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Cy3-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) (min X Bov,Ck,Gt,GP,Sy Hms,Hrs,Hu,Ms,Rat,Shp Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_2307443

Antibody ID

AB_2307443

Target Antigen

IgG (H+L) rabbit

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 711-165-152, RRID:AB_2307443)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product.

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Cat Num

711-165-152

Publications that use this research resource

Control of Feeding Behavior by Cerebral Ventricular Volume Transmission of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone.

  • Noble EE
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Classical mechanisms through which brain-derived molecules influence behavior include neuronal synaptic communication and neuroendocrine signaling. Here we provide evidence for an alternative neural communication mechanism that is relevant for food intake control involving cerebroventricular volume transmission of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Results reveal that the cerebral ventricles receive input from approximately one-third of MCH-producing neurons. Moreover, MCH cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels increase prior to nocturnal feeding and following chemogenetic activation of MCH-producing neurons. Utilizing a dual viral vector approach, additional results reveal that selective activation of putative CSF-projecting MCH neurons increases food intake. In contrast, food intake was reduced following immunosequestration of MCH endogenously present in CSF, indicating that neuropeptide transmission through the cerebral ventricles is a physiologically relevant signaling pathway for energy balance control. Collectively these results suggest that neural-CSF volume transmission signaling may be a common neurobiological mechanism for the control of fundamental behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P50HL084936(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK107333()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK111158()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083452()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK104897()

Generation of six multiple sclerosis patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines.

  • Miquel-Serra L
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to gliosis, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal death. The MS disease aetiology is unknown, though a polymorphism of the TNFRSF1A gene, rs1800693, is known to confer an increased risk for MS. Using retroviral delivery of reprogramming transgenes, we generated six MS patient-specific iPSC lines with two distinct genotypes, CC or TT, of the polymorphism rs1800693. iPSC lines had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency genes and differentiated into the three germ layers. These lines offer a good tool to study MS pathomechanisms and for drug testing.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK075386(United States)

Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Dynamic Early Embryonic-like Programs during Chemical Reprogramming.

  • Zhao T
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemical reprogramming provides a powerful platform for exploring the molecular dynamics that lead to pluripotency. Although previous studies have uncovered an intermediate extraembryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state during this process, the molecular underpinnings of pluripotency acquisition remain largely undefined. Here, we profile 36,199 single-cell transcriptomes at multiple time points throughout a highly efficient chemical reprogramming system using RNA-sequencing and reconstruct their progression trajectories. Through identifying sequential molecular events, we reveal that the dynamic early embryonic-like programs are key aspects of successful reprogramming from XEN-like state to pluripotency, including the concomitant transcriptomic signatures of two-cell (2C) embryonic-like and early pluripotency programs and the epigenetic signature of notable genome-wide DNA demethylation. Moreover, via enhancing the 2C-like program by fine-tuning chemical treatment, the reprogramming process is remarkably accelerated. Collectively, our findings offer a high-resolution dissection of cell fate dynamics during chemical reprogramming and shed light on mechanistic insights into the nature of induced pluripotency.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AI000758-15(United States)

Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger a Druggable Target to Promote β-Cell Proliferation and Function.

  • Papin J
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2018 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An important feature of type 2 diabetes is a decrease in β-cell mass. Therefore, it is essential to find new approaches to stimulate β-cell proliferation. We have previously shown that heterozygous inactivation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (isoform 1; NCX1), a protein responsible for Ca2+ extrusion from cells, increases β-cell proliferation, mass, and function in mice. Here, we show that Ncx1 inactivation also increases β-cell proliferation in 2-year-old mice and that NCX1 inhibition in adult mice by four small molecules of the benzoxyphenyl family stimulates β-cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. NCX1 inhibition by small interfering RNA or small molecules activates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway and inhibits apoptosis induced by the immunosuppressors cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus in insulin-producing cell. Moreover, NCX1 inhibition increases the expression of β-cell-specific genes, such as Ins1, Ins2, and Pdx1, and inactivates/downregulates the tumor suppressors retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and miR-193a and the cell cycle inhibitor p53. Our data show that Na+/Ca2+ exchange is a druggable target to stimulate β-cell function and proliferation. Specific β-cell inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchange by phenoxybenzamyl derivatives may represent an innovative approach to promote β-cell regeneration in diabetes and improve the efficiency of pancreatic islet transplantation for the treatment of the disease.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 102696HABER(United Kingdom)

Gut vagal sensory signaling regulates hippocampus function through multi-order pathways.

  • Suarez AN
  • Nat Commun
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers. To determine the neural pathways connecting the gut to the HPC, we utilize monosynaptic and multisynaptic virus-based tracing methods to identify the medial septum as a relay connecting the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (where GI vagal afferents synapse) to dorsal HPC glutamatergic neurons. We conclude that endogenous GI-derived vagal sensory signaling promotes HPC-dependent memory function via a multi-order brainstem-septal pathway, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut-brain axis in memory control.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA176130(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K99 DK094871()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R00 DK094871()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK104897()

Neurotransmitter diversity in pre-synaptic terminals located in the parvicellular neuroendocrine paraventricular nucleus of the rat and mouse hypothalamus.

  • Johnson CS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons. Here we use immunohistochemistry with high-resolution 3-dimensional image analyses to examine the arrangement of single- and co-occurring GABA, glutamate, and catecholamine markers in synaptophysin-defined pre-synaptic terminals in the PVHmpd of unstressed rats and Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 transgenic mice: respectively, vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase (PNMT). Just over half of all PVHmpd pre-synaptic terminals contain VGAT, with slightly less containing VGluT2. The vast majority of terminal appositions with mouse CRH neurons occur non-somatically. However, there are significantly more somatic VGAT than VGluT2 appositions. In the rat PVHmpd, about five times as many pre-synaptic terminals contain PNMT than DBH only. However, because epinephrine release has never been detected in the PVH, PNMT terminals may functionally be noradrenergic not adrenergic. PNMT and VGluT2 co-occur in some pre-synaptic terminals indicating the potential for co-transmission of glutamate and norepinephrine. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for how GABA/glutamate/catecholamine interactions enable adrenocortical responses to fast-onset interosensory stimuli, and more broadly, how combinations of PVH neurotransmitters and neuromodulators interact dynamically to control adrenocortical activity.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS029728()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS048843(United States)

Ablation of the presynaptic organizer Bassoon in excitatory neurons retards dentate gyrus maturation and enhances learning performance.

  • Annamneedi A
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bassoon is a large scaffolding protein of the presynaptic active zone involved in the development of presynaptic terminals and in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at both excitatory and inhibitory brain synapses. Mice with constitutive ablation of the Bassoon (Bsn) gene display impaired presynaptic function, show sensory deficits and develop severe seizures. To specifically study the role of Bassoon at excitatory forebrain synapses and its relevance for control of behavior, we generated conditional knockout (Bsn cKO) mice by gene ablation through an Emx1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. In these animals, we confirm selective loss of Bassoon from glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. Behavioral assessment revealed that, in comparison to wild-type littermates, Bsn cKO mice display selectively enhanced contextual fear memory and increased novelty preference in a spatial discrimination/pattern separation task. These changes are accompanied by an augmentation of baseline synaptic transmission at medial perforant path to dentate gyrus (DG) synapses, as indicated by increased ratios of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope to fiber volley amplitude. At the structural level, an increased complexity of apical dendrites of DG granule cells can be detected in Bsn cKO mice. In addition, alterations in the expression of cellular maturation markers and a lack of age-dependent decrease in excitability between juvenile and adult Bsn cKO mice are observed. Our data suggest that expression of Bassoon in excitatory forebrain neurons is required for the normal maturation of the DG and important for spatial and contextual memory.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project A06()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B05()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B09()
  • Leibniz-Gemeinschaft - LGS SynaptoGenetics()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - S06 GM061223-05A1(United States)

TLQP Peptides in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Possible Blood Biomarkers with a Neuroprotective Role.

  • Brancia C
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the VGF-derived TLQP peptides have been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis, and to act on synaptic strengthening, their involvement in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) remains unclarified. We studied human ALS patients' plasma (taken at early to late disease stages) and primary fibroblast cultures (patients vs controls), in parallel with SOD1-G93A transgenic mice (taken at pre-, early- and late symptomatic stages) and the mouse motor neuron cell line (NSC-34) treated with Sodium Arsenite (SA) to induce oxidative stress. TLQP peptides were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in parallel with gel chromatography characterization, while their localization was studied by immunohistochemistry. In controls, TLQP peptides, including forms compatible with TLQP-21 and 62, were revealed in plasma and spinal cord motor neurons, as well as in fibroblasts and NSC-34 cells. TLQP peptides were reduced in ALS patients' plasma starting in the early disease stage (14% of controls) and remaining so at the late stage (16% of controls). In mice, a comparable pattern of reduction was shown (vs wild type), in both plasma and spinal cord already in the pre-symptomatic phase (about 26% and 70%, respectively). Similarly, the levels of TLQP peptides were reduced in ALS fibroblasts (31% of controls) and in the NSC-34 treated with Sodium Arsenite (53% of decrease), however, the exogeneous TLQP-21 improved cell viability (SA-treated cells with TLQP-21, vs SA-treated cells only: about 83% vs. 75%). Hence, TLQP peptides, reduced upon oxidative stress, are suggested as blood biomarkers, while TLQP-21 exerts a neuroprotective activity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA094160(United States)

Detecting proliferation of adult hemocytes in Drosophila by BrdU incorporation.

