into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). While insights into the role of the effectors were historically obtained from pathological, immunologic, or cell culture phenotypes, subtle roles of individual effectors in vivo are often masked. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role and specificity of the ADP-ribosyltransferase effector EspJ. For the first time, we show that the in vivo processes affected by a T3SS effector can be studied by comparing the proteomes of IECs extracted from mice infected with wild-type C. rodentium or an espJ catalytic mutant. We show that EspJ, the only bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase that targets mammalian kinases, regulates the host immune response in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM07739(United States)

Visual and Motor Deficits in Grown-up Mice with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

  • Cui L
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human infants with congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection exhibit a range of symptoms including microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, macular atrophy and arthrogryposis. More importantly, prognosis data have lagged far behind the recent outbreak of ZIKV in 2015. In this work, we allow congenitally ZIKV-infected mice to grow into puberty. These mice exhibited motor incoordination and visual dysfunctions, which can be accounted by anatomical defects in the retina and cerebellar cortex. In contrary, anxiety level of the ZIKV-infected mice is normal. The spectrum of anatomical and behavioral deficits is consistent across different mice. Our data provided evidence that may help predict the public health burden in terms of prognosis of ZIKV-related congenital brain malformations in an animal model. Our study provided behavioral evaluation for the prognosis of congenital ZIKV infection and provides a platform for screening and evaluation of drugs candidates and treatment aiming at improving regeneration of infected neurons to prevent sequelae caused by ZIKV infection of fetus.

Maintenance of the Innate Seizure Threshold by Cyclooxygenase-2 is Not Influenced by the Translational Silencer, T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1.

  • Gong Y
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity of neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a primary source of PG synthesis in the normal brain, is enhanced by excitatory neurotransmission and this is thought to be involved in seizure suppression. Results herein showing that the incidence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions is suppressed in transgenic mice overexpressing COX-2 in neurons support this notion. T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is an mRNA binding protein that is known to bind to COX-2 mRNA and repress its translation in non-neuronal cell types. An examination of the expression profile of TIA-1 protein in the normal brain indicated that it is expressed broadly by neurons, including those that express COX-2. However, whether TIA-1 regulates COX-2 protein levels in neurons is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the possibility that deletion of TIA-1 increases basal COX-2 expression in neurons and consequently raises the seizure threshold. Results demonstrate that neither the basal nor seizure-induced expression profiles of COX-2 were altered in mice lacking a functional TIA-1 gene suggesting that TIA-1 does not contribute to regulation of COX-2 protein expression in neurons. The acute PTZ-induced seizure threshold was also unchanged in mice lacking TIA-1 protein, indicating that this RNA binding protein does not influence the innate seizure threshold. Nevertheless, the results raise the possibility that the level of neuronal COX-2 expression may be a determinant of the innate seizure threshold and suggest that a better understanding of the regulation of COX-2 expression in the brain could provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms that suppress seizure induction.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 77591-1(Canada)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R15 NS082982()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS056304()

Generation of human iPSC line from a patient with laterality defects and associated congenital heart anomalies carrying a DAND5 missense alteration.

  • Cristo F
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

A human iPSC line was generated from exfoliated renal epithelial (ERE) cells of a patient affected with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) and Laterality Defects carrying tshe variant p.R152H in the DAND5 gene. The transgene-free iPSCs were generated with the human OSKM transcription factor using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The established iPSC line had the specific heterozygous alteration, a stable karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers and generated embryoid bodies that can differentiate towards the three germ layers in vitro. This iPSC line offers a useful resource to study the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation, as well as for drug testing.

ATXN1-CIC Complex Is the Primary Driver of Cerebellar Pathology in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 through a Gain-of-Function Mechanism.

  • Rousseaux MWC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are caused by expansion of translated CAG repeats in distinct genes leading to altered protein function. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a gain of function of polyQ-expanded ataxin-1 (ATXN1) contributes to cerebellar pathology. The extent to which cerebellar toxicity depends on its cognate partner capicua (CIC), versus other interactors, remains unclear. It is also not established whether loss of the ATXN1-CIC complex in the cerebellum contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, we exclusively disrupt the ATXN1-CIC interaction in vivo and show that it is at the crux of cerebellar toxicity in SCA1. Importantly, loss of CIC in the cerebellum does not cause ataxia or Purkinje cell degeneration. Expression profiling of these gain- and loss-of-function models, coupled with data from iPSC-derived neurons from SCA1 patients, supports a mechanism in which gain of function of the ATXN1-CIC complex is the major driver of toxicity.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008449(United States)

Fear extinction requires infralimbic cortex projections to the basolateral amygdala.