  • Ghosh S
  • Wellcome Open Res
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drosophila and mammalian hematopoiesis share several similarities that ranges from phases to the battery of transcription factors and signaling molecules that execute this process. These resounding similarities along with the rich genetic tools available in fruitfly makes it a popular invertebrate model to study blood cell development both during normal and aberrant conditions. The larval system is the most extensively studied to date. Several studies have shown that these hemocytes just like mammalian counterpart proliferate and get routinely regenerated upon infection. However, employing the same protocol it was concluded that blood cell proliferation although abundant in larval stages is absent in adult fruitfly. The current protocol describes the strategies that can be employed to document the hemocyte proliferation in adulthood. The fact that a subset of blood cells tucked away in the hematopoietic hub are not locked in senescence, rather they still harbour the proliferative capacity to tide over challenges was successfully demonstrated by this method.  Although we have adopted bacterial infection as a bait to evoke this proliferative capacity of the hemocytes, we envision that it can also efficiently characterize the proliferative responses of hemocytes in tumorigenic conditions as well as scenarios of environmental and metabolic stresses during adulthood.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I000852/1(United Kingdom)

Identification of a Rhythmic Firing Pattern in the Enteric Nervous System That Generates Rhythmic Electrical Activity in Smooth Muscle.

  • Spencer NJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The enteric nervous system (ENS) contains millions of neurons essential for organization of motor behavior of the intestine. It is well established that the large intestine requires ENS activity to drive propulsive motor behaviors. However, the firing pattern of the ENS underlying propagating neurogenic contractions of the large intestine remains unknown. To identify this, we used high-resolution neuronal imaging with electrophysiology from neighboring smooth muscle. Myoelectric activity underlying propagating neurogenic contractions along murine large intestine [also referred to as colonic migrating motor complexes, (CMMCs)] consisted of prolonged bursts of rhythmic depolarizations at a frequency of ∼2 Hz. Temporal coordination of this activity in the smooth muscle over large spatial fields (∼7 mm, longitudinally) was dependent on the ENS. During quiescent periods between neurogenic contractions, recordings from large populations of enteric neurons, in mice of either sex, revealed ongoing activity. The onset of neurogenic contractions was characterized by the emergence of temporally synchronized activity across large populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. This neuronal firing pattern was rhythmic and temporally synchronized across large numbers of ganglia at ∼2 Hz. ENS activation preceded smooth muscle depolarization, indicating rhythmic depolarizations in smooth muscle were controlled by firing of enteric neurons. The cyclical emergence of temporally coordinated firing of large populations of enteric neurons represents a unique neural motor pattern outside the CNS. This is the first direct observation of rhythmic firing in the ENS underlying rhythmic electrical depolarizations in smooth muscle. The pattern of neuronal activity we identified underlies the generation of CMMCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the enteric nervous system (ENS) generates neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been a long-standing mystery in vertebrates. It is well known that myogenic pacemaker cells exist in the GI tract [called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs)] that generate rhythmic myogenic contractions. However, the mechanisms underlying the generation of rhythmic neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the GI tract remains unknown. We developed a high-resolution neuronal imaging method with electrophysiology to address this issue. This technique revealed a novel pattern of rhythmic coordinated neuronal firing in the ENS that has never been identified. Rhythmic neuronal firing in the ENS was found to generate rhythmic neurogenic depolarizations in smooth muscle that underlie contraction of the GI tract.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD21244(United States)

Postnatal Exocrine Pancreas Growth by Cellular Hypertrophy Correlates with a Shorter Lifespan in Mammals.

  • Anzi S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Developmental processes in different mammals are thought to share fundamental cellular mechanisms. We report a dramatic increase in cell size during postnatal pancreas development in rodents, accounting for much of the increase in organ size after birth. Hypertrophy of pancreatic acinar cells involves both higher ploidy and increased biosynthesis per genome copy; is maximal adjacent to islets, suggesting endocrine to exocrine communication; and is partly driven by weaning-related processes. In contrast to the situation in rodents, pancreas cell size in humans remains stable postnatally, indicating organ growth by pure hyperplasia. Pancreatic acinar cell volume varies 9-fold among 24 mammalian species analyzed, and shows a striking inverse correlation with organismal lifespan. We hypothesize that cellular hypertrophy is a strategy for rapid postnatal tissue growth, entailing life-long detrimental effects.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - 2U01HL066947(United States)

Dual Requirement of CHD8 for Chromatin Landscape Establishment and Histone Methyltransferase Recruitment to Promote CNS Myelination and Repair.

  • Zhao C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Disruptive mutations in chromatin remodeler CHD8 cause autism spectrum disorders, exhibiting widespread white matter abnormalities; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show that cell-type specific Chd8 deletion in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in neurons, results in myelination defects, revealing a cell-intrinsic dependence on CHD8 for oligodendrocyte lineage development, myelination and post-injury remyelination. CHD8 activates expression of BRG1-associated SWI/SNF complexes that in turn activate CHD7, thus initiating a successive chromatin remodeling cascade that orchestrates oligodendrocyte lineage progression. Genomic occupancy analyses reveal that CHD8 establishes an accessible chromatin landscape, and recruits MLL/KMT2 histone methyltransferase complexes distinctively around proximal promoters to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Inhibition of histone demethylase activity partially rescues myelination defects of CHD8-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that CHD8 exhibits a dual function through inducing a cascade of chromatin reprogramming and recruiting H3K4 histone methyltransferases to establish oligodendrocyte identity, suggesting potential strategies of therapeutic intervention for CHD8-associated white matter defects.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH087592(United States)

The homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a direct target of SoxC proteins during developmental vertebrate neurogenesis.

  • Jacob A
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The high-mobility-group-domain containing SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are expressed and required in the vertebrate central nervous system in neuronal precursors and neuroblasts. To identify genes that are widely regulated by SoxC proteins during vertebrate neurogenesis we generated expression profiles from developing mouse brain and chicken neural tube with reduced SoxC expression and found the transcription factor Prox1 strongly downregulated under both conditions. This led us to hypothesize that Prox1 expression depends on SoxC proteins in the developing central nervous system of mouse and chicken. By combining luciferase reporter assays and overexpression in the chicken neural tube with in vivo and in vitro binding studies, we identify the Prox1 gene promoter and two upstream enhancers at -44 kb and -40 kb relative to the transcription start as regulatory regions that are bound and activated by SoxC proteins. This argues that Prox1 is a direct target gene of SoxC proteins during neurogenesis. Electroporations in the chicken neural tube furthermore show that Prox1 activates a subset of SoxC target genes, whereas it has no effects on others. We propose that the transcriptional control of Prox1 by SoxC proteins may ensure coupling of two types of transcription factors that are both required during early neurogenesis, but have at least in part distinct functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024615(United States)

Differential inputs to striatal cholinergic and parvalbumin interneurons imply functional distinctions.

  • Klug JR
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified. Additionally, the external segment of the globus pallidus targets striatal ChAT interneurons, which is sufficient to inhibit tonic ChAT interneuron firing. Finally, we describe a novel excitatory pathway from the pedunculopontine nucleus that innervates ChAT interneurons. These results establish the brain-wide direct inputs of two major types of striatal interneurons and allude to distinct roles in regulating striatal activity and controlling behavior.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01AG047669()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01NS083815()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL073085-08(United States)

A Novel Role for Lymphotactin (XCL1) Signaling in the Nervous System: XCL1 Acts via its Receptor XCR1 to Increase Trigeminal Neuronal Excitability.

  • Bird EV
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemokines are known to have a role in the nervous system, influencing a range of processes including the development of chronic pain. To date there are very few studies describing the functions of the chemokine lymphotactin (XCL1) or its receptor (XCR1) in the nervous system. We investigated the role of the XCL1-XCR1 axis in nociceptive processing, using a combination of immunohistochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological techniques. Expression of XCR1 in the rat mental nerve was elevated 3 days following chronic constriction injury (CCI), compared with 11 days post-CCI and sham controls. XCR1 co-existed with neuronal marker PGP9.5, leukocyte common antigen CD45 and Schwann cell marker S-100. In the trigeminal root and white matter of the brainstem, XCR1-positive cells co-expressed the oligodendrocyte marker Olig2. In trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), XCR1 immunoreactivity was present in the outer laminae and was colocalized with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or isolectin B4 (IB4). Incubation of brainstem slices with XCL1 induced activation of c-Fos, ERK and p38 in the superficial layers of Vc, and enhanced levels of intrinsic excitability. These effects were blocked by the XCR1 antagonist viral CC chemokine macrophage inhibitory protein-II (vMIP-II). This study has identified for the first time a role for XCL1-XCR1 in nociceptive processing, demonstrating upregulation of XCR1 at nerve injury sites and identifying XCL1 as a modulator of central excitability and signaling via XCR1 in Vc, a key area for modulation of orofacial pain, thus indicating XCR1 as a potential target for novel analgesics.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 87834(United Kingdom)

Mechanical Strain Determines Cilia Length, Motility, and Planar Position in the Left-Right Organizer.

  • Chien YH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Xenopus left-right organizer (LRO) breaks symmetry along the left-right axis of the early embryo by producing and sensing directed ciliary flow as a patterning cue. To carry out this process, the LRO contains different ciliated cell types that vary in cilia length, whether they are motile or sensory, and how they position their cilia along the anterior-posterior (A-P) planar axis. Here, we show that these different cilia features are specified in the prospective LRO during gastrulation, based on anisotropic mechanical strain that is oriented along the A-P axis, and graded in levels along the medial-lateral axis. Strain instructs ciliated cell differentiation by acting on a mesodermal prepattern present at blastula stages, involving foxj1. We propose that differential strain is a graded, developmental cue, linking the establishment of an A-P planar axis to cilia length, motility, and planar location during formation of the Xenopus LRO.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01-DK071044(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD092215()

TRPV4 Channel Signaling in Macrophages Promotes Gastrointestinal Motility via Direct Effects on Smooth Muscle Cells.