  • Bloodgood DW
  • Transl Psychiatry
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fear extinction involves the formation of a new memory trace that attenuates fear responses to a conditioned aversive memory, and extinction impairments are implicated in trauma- and stress-related disorders. Previous studies in rodents have found that the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) and its glutamatergic projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and basomedial amygdala (BMA) instruct the formation of fear extinction memories. However, it is unclear whether these pathways are exclusively involved in extinction, or whether other major targets of the IL, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also play a role. To address this outstanding issue, the current study employed a combination of electrophysiological and chemogenetic approaches in mice to interrogate the role of IL-BLA and IL-NAc pathways in extinction. Specifically, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology coupled with retrograde tracing to examine changes in neuronal activity of the IL and prelimbic cortex (PL) projections to both the BLA and NAc following fear extinction. We found that extinction produced a significant increase in the intrinsic excitability of IL-BLA projection neurons, while extinction appeared to reverse fear-induced changes in IL-NAc projection neurons. To establish a causal counterpart to these observations, we then used a pathway-specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) strategy to selectively inhibit PFC-BLA projection neurons during extinction acquisition. Using this approach, we found that DREADD-mediated inhibition of PFC-BLA neurons during extinction acquisition impaired subsequent extinction retrieval. Taken together, our findings provide further evidence for a critical contribution of the IL-BLA neural circuit to fear extinction.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 5R01CA101870(United States)

Analysis of the distribution of spinal NOP receptors in a chronic pain model using NOP-eGFP knock-in mice.

  • Ozawa A
  • Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor system plays a significant role in the regulation of pain. This system functions differently in the spinal cord and brain. The mechanism by which the NOP receptor agonists regulate pain transmission in these regions is not clearly understood. Here, we investigate the peripheral and spinal NOP receptor distribution and antinociceptive effects of intrathecal nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) in chronic neuropathic pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used immunohistochemistry to determine changes in NOP receptor distribution triggered by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) using NOP-eGFP knock-in mice. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecal N/OFQ on SNL-mediated allodynia and heat/cold hyperalgesia were assessed in wild-type mice. KEY RESULTS: NOP-eGFP immunoreactivity was decreased by SNL in the spinal laminae I and II outer, regions that mediate noxious heat stimuli. In contrast, immunoreactivity of NOP-eGFP was unchanged in the ventral border of lamina II inner, which is an important region for the development of allodynia. NOP-eGFP expression was also decreased in a large number of primary afferents in the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of SNL mice. However, SNL mice showed increased sensitivity, compared to sham animals to the effects of i.t administered N/OFQ with respect to mechanical as well as thermal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest that the spinal NOP receptor system attenuates injury-induced hyperalgesia by direct inhibition of the projection neurons in the spinal cord that send nociceptive signals to the brain and not by inhibiting presynaptic terminals of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA023281()
  • Wellcome Trust - 089457/Z/09/Z(United Kingdom)

DNER and NFIA are expressed by developing and mature AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

  • Keeley PW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study has taken advantage of publicly available cell type specific mRNA expression databases in order to identify potential genes participating in the development of retinal AII amacrine cells. We profile two such genes, Delta/Notch-like EGF repeat containing (Dner) and nuclear factor I/A (Nfia), that are each heavily expressed in AII amacrine cells in the mature mouse retina, and which conjointly identify this retinal cell population in its entirety when using antibodies to DNER and NFIA. DNER is present on the plasma membrane, while NFIA is confined to the nucleus, consistent with known functions of each of these two proteins. DNER also identifies some other subsets of retinal ganglion and amacrine cell types, along with horizontal cells, while NFIA identifies a subset of bipolar cells as well as Muller glia and astrocytes. During early postnatal development, NFIA labels astrocytes on the day of birth, AII amacrine cells at postnatal (P) day 5, and Muller glia by P10, when horizontal cells also transiently exhibit NFIA immunofluorescence. DNER, by contrast, is present in ganglion and amacrine cells on P1, also labeling the horizontal cells by P10. Developing AII amacrine cells exhibit accumulating DNER labeling at the dendritic stalk, labeling that becomes progressively conspicuous by P10, as it is in maturity. This developmental time course is consistent with a prospective role for each gene in the differentiation of AII amacrine cells.

Innate-like Cytotoxic Function of Bystander-Activated CD8+ T Cells Is Associated with Liver Injury in Acute Hepatitis A.

  • Kim J
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acute hepatitis A (AHA) involves severe CD8+ T cell-mediated liver injury. Here we showed during AHA, CD8+ T cells specific to unrelated viruses became activated. Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected cells produced IL-15 that induced T cell receptor (TCR)-independent activation of memory CD8+ T cells. TCR-independent activation of non-HAV-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in patients, as indicated by NKG2D upregulation, a marker of TCR-independent T cell activation by IL-15. CD8+ T cells derived from AHA patients exerted innate-like cytotoxicity triggered by activating receptors NKG2D and NKp30 without TCR engagement. We demonstrated that the severity of liver injury in AHA patients correlated with the activation of HAV-unrelated virus-specific CD8+ T cells and the innate-like cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells, but not the activation of HAV-specific T cells. Thus, host injury in AHA is associated with innate-like cytotoxicity of bystander-activated CD8+ T cells, a result with implications for acute viral diseases.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Endocannabinoid Actions on Cortical Terminals Orchestrate Local Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens.

  • Mateo Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs. This modulation requires CB1 receptors on cortical glutamatergic afferents. Dopamine increases driven by optogenetic activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) terminals in the NAc are similarly modulated by activation of these CB1 receptors. We further demonstrate that this same population of CB1 receptors modulates optical self-stimulation sustained by activation of PFC afferents in the NAc. These results establish local eCB actions on PFC terminals within the NAc that inhibit mesolimbic DA release and constrain reward-driven behavior.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL 65470(United States)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - ZIA AA000416()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - F32 DA041827()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA022340()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA042595()

Distribution and diversity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in tree shrew.

  • Johnson EN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates. They are highly visual, diurnal animals with a cone-dominated retina and a geniculo-cortical organization resembling that of primates. We identified cells with morphological similarities to M1 and M2 cells described previously in rodents and primates. M1-like cells typically had somas in the ganglion cell layer, with 23% displaced to the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, unlike M1 cells, they had bistratified dendritic fields ramifying in S1 and S5 that collectively tiled space. M2-like cells had dendritic fields restricted to S5 that were smaller and more densely branching. A novel third type of melanopsin immunopositive cell was identified. These cells had somata exclusively in the INL and monostratified dendritic fields restricted to S1 that tiled space. Surprisingly, these cells immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key component in dopamine synthesis. These cells immunolabeled for an RGC marker, not amacrine cell markers, suggesting that they are dopaminergic ipRGCs. We found no evidence for M4 or M5 ipRGCs, described previously in rodents. These results identify some organizational features of the ipRGC system that are canonical versus species-specific.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024567()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY027193()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004401(United States)

Tension-Dependent Stretching Activates ZO-1 to Control the Junctional Localization of Its Interactors.

  • Spadaro D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. Using structured illumination microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we show that the tight junction protein ZO-1 exists in stretched and folded conformations within epithelial cells, depending on actomyosin-generated force. We also show that ZO-1 and ZO-2 regulate the localization of the transcription factor DbpA and the tight junction membrane protein occludin in a manner that depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin-II activity, and substrate stiffness, resulting in modulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, barrier function, and cyst morphogenesis. Pull-down experiments show that interactions between N-terminal (ZPSG) and C-terminal domains of ZO-1 prevent binding of DbpA to the ZPSG, suggesting that force-dependent intra-molecular interactions regulate ZPSG binding to ligands within cells. In vivo and in vitro experiments also suggest that ZO-1 heterodimerization with ZO-2 promotes the stretched conformation and ZPSG interaction with ligands. Magnetic tweezers single-molecule experiments suggest that pN-scale tensions (∼2-4 pN) are sufficient to maintain the stretched conformation of ZO-1, while keeping its structured domains intact, and that 5-20 pN force is required to disrupt the interaction between the extreme C-terminal and the ZPSG domains of ZO-1. We propose that tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis by activating ZO proteins through stretching, to control the junctional recruitment and downstream signaling of their interactors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI090166(United States)

The Lamprey Pallium Provides a Blueprint of the Mammalian Layered Cortex.

  • Suryanarayana SM
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons. The ventral parts are sensory areas receiving monosynaptic thalamic input that can be activated from the optic nerve, whereas the dorsal parts contain motor areas with efferent projections to the brainstem, receiving oligosynaptic thalamic input. Both regions receive monosynaptic olfactory input. This three-layered "primordial" lamprey lateral pallium has evolved most features of the three-layered reptilian cortices and is thereby a precursor of the six-layered "neo" cortex with a long-standing evolutionary precedent (some 500 million years ago).

Citrobacter rodentium Subverts ATP Flux and Cholesterol Homeostasis in Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vivo.

  • Berger CN
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the gut form a robust line of defense against ingested pathogens. We investigated the impact of infection with the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium on mouse IEC metabolism using global proteomic and targeted metabolomics and lipidomics. The major signatures of the infection were upregulation of the sugar transporter Sglt4, aerobic glycolysis, and production of phosphocreatine, which mobilizes cytosolic energy. In contrast, biogenesis of mitochondrial cardiolipins, essential for ATP production, was inhibited, which coincided with increased levels of mucosal O2 and a reduction in colon-associated anaerobic commensals. In addition, IECs responded to infection by activating Srebp2 and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Unexpectedly, infected IECs also upregulated the cholesterol efflux proteins AbcA1, AbcG8, and ApoA1, resulting in higher levels of fecal cholesterol and a bloom of Proteobacteria. These results suggest that C. rodentium manipulates host metabolism to evade innate immune responses and establish a favorable gut ecosystem.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA031656(United States)

Autophagy inhibition in endogenous and nutrient-deprived conditions reduces dorsal root ganglia neuron survival and neurite growth in vitro.

  • Clarke JP
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peripheral neuropathies can result in cytoskeletal changes in axons, ultimately leading to Wallerian degeneration and cell death. Recently, autophagy has been studied as a potential target for improving axonal survival and growth during peripheral nerve damage. This study investigates the influence of autophagy on adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron survival and axonal growth under control and nutrient deprivation conditions. Constitutive autophagy was modulated with pharmacological activators (rapamycin; Rapa) and inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) in conjunction with either a nutrient-stable environment (standard culture medium) or a nutrient-deprived environment (Hank's balanced salt solution + Ca(2+) /Mg(2+) ). The results demonstrated that autophagy inhibition decreased cell viability and reduced neurite growth and branching complexity. Although autophagy was upregulated with nutrient deprivation compared with the control, it was not further activated by rapamycin, suggesting a threshold level of autophagy. Overall, both cellular and biochemical approaches combined to show the influence of autophagy on adult DRG neuron survival and growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Open Chromatin Profiling in hiPSC-Derived Neurons Prioritizes Functional Noncoding Psychiatric Risk Variants and Highlights Neurodevelopmental Loci.