  • Luo J
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intestinal macrophages are critical for gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis, but our understanding of their role in regulating intestinal motility is incomplete. Here, we report that CX3C chemokine receptor 1-expressing muscularis macrophages (MMs) were required to maintain normal GI motility. MMs expressed the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel, which senses thermal, mechanical, and chemical cues. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 or conditional deletion of TRPV4 from macrophages decreased intestinal motility and was sufficient to reverse the GI hypermotility that is associated with chemotherapy treatment. Mechanistically, stimulation of MMs via TRPV4 promoted the release of prostaglandin E2 and elicited colon contraction in a paracrine manner via prostaglandin E receptor signaling in intestinal smooth muscle cells without input from the enteric nervous system. Collectively, our data identify TRPV4-expressing MMs as an essential component required for maintaining normal GI motility and provide potential drug targets for GI motility disorders.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - K08 AR065577()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR070116()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK052574()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103901()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM101218()
  • Wellcome Trust - HD052745(United Kingdom)

Re-evaluating microglia expression profiles using RiboTag and cell isolation strategies.

  • Haimon Z
  • Nat. Immunol.
  • 2018 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcriptome profiling is widely used to infer functional states of specific cell types, as well as their responses to stimuli, to define contributions to physiology and pathophysiology. Focusing on microglia, the brain's macrophages, we report here a side-by-side comparison of classical cell-sorting-based transcriptome sequencing and the 'RiboTag' method, which avoids cell retrieval from tissue context and yields translatome sequencing information. Conventional whole-cell microglial transcriptomes were found to be significantly tainted by artifacts introduced by tissue dissociation, cargo contamination and transcripts sequestered from ribosomes. Conversely, our data highlight the added value of RiboTag profiling for assessing the lineage accuracy of Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice. Collectively, this study indicates method-based biases, reveals observer effects and establishes RiboTag-based translatome profiling as a valuable complement to standard sorting-based profiling strategies.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - EB003537(United States)

Brain Activity during Methamphetamine Anticipation in a Non-Invasive Self-Administration Paradigm in Mice.

  • Juárez-Portilla C
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability to sense time and anticipate events is critical for survival. Learned responses that allow anticipation of the availability of food or water have been intensively studied. While anticipatory behaviors also occur prior to availability of regularly available rewards, there has been relatively little work on anticipation of drugs of abuse, specifically methamphetamine (MA). In the present study, we used a protocol that avoided possible CNS effects of stresses of handling or surgery by testing anticipation of MA availability in animals living in their home cages, with daily voluntary access to the drug at a fixed time of day. Anticipation was operationalized as the amount of wheel running prior to MA availability. Mice were divided into four groups given access to either nebulized MA or water, in early or late day. Animals with access to MA, but not water controls, showed anticipatory activity, with more anticipation in early compared to late day and significant interaction effects. Next, we explored the neural basis of the MA anticipation, using c-FOS expression, in animals euthanized at the usual time of nebulization access. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the pattern of c-FOS expression paralleled that of anticipatory behavior, with significant main and interaction effects of treatment and time of day. The results for the lateral septum (LS) were significant for main effects and marginally significant for interaction effects. These studies suggest that anticipation of MA is associated with activation of brain regions important in circadian timing, emotional regulation, and decision making.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1100425(United Kingdom)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Unveiling the Role of Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase/CD73 in Astrocyte Migration by Using Pharmacological Tools.

  • Adzic M
  • Front Pharmacol
  • 2018 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies. In all the pathological contexts studied so far, the increased expression of CD73 has been associated with the altered ability of cells to adhere and/or migrate. Thus, we hypothesized that increased expression of CD73 in reactive astrocytes has a role in the process of astrocyte adhesion and migration. In the present study, the involvement of CD73 in astrocyte migration was investigated in the scratch wound assay (SW), using primary astrocyte culture prepared from neonatal rat cortex. The cultures were treated with one of the following pharmacological inhibitors which preferentially target individual functions of CD73: (a) α,β-methylene ADP (APCP), which inhibits the catalytic activity of CD73 (b) polyclonal anti-CD73 antibodies, which bind to the internal epitope of CD73 molecule and mask their surface exposure and (c) small interfering CD73-RNA (siCD73), which silences the expression of CD73 gene. It was concluded that approaches that reduce surface expression of CD73 increase migration velocity and promote wound closure in the scratch wound assay, while inhibition of the enzyme activity by APCP induces redistribution of CD73 molecules at the cell surface, thus indirectly affecting cell adhesion and migration. Application of anti-CD73 antibodies induces a decrease in CD73 activity and membrane expression, through CD73 molecules shedding and their release to the culture media. In addition, all applied pharmacological inhibitors differentially affect other aspects of astrocyte function in vitro, including reduced cell proliferation, altered expression of adenosine receptors and increased expression of ERK1/2. Altogether these data imply that CD73 participates in cell adhesion/migration and transmits extracellular signals through interactions with ECM.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - CA11867(United States)

Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

  • Liu Z
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generation of genetically uniform non-human primates may help to establish animal models for primate biology and biomedical research. In this study, we have successfully cloned cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We found that injection of H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d mRNA and treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A at one-cell stage following SCNT greatly improved blastocyst development and pregnancy rate of transplanted SCNT embryos in surrogate monkeys. For SCNT using fetal monkey fibroblasts, 6 pregnancies were confirmed in 21 surrogates and yielded 2 healthy babies. For SCNT using adult monkey cumulus cells, 22 pregnancies were confirmed in 42 surrogates and yielded 2 babies that were short-lived. In both cases, genetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear DNA and mitochondria DNA of the monkey offspring originated from the nucleus donor cell and the oocyte donor monkey, respectively. Thus, cloning macaque monkeys by SCNT is feasible using fetal fibroblasts.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR 024140(United States)

Embryonic Exposure to Dexamethasone Affects Nonneuronal Cells in the Adult Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

  • Frahm KA
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) integrate peripheral signals and coordinate responses that maintain numerous homeostatic functions. An excess of glucocorticoids during fetal development results in long-lasting consequences tied to disrupted PVN development. The PVN contains a distinct neuronal population and a threefold greater vascular density than the surrounding brain regions that prepubertally is reduced in offspring exposed to excess glucocorticoids in utero. This study expands the examination of sex-specific nonneuronal PVN composition by examining astrocytes, astrocytic endfeet, and pericytes. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) competency and composition were examined along with depressive-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in male and female mice. For PVN vasculature, female offspring of vehicle (veh)-treated mothers had significantly more astrocytes and pericytes than male offspring from the same litters. Female offspring from dexamethasone (dex)-treated mothers had significantly lower levels of astrocytes than female offspring from veh-treated mothers, whereas male offspring from dex-treated mothers had greater levels of pericytes compared with veh-treated male offspring. Using the tail-suspension test, male and female offspring from dex-treated mothers had significantly shorter latencies to immobility, indicating an increase in depression-like behavior, and showed greater plasma corticosterone after restraint stress, which was significantly greater in female offspring from dex-treated mothers even after recovery. Therefore, in addition to long-term sex differences in cellular components of the BBB in the PVN that were differentially regulated by fetal glucocorticoid exposure, there were behavioral differences observed into early adulthood in a sex-specific manner.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017381(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK105826()

Generation of human embryonic stem cell line with heterozygous RB1 deletion by CRIPSR/Cas9 nickase.

  • Tu J
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor, a member of the Retinoblastoma gene family, functions as a pocket protein for the functional binding of E2F transcription factors. About 1/3 of retinoblastoma patients harbor a germline RB1 mutation or deletion, leading to the development of retinoblastoma. Here, we demonstrate generation of a heterozygous deletion of the RB1 gene in the H1 human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9 nickase genome editing. The RB1 heterozygous knockout H1 cell line shows a normal karyotype, maintains a pluripotent state, and is capable of differentiation to the three germline layers.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA181496()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM079533(United States)

PTEN negatively regulates the cell lineage progression from NG2+ glial progenitor to oligodendrocyte via mTOR-independent signaling.

  • González-Fernández E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS. Unexpectedly, an additional deletion of mTOR did not reverse the enhanced OL development from PTEN-deficient OPCs. Instead, ablation of GSK3β, another downstream signaling molecule that is negatively regulated by PTEN-Akt, enhanced OL development. Our results suggest that PTEN persistently suppresses OL development in an mTOR-independent manner, and at least in part, via controlling GSK3β activity. OPC-targeted PTEN-GSK3β inactivation may benefit facilitated OL regeneration and myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Ellison Medical Foundation - AG-NS-1101-13()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS07693()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS089586()
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD006740(United States)
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 84298-PHI()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 85500-PHI-14()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 86600()

Synaptic activation of putative sensory neurons by hexamethonium-sensitive nerve pathways in mouse colon.