  • Forrest MP
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants. Of the more than 3,500 SZ-associated variants analyzed, we prioritized ∼100 putatively functional ones located in neuronal OCRs, including rs1198588, at a leading risk locus flanking MIR137. Excitatory neurons derived from hiPSCs with CRISPR/Cas9-edited rs1198588 or a rare proximally located SZ risk variant showed altered MIR137 expression, dendrite arborization, and synapse maturation. Our study shows that noncoding disease variants in OCRs can affect neurodevelopment, and that analysis of open chromatin regions can help prioritize functionally relevant noncoding variants identified by GWAS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH097216()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106575()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH102685()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS100785()

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Cellular Localization of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 in Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii.

  • Lin LH
  • Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

By determining its cellular localization in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), we sought anatomical support for a putative physiological role for acid-sensing ion channel Type 1 (ASIC1) in chemosensitivity. Further, we sought to determine the effect of a lesion that produces gliosis in the area. In rats, we studied ASIC1 expression in control tissue with that in tissue with gliosis, which is associated with acidosis, after saporin lesions. We hypothesized that saporin would increase ASIC1 expression in areas of gliosis. Using fluorescent immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we found that cells and processes containing ASIC1-immunoreactivity (IR) were present in the NTS, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, and the area postrema. In control tissue, ASIC1-IR predominantly colocalized with IR for the astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or the microglial marker, integrin αM (OX42). The subpostremal NTS was the only NTS region where neurons, identified by protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), contained ASIC1-IR. ASIC1-IR increased significantly (157 ± 8.6% of control, p < 0.001) in the NTS seven days after microinjection of saporin. As we reported previously, GFAP-IR was decreased in the center of the saporin injection site, but GFAP-IR was increased in the surrounding areas where OX42-IR, indicative of activated microglia, was also increased. The over-expressed ASIC1-IR colocalized with GFAP-IR and OX42-IR in those reactive astrocytes and microglia. Our results support the hypothesis that ASIC1 would be increased in activated microglia and in reactive astrocytes after injection of saporin into the NTS.

Effect of Maternal Obesity on Placental Lipid Metabolism.

  • Calabuig-Navarro V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher and FA β-oxidation (FAO) is lower in placentas from obese, compared with lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery. In isolated trophoblasts, we measured [3H]-palmitate metabolism. Placentas of obese women had 17.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.1, 28.7%) more lipid than placentas of lean women, and higher mRNA and protein expression of FA esterification regulators (e.g., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, steroyl-CoA desaturase 1, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1). [3H]-palmitate esterification rates were increased in trophoblasts from obese compared with lean women. Placentas of obese women had fewer mitochondria and a lower concentration of acylcarnitines, suggesting a decrease in mitochondrial FAO capacity. Conversely, peroxisomal FAO was greater in placentas of obese women. Altogether, these changes in placental lipid metabolism may serve to limit the amount of maternal lipid transferred to the fetus, restraining excess fetal adiposity in this population of glucose-tolerant women.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024989()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R00 HD062841()

Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated β-Cell Apoptosis.

  • Dos Santos RS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators. Based on RNA sequencing and protein-protein interaction analyses of human islets exposed to proinflammatory cytokines, we identified complement C3 as a hub for some of the effects of cytokines. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β plus interferon-γ increase C3 expression in rodent and human pancreatic β-cells, and C3 is detected by histology in and around the islets of diabetic patients. Surprisingly, C3 silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine-induced β-cell death and partially rescues the deleterious effects of inhibition of endogenous C3. These data suggest that locally produced C3 is an important prosurvival mechanism in pancreatic β-cells under a proinflammatory assault.

Parallel Inhibitory and Excitatory Trigemino-Facial Feedback Circuitry for Reflexive Vibrissa Movement.

  • Bellavance MA
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Animals employ active touch to optimize the acuity of their tactile sensors. Prior experimental results and models lead to the hypothesis that sensory inputs are used in a recurrent manner to tune the position of the sensors. A combination of electrophysiology, intersectional genetic viral labeling and manipulation, and classical tracing allowed us to identify second-order sensorimotor loops that control vibrissa movements by rodents. Facial motoneurons that drive intrinsic muscles to protract the vibrissae receive a short latency inhibitory input, followed by synaptic excitation, from neurons located in the oralis division of the trigeminal sensory complex. In contrast, motoneurons that retract the mystacial pad and indirectly retract the vibrissae receive only excitatory input from interpolaris cells that further project to the thalamus. Silencing this feedback alters retraction. The observed pull-push circuit at the lowest-level sensorimotor loop provides a mechanism for the rapid modulation of vibrissa touch during exploration of peri-personal space.

Viral Replication Complexes Are Targeted by LC3-Guided Interferon-Inducible GTPases.