  • Hibberd TJ
  • Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gastrointestinal tract contains its own independent population of sensory neurons within the gut wall. These sensory neurons have been referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) and can be identified by immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in mice. A common feature of IPANs is a paucity of fast synaptic inputs observed during sharp microelectrode recordings. Whether this is observed using different recording techniques is of particular interest for understanding the physiology of these neurons and neural circuit modeling. Here, we imaged spontaneous and evoked activation of myenteric neurons in isolated whole preparations of mouse colon and correlated recordings with CGRP and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity, post hoc. Calcium indicator fluo 4 was used for this purpose. Calcium responses were recorded in nerve cell bodies located 5-10 mm oral to transmural electrical nerve stimuli. A total of 618 recorded neurons were classified for CGRP or NOS immunoreactivity. Aboral electrical stimulation evoked short-latency calcium transients in the majority of myenteric neurons, including ~90% of CGRP-immunoreactive Dogiel type II neurons. Activation of Dogiel type II neurons had a time course consistent with fast synaptic transmission and was always abolished by hexamethonium (300 μM) and by low-calcium Krebs solution. The nicotinic receptor agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (during synaptic blockade) directly activated Dogiel type II neurons. The present study suggests that murine colonic Dogiel type II neurons receive prominent fast excitatory synaptic inputs from hexamethonium-sensitive neural pathways. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Myenteric neurons in isolated mouse colon were recorded using calcium imaging and then neurochemically defined. Short-latency calcium transients were detected in >90% of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive neurons to electrical stimulation of hexamethonium-sensitive pathways. Putative sensory Dogiel type II calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive myenteric neurons may receive widespread fast synaptic inputs in mouse colon.

Overexpression of the Histone Dimethyltransferase G9a in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Increases Cocaine Self-Administration, Stress-Induced Reinstatement, and Anxiety.

  • Anderson EM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase G9a in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward because overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Therefore, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration (SA) and cocaine-seeking behavior. Instead, we found that G9a overexpression, and the resulting increase in histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), increases sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement and enhances motivation for cocaine in self-administering male rats. Moreover, when G9a overexpression is limited to the initial 15 d of cocaine SA training, it produces an enduring postexpression enhancement in cocaine SA and prolonged (over 5 weeks) increases in reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by foot-shock stress, but in the absence of continued global elevations in H3K9me2. The increase in stress-induced reinstatement is paralleled by heightened anxiety measures, suggesting that countering the cocaine-induced decreases in endogenous G9a with ectopic G9a overexpression leads to lasting anxiogenic effects. Finally, we found an enduring reduction in phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein levels in the NAcSh that could account for the increased anxiety. These data demonstrate a novel role for G9a in promoting comorbid cocaine addiction and anxiety and suggest that increased epigenetic repression of transcription through H3K9 during cocaine use can have long-lasting and unexpected negative consequences on behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cocaine addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is detrimental to society and currently has no effective treatments. The difficulty in treating drug addiction is compounded by the high comorbidity with other psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety disorders. Here, we demonstrate that G9a, an epigenetic repressor of gene expression, acting in the nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, is capable of increasing both addiction- and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. These findings are intriguing because repeated cocaine exposure decreases G9a in this region and thereby enhances expression of certain addiction-promoting genes. However, our results suggest that countering this cocaine-induced decrease in G9a activity actually exacerbates addiction and sensitivity to relapse under stressful situations.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI51622(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA008227()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation.

  • Toossi H
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABAARs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABAAR and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 5P01CA013106-38(United States)

Loss of Intercalated Cells (ITCs) in the Mouse Amygdala of Tshz1 Mutants Correlates with Fear, Depression, and Social Interaction Phenotypes.

  • Kuerbitz J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intercalated cells (ITCs) of the amygdala have been shown to be critical regulatory components of amygdalar circuits, which control appropriate fear responses. Despite this, the molecular processes guiding ITC development remain poorly understood. Here we establish the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 as a marker of ITCs during their migration from the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence through maturity. Using germline and conditional knock-out (cKO) mouse models, we show that Tshz1 is required for the proper migration and differentiation of ITCs. In the absence of Tshz1, migrating ITC precursors fail to settle in their stereotypical locations encapsulating the lateral amygdala and BLA. Furthermore, they display reductions in the ITC marker Foxp2 and ectopic persistence of the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence marker Sp8. Tshz1 mutant ITCs show increased cell death at postnatal time points, leading to a dramatic reduction by 3 weeks of age. In line with this, Foxp2-null mutants also show a loss of ITCs at postnatal time points, suggesting that Foxp2 may function downstream of Tshz1 in the maintenance of ITCs. Behavioral analysis of male Tshz1 cKOs revealed defects in fear extinction as well as an increase in floating during the forced swim test, indicative of a depression-like phenotype. Moreover, Tshz1 cKOs display significantly impaired social interaction (i.e., increased passivity) regardless of partner genetics. Together, these results suggest that Tshz1 plays a critical role in the development of ITCs and that fear, depression-like and social behavioral deficits arise in their absence.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show here that the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 is expressed during development of the intercalated cells (ITCs) within the mouse amygdala. These neurons have previously been shown to play a crucial role in fear extinction. Tshz1 mouse mutants exhibit severely reduced numbers of ITCs as a result of abnormal migration, differentiation, and survival of these neurons. Furthermore, the loss of ITCs in mouse Tshz1 mutants correlates well with defects in fear extinction as well as the appearance of depression-like and abnormal social interaction behaviors reminiscent of depressive disorders observed in human patients with distal 18q deletions, including the Tshz1 locus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30-CA051008-18(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM063483()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS044080()

Sonic Hedgehog Is a Remotely Produced Cue that Controls Axon Guidance Trans-axonally at a Midline Choice Point.

  • Peng J
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro, contralateral RGC axons, which secrete Shh, repel ipsilateral RGCs in a Boc- and Smo-dependent manner. Finally, knockdown of Shh in the contralateral retina causes a decrease in the proportion of ipsilateral RGCs in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These findings reveal a role for axon-axon interactions in ipsilateral RGC guidance, and they establish that remotely produced cues can act at axon guidance midline choice points.

Microbiome Influences Prenatal and Adult Microglia in a Sex-Specific Manner.

  • Thion MS
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia are embryonically seeded macrophages that contribute to brain development, homeostasis, and pathologies. It is thus essential to decipher how microglial properties are temporally regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as sexual identity and the microbiome. Here, we found that microglia undergo differentiation phases, discernable by transcriptomic signatures and chromatin accessibility landscapes, which can diverge in adult males and females. Remarkably, the absence of microbiome in germ-free mice had a time and sexually dimorphic impact both prenatally and postnatally: microglia were more profoundly perturbed in male embryos and female adults. Antibiotic treatment of adult mice triggered sexually biased microglial responses revealing both acute and long-term effects of microbiota depletion. Finally, human fetal microglia exhibited significant overlap with the murine transcriptomic signature. Our study shows that microglia respond to environmental challenges in a sex- and time-dependent manner from prenatal stages, with major implications for our understanding of microglial contributions to health and disease.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01ES009949(United States)

Tension-Dependent Stretching Activates ZO-1 to Control the Junctional Localization of Its Interactors.

  • Spadaro D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. Using structured illumination microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we show that the tight junction protein ZO-1 exists in stretched and folded conformations within epithelial cells, depending on actomyosin-generated force. We also show that ZO-1 and ZO-2 regulate the localization of the transcription factor DbpA and the tight junction membrane protein occludin in a manner that depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin-II activity, and substrate stiffness, resulting in modulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, barrier function, and cyst morphogenesis. Pull-down experiments show that interactions between N-terminal (ZPSG) and C-terminal domains of ZO-1 prevent binding of DbpA to the ZPSG, suggesting that force-dependent intra-molecular interactions regulate ZPSG binding to ligands within cells. In vivo and in vitro experiments also suggest that ZO-1 heterodimerization with ZO-2 promotes the stretched conformation and ZPSG interaction with ligands. Magnetic tweezers single-molecule experiments suggest that pN-scale tensions (∼2-4 pN) are sufficient to maintain the stretched conformation of ZO-1, while keeping its structured domains intact, and that 5-20 pN force is required to disrupt the interaction between the extreme C-terminal and the ZPSG domains of ZO-1. We propose that tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis by activating ZO proteins through stretching, to control the junctional recruitment and downstream signaling of their interactors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI090166(United States)

Lateral hypothalamic Orexin-A-ergic projections to the arcuate nucleus modulate gastric function in vivo.

  • Luan X
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been well-known that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin-A, and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), play important roles in regulation of gastric function. However, what neural pathway mediated by the two neuropeptides affects the gastric function remains unknown. In this study, by way of nucleic stimulation and extracellular recording of single unit electrophysiological properties, we found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) or microinjection of orexin-A into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) excited most gastric distension-responsive neurons in the nuclei and enhanced the gastric function including motility, emptying, and acid secretion of conscious rats. The results indicated that LH-ARC orexin-A-ergic projections may exist and the orexin-A in the ARC affected afferent and efferent signal transmission between ARC and stomach. As expected, combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry showed that some orexin-A-ergic neurons projected from the LH to the ARC. In addition, microinjection of MCH and its receptor antagonist PMC-3881-PI into the ARC affected the role of orexin-A in the ARC, indicating a possible involvement of the MCH pathway in the orexin-A role. Our findings suggest that there was an orexin-A-ergic pathway between LH and ARC which participated in transmitting information between the central nuclei and the gastrointestinal tract and in regulating the gastric function of rats.

Graded Elevation of c-Jun in Schwann Cells In Vivo: Gene Dosage Determines Effects on Development, Remyelination, Tumorigenesis, and Hypomyelination.

  • Fazal SV
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Dec 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration and promotes Schwann-cell-mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumor formation in some systems, potentially suppresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues and to determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells and examined these lines during development, in adulthood, and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting, and functional tests. Schwann cells are remarkably tolerant of elevated c-Jun because the nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, in which c-Jun is elevated ∼6-fold, are normal with the exception of modestly reduced myelin thickness. The stronger elevation of c-Jun in c-Jun OE/OE mice is, however, sufficient to induce significant hypomyelination pathology, implicating c-Jun as a potential player in demyelinating neuropathies. The tumor suppressor P19ARF is strongly activated in the nerves of these mice and, even in aged c-Jun OE/OE mice, there is no evidence of tumors. This is consistent with the fact that tumors do not form in injured nerves, although they contain proliferating Schwann cells with strikingly elevated c-Jun. Furthermore, in crushed nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, where c-Jun levels are overexpressed sufficiently to accelerate axonal regeneration, myelination and function are restored after injury.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In injured and diseased nerves, the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is elevated and variously implicated in controlling beneficial or adverse functions, including trophic Schwann cell support for neurons, promotion of regeneration, tumorigenesis, and suppression of myelination. To analyze the functions of c-Jun, we have used transgenic mice with graded elevation of Schwann cell c-Jun. We show that high c-Jun elevation is a potential pathogenic mechanism because it inhibits myelination. Conversely, we did not find a link between c-Jun elevation and tumorigenesis. Modest c-Jun elevation, which is beneficial for regeneration, is well tolerated during Schwann cell development and in the adult and is compatible with restoration of myelination and nerve function after injury.

Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

  • Kamitakahara A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a METEGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD.

Injury Induces Endogenous Reprogramming and Dedifferentiation of Neuronal Progenitors to Multipotency.

  • Lin B
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion. These results suggest that the apparent hierarchy of neuronal differentiation is not irreversible and that lineage commitment can be overridden following severe tissue injury. We elucidate a previously unappreciated pathway for endogenous tissue repair by a highly regenerative neuroepithelium and introduce a system to study the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the OE that can be adapted for other tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F30 DC013962()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014398()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014637()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC002167()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC015889()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 8 P20 GM103414-10(United States)

AKT isoforms have distinct hippocampal expression and roles in synaptic plasticity.

  • Levenga J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

AKT is a kinase regulating numerous cellular processes in the brain, and mutations in AKT are known to affect brain function. AKT is indirectly implicated in synaptic plasticity, but its direct role has not been studied. Moreover, three highly related AKT isoforms are expressed in the brain, but their individual roles are poorly understood. We find in Mus musculus, each AKT isoform has a unique expression pattern in the hippocampus, with AKT1 and AKT3 primarily in neurons but displaying local differences, while AKT2 is in astrocytes. We also find isoform-specific roles for AKT in multiple paradigms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in area CA1. AKT1, but not AKT2 or AKT3, is required for L-LTP through regulating activity-induced protein synthesis. Interestingly, AKT activity inhibits mGluR-LTD, with overlapping functions for AKT1 and AKT3. In summary, our studies identify distinct expression patterns and roles in synaptic plasticity for AKT isoforms in the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA106456(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019524()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS083277()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086933()

The Lamprey Pallium Provides a Blueprint of the Mammalian Layered Cortex.

  • Suryanarayana SM
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons. The ventral parts are sensory areas receiving monosynaptic thalamic input that can be activated from the optic nerve, whereas the dorsal parts contain motor areas with efferent projections to the brainstem, receiving oligosynaptic thalamic input. Both regions receive monosynaptic olfactory input. This three-layered "primordial" lamprey lateral pallium has evolved most features of the three-layered reptilian cortices and is thereby a precursor of the six-layered "neo" cortex with a long-standing evolutionary precedent (some 500 million years ago).

Rapid generation of Col7a1-/- mouse model of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and partial rescue via immunosuppressive dermal mesenchymal stem cells.

  • Webber BR
  • Lab. Invest.
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a debilitating and ultimately lethal blistering disease caused by mutations to the Col7a1 gene. Development of novel cell therapies for the treatment of RDEB would be fostered by having immunodeficient mouse models able to accept human cell grafts; however, immunodeficient models of many genodermatoses such as RDEB are lacking. To overcome this limitation, we combined the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system with microinjection into NOD/SCID IL2rγcnull (NSG) embryos to rapidly develop an immunodeficient Col7a1-/- mouse model of RDEB. Through dose optimization, we achieve F0 biallelic knockout efficiencies exceeding 80%, allowing us to quickly generate large numbers of RDEB NSG mice for experimental use. Using this strategy, we clearly demonstrate important strain-specific differences in RDEB pathology that could underlie discordant results observed between independent studies and establish the utility of this system in proof-of-concept human cellular transplantation experiments. Importantly, we uncover the ability of a recently identified skin resident immunomodulatory dermal mesenchymal stem cell marked by ABCB5 to reduce RDEB pathology and markedly extend the lifespan of RDEB NSG mice via reduced skin infiltration of inflammatory myeloid derivatives.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000114()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA065493()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY025794()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007062()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI079755()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059947()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR063070()
  • RRD VA - I01 RX000989()

Channel Nucleoporins Recruit PLK-1 to Nuclear Pore Complexes to Direct Nuclear Envelope Breakdown in C. elegans.

  • Martino L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD. We identify the central channel nucleoporins NPP-1/Nup58, NPP-4/Nup54, and NPP-11/Nup62 as the critical factors anchoring PLK-1 to the NE in C. elegans. In particular, NPP-1, NPP-4, and NPP-11 primed at multiple Polo-docking sites by Cdk1 and PLK-1 itself physically interact with the PLK-1 PBD. We conclude that nucleoporins play an unanticipated regulatory role in NEBD, by recruiting PLK-1 to the NE thereby facilitating phosphorylation of critical downstream targets.

Regulation of Hippocampal 5-HT Release by P2X7 Receptors in Response to Optogenetic Stimulation of Median Raphe Terminals of Mice.

  • Gölöncsér F
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Oct 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR) play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors (P2rx7) are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. P2rx7s are implicated in various neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. Here we investigated whether 5-HT release released from the hippocampal terminals of MRR is subject to modulation by P2rx7s. To achieve this goal, an optogenetic approach was used to selectively activate subpopulation of serotonergic terminals derived from the MRR locally, and one of its target area, the hippocampus. Optogenetic activation of neurons in the MRR with 20 Hz was correlated with freezing and enhanced locomotor activity of freely moving mice and elevated extracellular levels of 5-HT, glutamate but not GABA in vivo. Similar optical stimulation (OS) significantly increased [3H]5-HT and [3H]glutamate release in acute MRR and hippocampal slices. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of [3H]5-HT release and the interaction between the serotonin and glutamate systems. Whilst [3H]5-HT release from MRR neurons was [Ca2+]o-dependent and sensitive to TTX, CNQX and DL-AP-5, release from hippocampal terminals was not affected by the latter drugs. Hippocampal [3H]5-HT released by electrical but not OS was subject to modulation by 5- HT1B/D receptors agonist sumatriptan (1 μM), whereas the selective 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (0.1 μM) was without effect. [3H]5-HT released by electrical and optical stimulation was decreased in mice genetically deficient in P2rx7s, and after perfusion with selective P2rx7 antagonists, JNJ-47965567 (0.1 μM), and AZ-10606120 (0.1 μM). Optical and electrical stimulation elevated the extracellular level of ATP. Our results demonstrate for the first time the modulation of 5-HT release from hippocampal MRR terminals by the endogenous activation of P2rx7s. P2rx7 mediated modulation of 5-HT release could contribute to various physiological and pathophysiological phenomena, related to hippocampal serotonergic transmission.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 294313()

Generation of two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN).

  • Son D
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily D member 1 (ABCD1) gene. We generated two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from X-ALD patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) by Sendai virus containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Established iPSC lines expressed various pluripotency markers, had differentiation potential of three germ layers in vitro, had normal karyotype and retained ABCD1 mutation.

Migration pathways of sacral neural crest during development of lower urogenital tract innervation.

  • Wiese CB
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The migration and fate of cranial and vagal neural crest-derived progenitor cells (NCPCs) have been extensively studied; however, much less is known about sacral NCPCs particularly in regard to their distribution in the urogenital system. To construct a spatiotemporal map of NCPC migration pathways into the developing lower urinary tract, we utilized the Sox10-H2BVenus transgene to visualize NCPCs expressing Sox10. Our aim was to define the relationship of Sox10-expressing NCPCs relative to bladder innervation, smooth muscle differentiation, and vascularization through fetal development into adulthood. Sacral NCPC migration is a highly regimented, specifically timed process, with several potential regulatory mileposts. Neuronal differentiation occurs concomitantly with sacral NCPC migration, and neuronal cell bodies are present even before the pelvic ganglia coalesce. Sacral NCPCs reside within the pelvic ganglia anlagen through 13.5 days post coitum (dpc), after which they begin streaming into the bladder body in progressive waves. Smooth muscle differentiation and vascularization of the bladder initiate prior to innervation and appear to be independent processes. In adult bladder, the majority of Sox10+ cells express the glial marker S100β, consistent with Sox10 being a glial marker in other tissues. However, rare Sox10+ NCPCs are seen in close proximity to blood vessels and not all are S100β+, suggesting either glial heterogeneity or a potential nonglial role for Sox10+ cells along vasculature. Taken together, the developmental atlas of Sox10+ NCPC migration and distribution profile of these cells in adult bladder provided here will serve as a roadmap for future investigation in mouse models of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008126()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD015052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK078158()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R56 DK078158()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - RC1 DK086594()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637()

Direct Reprogramming of Fibroblasts via a Chemically Induced XEN-like State.