  • Biering SB
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

All viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes replicate on membranous structures in the cytoplasm called replication complexes (RCs). RCs provide an advantageous microenvironment for viral replication, but it is unknown how the host immune system counteracts these structures. Here we show that interferon-gamma (IFNG) disrupts the RC of murine norovirus (MNV) via evolutionarily conserved autophagy proteins and the induction of IFN-inducible GTPases, which are known to destroy the membrane of vacuoles containing bacteria, protists, or fungi. The MNV RC was marked by the microtubule-associated-protein-1-light-chain-3 (LC3) conjugation system of autophagy and then targeted by immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) upon their induction by IFNG. Further, the LC3 conjugation system and the IFN-inducible GTPases were necessary to inhibit MNV replication in mice and human cells. These data suggest that viral RCs can be marked and antagonized by a universal immune defense mechanism targeting diverse pathogens replicating in cytosolic membrane structures.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI103197()

Polysialic Acid Regulates Sympathetic Outflow by Facilitating Information Transfer within the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

  • Bokiniec P
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression of the large extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia), is restricted in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodeling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release, and behavior. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo polySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS. Electron microscopy demonstrated polySia at sites that influence neurotransmission: the extracellular space, fine astrocytic processes, and neuronal terminals. Removing polySia from the NTS had functional consequences. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings revealed altered intrinsic membrane properties, enhancing voltage-gated K+ currents and increasing intracellular Ca2+ Viscerosensory afferent processing was also disrupted, dampening low-frequency excitatory input and potentiating high-frequency sustained currents at second-order neurons. Removal of polySia in the NTS of anesthetized rats increased sympathetic nerve activity, whereas functionally related enzymes that do not alter polySia expression had little effect. These data indicate that polySia is required for the normal transmission of information through the NTS and that changes in its expression alter sympathetic outflow. polySia is abundant in multiple but discrete brain regions, including sensory nuclei, in both the adult rat and human, where it may regulate neuronal function by mechanisms identified here.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT All cells are coated in glycans (sugars) existing predominantly as glycolipids, proteoglycans, or glycoproteins formed by the most complex form of posttranslational modification, glycosylation. How these glycans influence brain function is only now beginning to be elucidated. The adult nucleus of the solitary tract has abundant polysialic acid (polySia) and is a major site of integration, receiving viscerosensory information which controls critical homeostatic functions. Our data reveal that polySia is a determinant of neuronal behavior and excitatory transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract, regulating sympathetic nerve activity. polySia is abundantly expressed at distinct brain sites in adult, including major sensory nuclei, suggesting that sensory transmission may also be influenced via mechanisms described here. These findings hint at the importance of elucidating how other glycans influence neural function.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES004738(United States)

Amino Acid Transporter Slc38a5 Controls Glucagon Receptor Inhibition-Induced Pancreatic α Cell Hyperplasia in Mice.

  • Kim J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucagon supports glucose homeostasis by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, in part by promoting the uptake and conversion of amino acids into gluconeogenic precursors. Genetic disruption or pharmacologic inhibition of glucagon signaling results in elevated plasma amino acids and compensatory glucagon hypersecretion involving expansion of pancreatic α cell mass. Recent findings indicate that hyperaminoacidemia triggers pancreatic α cell proliferation via an mTOR-dependent pathway. We confirm and extend these findings by demonstrating that glucagon pathway blockade selectively increases expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5 in a subset of highly proliferative α cells and that Slc38a5 controls the pancreatic response to glucagon pathway blockade; most notably, mice deficient in Slc38a5 exhibit markedly decreased α cell hyperplasia to glucagon pathway blockade-induced hyperaminoacidemia. These results show that Slc38a5 is a key component of the feedback circuit between glucagon receptor signaling in the liver and amino-acid-dependent regulation of pancreatic α cell mass in mice.

Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Modulate Arousal and Promote Wakefulness by Salient Stimuli.

  • Cho JR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRNDA) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence. We also observed broader fluctuations of DRNDA activity across sleep-wake cycles with highest activity during wakefulness. Both endogenous DRNDA activity and optogenetically driven DRNDA activity were associated with waking from sleep, with DA signal strength predictive of wake duration. Conversely, chemogenetic inhibition opposed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep, even in the face of salient stimuli. Therefore, the DRNDA population is a critical contributor to wake-promoting pathways and is capable of modulating sleep-wake states according to the outside environment, wherein the perception of salient stimuli prompts vigilance and arousal.

Temporal Cohorts of Lineage-Related Neurons Perform Analogous Functions in Distinct Sensorimotor Circuits.

  • Wreden CC
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly. Circuits in the sensorimotor system (e.g., spinal cord) are thought to be assembled sequentially [10-14], making this an ideal brain region for investigating the circuit-level impact of temporal patterning within a lineage. Here, we use intersectional genetics, optogenetics, high-throughput behavioral analysis, single-neuron labeling, connectomics, and calcium imaging to determine how a set of bona fide lineage-related interneurons contribute to sensorimotor circuitry in the Drosophila larva. We show that Even-skipped lateral interneurons (ELs) are sensory processing interneurons. Late-born ELs contribute to a proprioceptive body posture circuit, whereas early-born ELs contribute to a mechanosensitive escape circuit. These data support a model in which a single neuronal stem cell can produce a large number of interneurons with similar functional capacity that are distributed into different circuits based on birth timing. In summary, these data establish a link between temporal specification of neuronal identity and circuit assembly at the single-cell level.

Transcriptional Elongation of HSV Immediate Early Genes by the Super Elongation Complex Drives Lytic Infection and Reactivation from Latency.

  • Alfonso-Dunn R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is required for initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic infection and for reactivation from latency in sensory neurons. HCF-1 stabilizes the viral Immediate Early (IE) gene enhancer complex and mediates chromatin transitions to promote IE transcription initiation. In infected cells, HCF-1 was also found to be associated with a network of transcription elongation components including the super elongation complex (SEC). IE genes exhibit characteristics of genes controlled by transcriptional elongation, and the SEC-P-TEFb complex is specifically required to drive the levels of productive IE mRNAs. Significantly, compounds that enhance the levels of SEC-P-TEFb also potently stimulated HSV reactivation from latency both in a sensory ganglia model system and in vivo. Thus, transcriptional elongation of HSV IE genes is a key limiting parameter governing both the initiation of HSV infection and reactivation of latent genomes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114141()

Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.