  • Li X
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Direct lineage reprogramming, including with small molecules, has emerged as a promising approach for generating desired cell types. We recently found that during chemical induction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts, cells pass through an extra-embryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state. Here, we show that these chemically induced XEN-like cells can also be induced to directly reprogram into functional neurons, bypassing the pluripotent state. The induced neurons possess neuron-specific expression profiles, form functional synapses in culture, and further mature after transplantation into the adult mouse brain. Using similar principles, we were also able to induce hepatocyte-like cells from the XEN-like cells. Cells in the induced XEN-like state were readily expandable over at least 20 passages and retained genome stability and lineage specification potential. Our study therefore establishes a multifunctional route for chemical lineage reprogramming and may provide a platform for generating a diverse range of cell types via application of this expandable XEN-like state.

Neurosecretory protein GL stimulates food intake, de novo lipogenesis, and onset of obesity.

  • Iwakoshi-Ukena E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake. Neutralizing antibody administration decreased the size of lipid droplets in WAT. Npgl mRNA expression was upregulated by fasting and low insulin levels. Additionally, NPGL-producing cells were responsive to insulin. These results point to NPGL as a novel neuronal regulator that drives food intake and fat deposition through de novo lipogenesis and acts to maintain steady-state fat level in concert with insulin. Dysregulation of NPGL may be a root cause of obesity.

Proximodistal Heterogeneity of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neuron Intrinsic Properties, Connectivity, and Reactivation during Memory Recall.

  • Sun Q
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hippocampal CA3 region is classically viewed as a homogeneous autoassociative network critical for associative memory and pattern completion. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a striking heterogeneity along the transverse, or proximodistal, axis of CA3 in spatial encoding and memory. Here we report the presence of striking proximodistal gradients in intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic connectivity for dorsal CA3. A decreasing gradient of mossy fiber synaptic strength along the proximodistal axis is mirrored by an increasing gradient of direct synaptic excitation from entorhinal cortex. Furthermore, we uncovered a nonuniform pattern of reactivation of fear memory traces, with the most robust reactivation during memory retrieval occurring in mid-CA3 (CA3b), the region showing the strongest net recurrent excitation. Our results suggest that heterogeneity in both intrinsic properties and synaptic connectivity may contribute to the distinct spatial encoding and behavioral role of CA3 subregions along the proximodistal axis.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104602()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106629()

Mutant Mice With Calcium-Sensing Receptor Activation Have Hyperglycemia That Is Rectified by Calcilytic Therapy.

  • Babinsky VN
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G-protein-coupled receptor that plays a pivotal role in extracellular calcium homeostasis. The CaSR is also highly expressed in pancreatic islet α- and β-cells that secrete glucagon and insulin, respectively. To determine whether the CaSR may influence systemic glucose homeostasis, we characterized a mouse model with a germline gain-of-function CaSR mutation, Leu723Gln, referred to as Nuclear flecks (Nuf). Heterozygous- (CasrNuf/+) and homozygous-affected (CasrNuf/Nuf) mice were shown to have hypocalcemia in association with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. Oral administration of a CaSR antagonist compound, known as a calcilytic, rectified the glucose intolerance and hypoinsulinemia of CasrNuf/+ mice and ameliorated glucose intolerance in CasrNuf/Nuf mice. Ex vivo studies showed CasrNuf/+ and CasrNuf/Nuf mice to have reduced pancreatic islet mass and β-cell proliferation. Electrophysiological analysis of isolated CasrNuf/Nuf islets showed CaSR activation to increase the basal electrical activity of β-cells independently of effects on the activity of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel. CasrNuf/Nuf mice also had impaired glucose-mediated suppression of glucagon secretion, which was associated with increased numbers of α-cells and a higher α-cell proliferation rate. Moreover, CasrNuf/Nuf islet electrophysiology demonstrated an impairment of α-cell membrane depolarization in association with attenuated α-cell basal KATP channel activity. These studies indicate that the CaSR activation impairs glucose tolerance by a combination of α- and β-cell defects and also influences pancreatic islet mass. Moreover, our findings highlight a potential application of targeted CaSR compounds for modulating glucose metabolism.

NO signaling in retinal bipolar cells.

  • Agurto A
  • Exp. Eye Res.
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers. DAF fluorescence was observed in all types of bipolar cells that could be identified, but the most intense DAF fluorescence was observed in bipolar cells with severed processes, supporting pathological NO signaling. Among nNOS expressing bipolar cells, type 9 was confirmed unequivocally, while types 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 7, 8 and the rod bipolar cell were devoid of this enzyme. These results establish specific bipolar cell types as NO sources in the inner retina, and support the involvement of NO signaling in physiological and pathological processes in the inner retina.

Quantitative Proteomics of Intestinal Mucosa From Male Mice Lacking Intestinal Epithelial Insulin Receptors.

  • Jensen SR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The goal of the present study was to determine whether loss of the insulin receptor alters the molecular landscape of the intestinal mucosa, using intestinal-epithelial insulin receptor knockout (IE-irKO) mice and both genetic (IRfl/fl and Villin-cre) controls. Quantitative proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was applied to jejunal and colonic mucosa from mice fed a normal chow diet and mice fed a Western diet (WD). Jejunal mucosa from IE-irKO mice demonstrated alterations in all intestinal cell lineages: Paneth, goblet, absorptive, and enteroendocrine cells. Only goblet and absorptive cells were affected in the colon. Also, a marked effect of WD consumption was found on the gut proteome. A substantial reduction was detected in Paneth cell proteins with antimicrobial activity, including lysozyme C-1, angiogenin-4, cryptdin-related sequence 1C-3 and -2, α-defensin 17, and intelectin-1a. The key protein expressed by goblet cells, mucin-2, was also reduced in the IE-irKO mice. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism, including aldose reductase-related protein 1, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, apolipoprotein A-II, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4, were increased in the mucosa of WD-fed IE-irKO mice compared with controls. In contrast, expression of the nutrient-responsive gut hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and neurotensin, was reduced in the jejunal mucosa of IE-irKO mice, and the expression of proteins of the P-type adenosine triphosphatases and the solute carrier-transporter family was reduced in the colon of WD-fed IE-irKO mice. In conclusion, IE-irKO mice display a distinct molecular phenotype, suggesting a biological role of insulin and its receptor in determining differentiated cell specificity in the intestinal epithelium.

Direct Midbrain Dopamine Input to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Accelerates Circadian Entrainment.

  • Grippo RM
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We demonstrate that D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1) signaling within the SCN is necessary for properly timed resynchronization of activity rhythms to phase-shifted light:dark cycles and that elevation of DA tone through selective activation of VTA DA neurons accelerates photoentrainment. Our findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for direct DA input to the master circadian clock and highlight the importance of an evolutionarily significant relationship between the circadian system and the neuromodulatory circuits that govern motivational behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM121937()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104450()

Life-Long Genetic and Functional Access to Neural Circuits Using Self-Inactivating Rabies Virus.

  • Ciabatti E
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural networks are emerging as the fundamental computational unit of the brain and it is becoming progressively clearer that network dysfunction is at the core of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, our ability to target specific networks for functional or genetic manipulations remains limited. Monosynaptically restricted rabies virus facilitates the anatomical investigation of neural circuits. However, the inherent cytotoxicity of the rabies largely prevents its implementation in long-term functional studies and the genetic manipulation of neural networks. To overcome this limitation, we developed a self-inactivating ΔG-rabies virus (SiR) that transcriptionally disappears from the infected neurons while leaving permanent genetic access to the traced network. SiR provides a virtually unlimited temporal window for the study of network dynamics and for the genetic and functional manipulation of neural circuits in vivo without adverse effects on neuronal physiology and circuit function.

Small Molecules for Early Endosome-Specific Patch Clamping.

  • Chen CC
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles. The two compounds act rapidly, specifically, and are readily applicable in contrast to genetic approaches or previously used compounds such as vacuolin, which enlarges EE, RE, and LE/LY. We apply this approach here to measure currents mediated by TRPML channels, in particular TRPML3, which we found to be functionally active in both EE and LE/LY in overexpressing cells as well as in endogenously expressing CD11b+ lung-tissue macrophages.

Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Control Initiation of Lymph Node Organogenesis.

  • Onder L
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically situated throughout the body at junctures of the blood vascular and lymphatic systems to direct immune responses against antigens draining from peripheral tissues. The current paradigm describes LN development as a programmed process that is governed through the interaction between mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells and hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Using cell-type-specific ablation of key molecules involved in lymphoid organogenesis, we found that initiation of LN development is dependent on LTi-cell-mediated activation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and that engagement of mesenchymal stromal cells is a succeeding event. LEC activation was mediated mainly by signaling through receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and the non-canonical NF-κB pathway and was steered by sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-dependent retention of LTi cells in the LN anlage. Finally, the finding that pharmacologically enforced interaction between LTi cells and LECs promotes ectopic LN formation underscores the central LTo function of LECs.

Dicer Deficiency Differentially Impacts Microglia of the Developing and Adult Brain.

  • Varol D
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge. After peripheral endotoxin exposure, Dicer-deficient microglia expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild-type microglia and thereby compromised hippocampal neuronal functions. In contrast, prenatal Dicer ablation resulted in spontaneous microglia activation and revealed a role for Dicer in DNA repair and preservation of genome integrity. Accordingly, Dicer deficiency rendered otherwise radio-resistant microglia sensitive to gamma irradiation. Collectively, the differential impact of the Dicer ablation on microglia of the developing and adult brain highlights the changes these cells undergo with time.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS041280(United States)

Dentate Gyrus Contributes to Retrieval as well as Encoding: Evidence from Context Fear Conditioning, Recall, and Extinction.