  • Yang Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Notably, a single mouse EPS cell shows widespread chimeric contribution to both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in vivo and permits generating single-EPS-cell-derived mice by tetraploid complementation. Furthermore, human EPS cells exhibit interspecies chimeric competency in mouse conceptuses. Our findings constitute a first step toward capturing pluripotent stem cells with extraembryonic developmental potentials in culture and open new avenues for basic and translational research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

  • White MG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG009975(United States)

LSM12 and ME31B/DDX6 Define Distinct Modes of Posttranscriptional Regulation by ATAXIN-2 Protein Complex in Drosophila Circadian Pacemaker Neurons.

  • Lee J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATAXIN-2 (ATX2) has been implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases, yet it remains elusive how ATX2 assembles specific protein complexes to execute its physiological roles. Here we employ the posttranscriptional co-activator function of Drosophila ATX2 to demonstrate that LSM12 and ME31B/DDX6 are two ATX2-associating factors crucial for sustaining circadian rhythms. LSM12 acts as a molecular adaptor for the recruitment of TWENTY-FOUR (TYF) to ATX2. The ATX2-LSM12-TYF complex thereby stimulates TYF-dependent translation of the rate-limiting clock gene period (per) to maintain 24 hr periodicity in circadian behaviors. In contrast, ATX2 contributes to NOT1-mediated gene silencing and associates with NOT1 in a ME31B/DDX6-dependent manner. The ME31B/DDX6-NOT1 complex does not affect PER translation but supports high-amplitude behavioral rhythms along with ATX2, indicating a PER-independent clock function of ATX2. Taken together, these data suggest that the ATX2 complex may switch distinct modes of posttranscriptional regulation through its associating factors to control circadian clocks and ATX2-related physiology.

RNA Sequencing Exposes Adaptive and Immune Responses to Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Fetal Sheep Islets.

  • Kelly AC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The risk of type 2 diabetes is increased in children and adults who exhibited fetal growth restriction. Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are common obstetrical complications associated with fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxia that reduce the β-cell mass and insulin secretion. In the present study, we have defined the underlying mechanisms of reduced growth and proliferation, impaired metabolism, and defective insulin secretion previously established as complications in islets from IUGR fetuses. In an IUGR sheep model that recapitulates human IUGR, high-throughput RNA sequencing showed the transcriptome of islets isolated from IUGR and control sheep fetuses and identified the transcripts that underlie β-cell dysfunction. Functional analysis expanded mechanisms involved in reduced proliferation and dysregulated metabolism that include specific cell cycle regulators and growth factors and mitochondrial, antioxidant, and exocytotic genes. These data also identified immune responses, wnt signaling, adaptive stress responses, and the proteasome as mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction. The reduction of immune-related gene expression did not reflect a change in macrophage density within IUGR islets. The present study reports the islet transcriptome in fetal sheep and established processes that limit insulin secretion and β-cell growth in fetuses with IUGR, which could explain the susceptibility to premature islet failure in adulthood. Islet dysfunction formed by intrauterine growth restriction increases the risk for diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK084842()

Gene Resistance to Transcriptional Reprogramming following Nuclear Transfer Is Directly Mediated by Multiple Chromatin-Repressive Pathways.

  • Jullien J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Understanding the mechanism of resistance of genes to reactivation will help improve the success of nuclear reprogramming. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast nuclei with normal or reduced DNA methylation in combination with chromatin modifiers able to erase H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H2AK119ub1 from transplanted nuclei, we reveal the basis for resistance of genes to transcriptional reprogramming by oocyte factors. A majority of genes is affected by more than one type of treatment, suggesting that resistance can require repression through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. We classify resistant genes according to their sensitivity to 11 chromatin modifier combinations, revealing the existence of synergistic as well as adverse effects of chromatin modifiers on removal of resistance. We further demonstrate that the chromatin modifier USP21 reduces resistance through its H2AK119 deubiquitylation activity. Finally, we provide evidence that H2A ubiquitylation also contributes to resistance to transcriptional reprogramming in mouse nuclear transfer embryos.

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

Variable proopiomelanocortin expression in tanycytes of the adult rat hypothalamus and pituitary stalk.

  • Wittmann G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is generally believed that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is expressed exclusively by neurons in the adult rodent brain. Unbeknownst to most researchers, however, Pomc in situ hybridization studies in the rat show specific labeling in the ventral wall of the hypothalamic third ventricle, which is formed by specialized ependymal cells, called tanycytes. Here we characterized this non-neuronal POMC expression in detail using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, and report two unique characteristics. First, POMC mRNA and precursor protein expression in non-neuronal cells varies to a great degree as to the extent and abundance of expression. In brains with low-level expression, POMC mRNA and protein was largely confined to a population of tanycytes within the infundibular stalk/caudal median eminence, termed here γ tanycytes, and a subset of closely located β and α2 tanycytes. In brains with high-level expression, POMC mRNA and protein was observed in the vast majority of α2, β, and γ tanycytes. This variability was observed in both adult males and females; of 41 rats between 8 and 15 weeks of age, 17 had low-, 9 intermediate-, and 15 high-level POMC expression in tanycytes. Second, unlike other known POMC-expressing cells, tanycytes rarely contained detectable levels of adrenocorticotropin or α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The results indicate either a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern whereby low and high POMC syntheses in tanycytes occur periodically in each brain, or marked interindividual differences that may persist throughout adulthood. Future studies are required to examine these possibilities and elucidate the physiologic importance of POMC in tanycytes. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:411-441, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Quantitative analyses of cellularity and proliferative activity reveals the dynamics of the central canal lining during postnatal development of the rat.