  • Bernier BE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dentate gyrus (DG) is widely thought to provide a teaching signal that enables hippocampal encoding of memories, but its role during retrieval is poorly understood. Some data and models suggest that DG plays no role in retrieval; others encourage the opposite conclusion. To resolve this controversy, we evaluated the effects of optogenetic inhibition of dorsal DG during context fear conditioning, recall, generalization, and extinction in male mice. We found that (1) inhibition during training impaired context fear acquisition; (2) inhibition during recall did not impair fear expression in the training context, unless mice had to distinguish between similar feared and neutral contexts; (3) inhibition increased generalization of fear to an unfamiliar context that was similar to a feared one and impaired fear expression in the conditioned context when it was similar to a neutral one; and (4) inhibition impaired fear extinction. These effects, as well as several seemingly contradictory published findings, could be reproduced by BACON (Bayesian Context Fear Algorithm), a physiologically realistic hippocampal model positing that acquisition and retrieval both involve coordinated activity in DG and CA3. Our findings thus suggest that DG contributes to retrieval and extinction, as well as to the initial establishment of context fear.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite abundant evidence that the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) plays a critical role in memory, it remains unclear whether the role of DG relates to memory acquisition or retrieval. Using contextual fear conditioning and optogenetic inhibition, we show that DG contributes to both of these processes. Using computational simulations, we identify specific mechanisms through which the suppression of DG affects memory performance. Finally, we show that DG contributes to fear extinction learning, a process in which learned fear is attenuated through exposures to a fearful context in the absence of threat. Our data resolve a long-standing question about the role of DG in memory and provide insight into how disorders affecting DG, including aging, stress, and depression, influence cognitive processes.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY026446()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F31 MH111243()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH062122()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH102595()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R03 MH111321()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH106454()

Neurosecretory Protein GL, a Hypothalamic Small Secretory Protein, Participates in Energy Homeostasis in Male Mice.

  • Matsuura D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have recently identified from the avian hypothalamus a complementary DNA encoding a small secretory protein termed neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL). In chicks, NPGL increases body weight gain without affecting food intake. A database search reveals that NPGL is conserved throughout vertebrates. However, the central distribution and functional role of NPGL remains to be elucidated in mammals. In this study, we identified the precursor complementary DNA encoding NPGL from the mouse hypothalamus. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and morphological analyses revealed that NPGL precursor messenger RNA is robustly expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus with NPGL neurons specifically localized to the lateroposterior part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. NPGL-immunoreactive fibers were observed in close anatomical contact with pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the rostral region of the arcuate nucleus. NPGL messenger RNA expression was elevated by 24-hour fasting and reduced by feeding of a high-fat diet for 5 weeks. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of mature NPGL increased food intake, pointing to an important role in feeding. Taken together, these findings report on the distribution of NPGL in the mammalian brain and point to an important role for this neuropeptide in energy homeostasis.

Synaptic distribution of individually labeled mitral cells in the external plexiform layer of the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Matsuno T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To understand output regulation of mitral cells better, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, reconstructed three dimensionally with light microscopy, and serial sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ∼200 μm from the somata), and primary dendrites. The ratio of presynaptic sites (60%) and reciprocal synapses (60% presynaptic and 80% postsynaptic sites) were similar in each region. Characteristically, primary dendrite synapses were distributed mainly within the inner half of the external plexiform layer (EPL). For comparison, tufted cells were also examined, and the synaptic distribution in two secondary dendrite regions, which corresponded with mitral cells, was analyzed. The results showed that the ratio of reciprocal synapses (80% presynaptic and 90% postsynaptic sites) was greater than in mitral cells. The distribution of symmetrical synapses was also analyzed with synaptic and neuronal markers, such as parvalbumin, vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter, and gephyrin. Parvalbumin-expressing neurons tended to form synapses on secondary dendrites near the somata and were more uniformly distributed on primary dendrites of mitral cells. These results indicate that local mitral cell synaptic circuits are formed in accordance with their functional roles and restricted to the inner half of the EPL. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1633-1648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Global Representations of Goal-Directed Behavior in Distinct Cell Types of Mouse Neocortex.

  • Allen WE
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The successful planning and execution of adaptive behaviors in mammals may require long-range coordination of neural networks throughout cerebral cortex. The neuronal implementation of signals that could orchestrate cortex-wide activity remains unclear. Here, we develop and apply methods for cortex-wide Ca2+ imaging in mice performing decision-making behavior and identify a global cortical representation of task engagement encoded in the activity dynamics of both single cells and superficial neuropil distributed across the majority of dorsal cortex. The activity of multiple molecularly defined cell types was found to reflect this representation with type-specific dynamics. Focal optogenetic inhibition tiled across cortex revealed a crucial role for frontal cortex in triggering this cortex-wide phenomenon; local inhibition of this region blocked both the cortex-wide response to task-initiating cues and the voluntary behavior. These findings reveal cell-type-specific processes in cortex for globally representing goal-directed behavior and identify a major cortical node that gates the global broadcast of task-related information.

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers Reveals Distinct Sequential Functions of Lgl1 in Neural Stem Cells.

  • Beattie R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The concerted production of neurons and glia by neural stem cells (NSCs) is essential for neural circuit assembly. In the developing cerebral cortex, radial glia progenitors (RGPs) generate nearly all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. RGP proliferation behavior shows a high degree of non-stochasticity, thus a deterministic characteristic of neuron and glia production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling RGP behavior and proliferation dynamics in neurogenesis and glia generation remain unknown. By using mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based genetic paradigms enabling the sparse and global knockout with unprecedented single-cell resolution, we identified Lgl1 as a critical regulatory component. We uncover Lgl1-dependent tissue-wide community effects required for embryonic cortical neurogenesis and novel cell-autonomous Lgl1 functions controlling RGP-mediated glia genesis and postnatal NSC behavior. These results suggest that NSC-mediated neuron and glia production is tightly regulated through the concerted interplay of sequential Lgl1-dependent global and cell intrinsic mechanisms.

Dynamic Palmitoylation Targets MAP6 to the Axon to Promote Microtubule Stabilization during Neuronal Polarization.

  • Tortosa E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.

A Brain-Region-Specific Neural Pathway Regulating Germinal Matrix Angiogenesis.

  • Ma S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development. This pathway consists of cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, an intracellular cascade including Gα co-factor Ric8a and p38 MAPK, and target gene integrin β8, which in turn regulates vascular TGF-β signaling. These findings provide insights into region-specific specialization of neurovascular communication, with special implications for deciphering potent early-life endocrine, as well as potential gut microbiota impacts on brain reward circuitry. They also identify tissue-specific molecular targets for GM hemorrhage intervention.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076729()

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Glutamate Receptors on Excitatory Cortical Neurons during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

  • Del Cid-Pellitero E
  • Front Syst Neurosci
  • 2017 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation. In parallel with changes in c-Fos reflecting changes in activity, (β2-3 subunits of) GABAA Rs were increased on the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons with enforced waking and returned to baseline levels with SR in barrel cortex on sides both contra- and ipsilateral to the whisker stimulation. The GABAAR increase was correlated with increased gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity across conditions. On the other hand, (GluA1 subunits of) AMPA Rs were progressively removed from the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons by (Rab5+) early endosomes during enforced waking and returned to the membrane by (Rab11+) recycling endosomes during SR. The internalization of the GluA1Rs paralleled the expression of Arc, which mediates homeostatic regulation of AMPA receptors through an endocytic pathway. The reciprocal changes in GluA1Rs relative to GABAARs suggest homeostatic down-scaling during enforced waking and sensory stimulation and restorative up-scaling during recovery sleep. Such homeostatic changes with sleep-wake states and their associated cortical activities could stabilize excitability and activity in excitatory cortical neurons.

Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.

  • Yang Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Notably, a single mouse EPS cell shows widespread chimeric contribution to both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in vivo and permits generating single-EPS-cell-derived mice by tetraploid complementation. Furthermore, human EPS cells exhibit interspecies chimeric competency in mouse conceptuses. Our findings constitute a first step toward capturing pluripotent stem cells with extraembryonic developmental potentials in culture and open new avenues for basic and translational research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Spatial distribution of synapses on tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing juxtaglomerular cells in the mouse olfactory glomerulus.

  • Kiyokage E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olfactory sensory axons converge in specific glomeruli where they form excitatory synapses onto dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/T) and juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, including periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and superficial-short axon cells. JG cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different neurochemical, physiological, and morphological properties. Among JG cells, previous electron microscopic (EM) studies have shown that the majority of synaptic inputs to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons were asymmetrical synapses from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals. However, recent physiological results revealed that 70% of dopaminergic/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons received polysynaptic inputs via ET cells, whereas the remaining 30% received monosynaptic ON inputs. To understand the discrepancies between EM and physiological data, we used serial EM analysis combined with confocal laser scanning microscope images to examine the spatial distribution of synapses on dendrites using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the TH promoter. The majority of synaptic inputs to TH-expressing JG cells were from ON terminals, and they preferentially targeted distal dendrites from the soma. On the other hand, the numbers of non-ON inputs were fewer and targeted proximal dendrites. Furthermore, individual TH-expressing JG cells formed serial synapses, such as M/T→TH→another presumed M/T or ON→TH→presumed M/T, but not reciprocal synapses. Serotonergic fibers also associated with somatic regions of TH neurons, displaying non-ON profiles. Thus, fewer proximal non-ON synapses provide more effective inputs than large numbers of distal ON synapses and may occur on the physiologically characterized population of dopaminergic-GABAergic neurons (70%) that receive their most effective inputs indirectly via an ON→ET→TH circuit. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1059-1074, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH066332(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS067017(United States)

An Intrinsic Epigenetic Barrier for Functional Axon Regeneration.