  • Alexovič Matiašová A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

According to previous opinion, the derivation of neurons and glia from the central canal (CC) lining of the spinal cord in rodents should occur in the embryonic period. Reports of the mitotic activity observed in the lining during postnatal development have often been contradictory, and proliferation was ascribed to the generation of ependymocytes, which are necessary for the elongation of CC walls. Our study quantifies the intensity of proliferation and determines the cellularity of the CC lining in reference to lumbar spinal segment L4 during the postnatal development of rats. The presence of dividing cells peaks in the CC lining on postnatal day 8 (P8), with division occurring in 19.2% ± 3.2% of cells. In adult rats, 3.6% ± 0.9% of cells still proliferate, whereas, in mice, 10.3% ± 2.3% of cells at P8 and only 0.6% ± 0.2% of cells in the CC lining in adulthood are proliferating. In the rat, the length of the cell cycle increases from 100.3 ± 35.7 hours at P1 to 401.4 ± 80.6 hours at P43, with a sudden extension between P15 and P22. Despite the intensive proliferation, the total cellularity of the CC lining at the L4 spinal segment significantly descended in from P8 to P15. According to our calculations, the estimated cellularity was significantly higher compared with the measured cellularity of the CC lining at P15. Our results indicate that CC lining serves as a source of cells beyond ependymal cells during the first postnatal weeks of the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:693-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY008120(United States)

A Neural Circuit for Auditory Dominance over Visual Perception.

  • Song YH
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

When conflicts occur during integration of visual and auditory information, one modality often dominates the other, but the underlying neural circuit mechanism remains unclear. Using auditory-visual discrimination tasks for head-fixed mice, we found that audition dominates vision in a process mediated by interaction between inputs from the primary visual (VC) and auditory (AC) cortices in the posterior parietal cortex (PTLp). Co-activation of the VC and AC suppresses VC-induced PTLp responses, leaving AC-induced responses. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the PTLp mainly receive AC inputs, and muscimol inactivation of the PTLp or optogenetic inhibition of its PV+ neurons abolishes auditory dominance in the resolution of cross-modal sensory conflicts without affecting either sensory perception. Conversely, optogenetic activation of PV+ neurons in the PTLp enhances the auditory dominance. Thus, our results demonstrate that AC input-specific feedforward inhibition of VC inputs in the PTLp is responsible for the auditory dominance during cross-modal integration.

Isoform-specific subcellular localization and function of protein kinase A identified by mosaic imaging of mouse brain.

  • Ilouz R
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in neuronal function that are mediated by different regulatory (R) subunits. Deficiency in either the RIβ or the RIIβ subunit results in distinct neuronal phenotypes. Although RIβ contributes to synaptic plasticity, it is the least studied isoform. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we generated high-resolution large-scale immunohistochemical mosaic images of mouse brain that provided global views of several brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebellum. The isoforms concentrate in discrete brain regions, and we were able to zoom-in to show distinct patterns of subcellular localization. RIβ is enriched in dendrites and co-localizes with MAP2, whereas RIIβ is concentrated in axons. Using correlated light and electron microscopy, we confirmed the mitochondrial and nuclear localization of RIβ in cultured neurons. To show the functional significance of nuclear localization, we demonstrated that downregulation of RIβ, but not of RIIβ, decreased CREB phosphorylation. Our study reveals how PKA isoform specificity is defined by precise localization.

Neonatal disease environment limits the efficacy of retinal transplantation in the LCA8 mouse model.

  • Cho SH
  • BMC Ophthalmol
  • 2016 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Mutations of Crb1 gene cause irreversible and incurable visual impairment in humans. This study aims to use an LCA8-like mouse model to identify host-mediated responses that might interfere with survival, retinal integration and differentiation of grafted cells during neonatal cell therapy. METHODS: Mixed retinal donor cells (1 ~ 2 × 104) isolated from neural retinas of neonatal eGFP transgenic mice were injected into the subretinal space of LCA8-like model neonatal mice. Markers of specific cell types were used to analyze microglial attraction, CSPG induction and retinal cell differentiation. The positions of host retinal cells were traced according to their laminar location during disease progression to look for host cell rearrangements that might inhibit retinal integration of the transplanted cells. RESULTS: Transplanted retinal cells showed poor survival and attracted microglial cells, but CSPG was not greatly induced. Retinas of the LCA8 model hosts underwent significant cellular rearrangement, including rosette formation and apical displacement of inner retinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Local disease environment, particularly host immune responses to injected cells and formation of a physical barrier caused by apical migration of host retinal cells upon disruption of outer limiting membrane, may impose two major barriers in LCAs cell transplantation therapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)

Olfactory Sensory Activity Modulates Microglial-Neuronal Interactions during Dopaminergic Cell Loss in the Olfactory Bulb.

  • Grier BD
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2016 Jul 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) displays robust activity-dependent plasticity throughout life. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the glomerular layer (GL) of the OB are particularly plastic, with loss of sensory input rapidly reducing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine production, followed by a substantial reduction in DA neuron number. Here, we asked whether microglia participate in activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons in the mouse OB. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in the number of both DA neurons and their synapses in the OB ipsilateral to the occluded naris (occluded OB) within just 7 days of sensory deprivation. Concomitantly, the volume of the occluded OB decreased, resulting in an increase in microglial density. Microglia in the occluded OB also adopted morphologies consistent with activation. Using in vivo 2-photon imaging and histological analysis we then showed that loss of olfactory input markedly altered microglial-neuronal interactions during the time that DA neurons are being eliminated: both microglial process motility and the frequency of wrapping of DA neuron somata by activated microglia increased significantly in the occluded OB. Furthermore, we found microglia in the occluded OB that had completely engulfed components of DA neurons. Together, our data provide evidence that loss of olfactory input modulates microglial-DA neuron interactions in the OB, thereby suggesting an important role for microglia in the activity-dependent elimination of DA neurons and their synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA037741(United States)

Coexpression of auxiliary subunits KChIP and DPPL in potassium channel Kv4-positive nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

  • Cheng CF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the somata of nociceptors and spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons, which sense and modulate pain, respectively. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. Accumulative evidence suggests that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits and two types of auxiliary subunits: K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). Previous reports have shown Kv4.3 in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and Kv4.2/Kv4.3 in certain spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons. However, whether and which KChIP and DPPL are coexpressed with Kv4 in these ISA -expressing pain-related neurons is unknown. In this study we mapped the protein distribution of KChIP1, KChIP2, KChIP3, DPP6, and DPP10 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. In the DRG, we found colocalization of KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP10 in the somatic surface and cytoplasm of Kv4.3(+) nociceptors. KChIP3 appears in most Aβ and Aδ sensory neurons as well as a small population of peptidergic nociceptors, whereas DPP6 is absent in sensory neurons. In the spinal cord, KChIP1 is coexpressed with Kv4.3 in the cell bodies of a subset of lamina II excitatory interneurons, while KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP6 are colocalized with Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in their dendrites. Within the dorsal horn, besides KChIP3 in the inner lamina II and lamina III, we detected DPP10 in most projection neurons, which transmit pain signal to brain. The results suggest the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complexes in ISA -expressing nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30NS048154(United States)
  • PHS HHS - T32 016434-33(United States)

Immunohistochemical localization of DPP10 in rat brain supports the existence of a Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in neurons.

  • Wang WC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the cell bodies of hippocampal and neocortical interneurons as well as neocortical pyramidal neurons. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. It has been proposed that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits, K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). However, colocalization evidence was still lacking. The distribution of DPP10 mRNA in rodent brain has been reported but its protein localization remains unknown. In this study, we generated a DPP10 antibody to label DPP10 protein in adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. Absent from glia, DPP10 proteins appear mainly in the cell bodies of DPP10(+) neurons, not only at the plasma membrane but also in the cytoplasm. At least 6.4% of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus coexpressed Kv4.3, KChIP1, and DPP10, with the highest density in the CA1 strata alveus/oriens/pyramidale and the dentate hilus. Colocalization of Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10 was also detected in at least 6.9% of inhibitory interneurons scattered throughout the neocortex. Both hippocampal and neocortical Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10(+) inhibitory interneurons expressed parvalbumin or somatostatin, but not calbindin or calretinin. Furthermore, we found colocalization of Kv4.2/Kv4.3/KChIP3/DPP10 in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons and olfactory bulb mitral cells. Together, although DPP10 is also expressed in some brain neurons lacking Kv4 (such as parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive Golgi cells in the cerebellum), colocalization of DPP10 with Kv4 and KChIP at the plasma membrane of ISA -expressing neuron somata supports the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in vivo.

HDAC1 and HDAC2 control the specification of neural crest cells into peripheral glia.

  • Jacob C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), originate from multipotent neural crest cells that also give rise to other cells, including neurons, melanocytes, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The transcription factor Sox10 is required for peripheral glia specification. However, all neural crest cells express Sox10 and the mechanisms directing neural crest cells into a specific lineage are poorly understood. We show here that histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) are essential for the specification of neural crest cells into Schwann cell precursors and satellite glia, which express the early determinants of their lineage myelin protein zero (P0) and/or fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7). In neural crest cells, HDAC1/2 induced expression of the transcription factor Pax3 by binding and activating the Pax3 promoter. In turn, Pax3 was required to maintain high Sox10 levels and to trigger expression of Fabp7. In addition, HDAC1/2 were bound to the P0 promoter and activated P0 transcription. Consistently, in vivo genetic deletion of HDAC1/2 in mouse neural crest cells led to strongly decreased Sox10 expression, no detectable Pax3, virtually no satellite glia, and no Schwann cell precursors in dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves. Similarly, in vivo ablation of Pax3 in the mouse neural crest resulted in strongly reduced expression of Sox10 and Fabp7. Therefore, by controlling the expression of Pax3 and the concerted action of Pax3 and Sox10 on their target genes, HDAC1/2 direct the specification of neural crest cells into peripheral glia.