  • Weng YL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery. Mechanistically, peripheral nerve injury induces DNA demethylation and upregulation of multiple regeneration-associated genes in a Tet3- and thymine DNA glycosylase-dependent fashion in DRG neurons. In addition, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult CNS is attenuated upon Tet1 knockdown. Together, our study suggests an epigenetic barrier that can be removed by active DNA demethylation to permit axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007814()

Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Promotes Stem Cell Expansion Controlling Environment-Dependent Neurogenesis.

  • Dumitru I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.

p27Kip1 promotes invadopodia turnover and invasion through the regulation of the PAK1/Cortactin pathway.

  • Jeannot P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex.

  • Bifari F
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2+ neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036715(United States)

Homeostatic regulation through GABA and acetylcholine muscarinic receptors of motor trigeminal neurons following sleep deprivation.

  • Toossi H
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2017 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle tone is regulated across sleep-wake states, being maximal in waking, reduced in slow wave sleep (SWS) and absent in paradoxical or REM sleep (PS or REMS). Such changes in tone have been recorded in the masseter muscles and shown to correspond to changes in activity and polarization of the trigeminal motor 5 (Mo5) neurons. The muscle hypotonia and atonia during sleep depend in part on GABA acting upon both GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) and acetylcholine (ACh) acting upon muscarinic 2 (AChM2) Rs. Here, we examined whether Mo5 neurons undergo homeostatic regulation through changes in these inhibitory receptors following prolonged activity with enforced waking. By immunofluorescence, we assessed that the proportion of Mo5 neurons positively stained for GABAARs was significantly higher after sleep deprivation (SD, ~65%) than sleep control (SC, ~32%) and that the luminance of the GABAAR fluorescence was significantly higher after SD than SC and sleep recovery (SR). Although, all Mo5 neurons were positively stained for GABABRs and AChM2Rs (100%) in all groups, the luminance of these receptors was significantly higher following SD as compared to SC and SR. We conclude that the density of GABAA, GABAB and AChM2 receptors increases on Mo5 neurons during SD. The increase in these receptors would be associated with increased inhibition in the presence of GABA and ACh and thus a homeostatic down-scaling in the excitability of the Mo5 neurons after prolonged waking and resulting increased susceptibility to muscle hypotonia or atonia along with sleep.

Hippocampal α-Synuclein in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Contributes to Memory Impairment and Is Consistent with Spread of Pathology.

  • Adamowicz DH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC). While the EC had numerous classic somatic Lewy bodies, CA2 contained mainly Lewy neurites in presumed axon terminals, suggesting the involvement of the EC → CA2 circuitry in the pathogenesis of DLB symptoms. Clinicopathological correlations with measures of verbal and visual memory supported a role for EC Lewy pathology, but not CA2, in causing these memory deficits. Lewy pathology in CA1-the main output region for CA2-correlated best with results from memory testing despite a milder pathology. This result indicates that CA1 may be more functionally relevant than CA2 in the context of memory impairment in DLB. These correlations remained significant after controlling for several factors, including concurrent Alzheimer's pathology (neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) and the interval between time of testing and time of death. Our data suggest that although hippocampal Lewy pathology in DLB is predominant in CA2 and EC, memory performance correlates most strongly with CA1 burden.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides a detailed neuropathologic analysis of hippocampal Lewy pathology in human patients with autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies. The approach-informed by regional molecular markers, concurrent Alzheimer's pathology analysis, and relevant clinical data-helps tease out the relative contribution of Lewy pathology to memory dysfunction in the disease. Levels of Lewy pathology were found to be highest in the hippocampal CA2 subregion and entorhinal cortex, implicating a potentially overlooked circuit in disease pathogenesis. However, correlation with memory performance was strongest with CA1. This unexpected finding suggests that Lewy pathology must reach a critical burden across hippocampal circuitry to contribute to memory dysfunction beyond that related to other factors, notably coexisting Alzheimer's disease tau pathology.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005131()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG018440()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG018440()
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32 AG000216()

Role of Mitochondrial Metabolism in the Control of Early Lineage Progression and Aging Phenotypes in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

  • Beckervordersandforth R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise regulation of cellular metabolism is hypothesized to constitute a vital component of the developmental sequence underlying the life-long generation of hippocampal neurons from quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). The identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on adult neurogenesis are largely unknown. We show that the adult hippocampal neurogenic lineage is critically dependent on the mitochondrial electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation machinery at the stage of the fast proliferating intermediate progenitor cell. Perturbation of mitochondrial complex function by ablation of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) reproduces multiple hallmarks of aging in hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas pharmacological enhancement of mitochondrial function ameliorates age-associated neurogenesis defects. Together with the finding of age-associated alterations in mitochondrial function and morphology in NSCs, these data link mitochondrial complex function to efficient lineage progression of adult NSCs and identify mitochondrial function as a potential target to ameliorate neurogenesis-defects in the aging hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH105128()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS097206()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097370()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS047344()

Variable proopiomelanocortin expression in tanycytes of the adult rat hypothalamus and pituitary stalk.

  • Wittmann G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is generally believed that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is expressed exclusively by neurons in the adult rodent brain. Unbeknownst to most researchers, however, Pomc in situ hybridization studies in the rat show specific labeling in the ventral wall of the hypothalamic third ventricle, which is formed by specialized ependymal cells, called tanycytes. Here we characterized this non-neuronal POMC expression in detail using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, and report two unique characteristics. First, POMC mRNA and precursor protein expression in non-neuronal cells varies to a great degree as to the extent and abundance of expression. In brains with low-level expression, POMC mRNA and protein was largely confined to a population of tanycytes within the infundibular stalk/caudal median eminence, termed here γ tanycytes, and a subset of closely located β and α2 tanycytes. In brains with high-level expression, POMC mRNA and protein was observed in the vast majority of α2, β, and γ tanycytes. This variability was observed in both adult males and females; of 41 rats between 8 and 15 weeks of age, 17 had low-, 9 intermediate-, and 15 high-level POMC expression in tanycytes. Second, unlike other known POMC-expressing cells, tanycytes rarely contained detectable levels of adrenocorticotropin or α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The results indicate either a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern whereby low and high POMC syntheses in tanycytes occur periodically in each brain, or marked interindividual differences that may persist throughout adulthood. Future studies are required to examine these possibilities and elucidate the physiologic importance of POMC in tanycytes. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:411-441, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

FGF13 Selectively Regulates Heat Nociception by Interacting with Nav1.7.

  • Yang L
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The current knowledge about heat nociception is mainly confined to the thermosensors, including the transient receptor potential cation channel V1 expressed in the nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the loss of thermosensors only partially impairs heat nociception, suggesting the existence of undiscovered mechanisms. We found that the loss of an intracellular fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF13, in the mouse DRG neurons selectively abolished heat nociception. The noxious heat stimuli could not evoke the sustained action potential firing in FGF13-deficient DRG neurons. Furthermore, FGF13 interacted with the sodium channel Nav1.7 in a heat-facilitated manner. FGF13 increased Nav1.7 sodium currents and maintained the membrane localization of Nav1.7 during noxious heat stimulation, enabling the sustained firing of action potentials. Disrupting the FGF13/Nav1.7 interaction reduced the heat-evoked action potential firing and nociceptive behavior. Thus, beyond the thermosensors, the FGF13/Nav1.7 complex is essential for sustaining the transmission of noxious heat signals.

α3 Chains of type V collagen regulate breast tumour growth via glypican-1.

  • Huang G
  • Nat Commun
  • 2017 Jan 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pericellular α3(V) collagen can affect the functioning of cells, such as adipocytes and pancreatic β cells. Here we show that α3(V) chains are an abundant product of normal mammary gland basal cells, and that α3(V) ablation in a mouse mammary tumour model inhibits mammary tumour progression by reducing the proliferative potential of tumour cells. These effects are shown to be primarily cell autonomous, from loss of α3(V) chains normally produced by tumour cells, in which they affect growth by enhancing the ability of cell surface proteoglycan glypican-1 to act as a co-receptor for FGF2. Thus, a mechanism is presented for microenvironmental influence on tumour growth. α3(V) chains are produced in both basal-like and luminal human breast tumours, and its expression levels are tightly coupled with those of glypican-1 across breast cancer types. Evidence indicates α3(V) chains as potential targets for inhibiting tumour growth and as markers of oncogenic transformation.

The Serotonergic System Tracks the Outcomes of Actions to Mediate Short-Term Motor Learning.

  • Kawashima T
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

To execute accurate movements, animals must continuously adapt their behavior to changes in their bodies and environments. Animals can learn changes in the relationship between their locomotor commands and the resulting distance moved, then adjust command strength to achieve a desired travel distance. It is largely unknown which circuits implement this form of motor learning, or how. Using whole-brain neuronal imaging and circuit manipulations in larval zebrafish, we discovered that the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediates short-term locomotor learning. Serotonergic DRN neurons respond phasically to swim-induced visual motion, but little to motion that is not self-generated. During prolonged exposure to a given motosensory gain, persistent DRN activity emerges that stores the learned efficacy of motor commands and adapts future locomotor drive for tens of seconds. The DRN's ability to track the effectiveness of motor intent may constitute a computational building block for the broader functions of the serotonergic system. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS025044(United States)

Developmental and adult expression patterns of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR88 in the rat: Establishment of a dual nuclear-cytoplasmic localization.

  • Massart R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GPR88 is a neuronal cerebral orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. However, no extensive description of its localization has been provided so far. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal expression of the GPR88 in prenatal and postnatal rat tissues by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. GPR88 protein was initially detected at embryonic day 16 (E16) in the striatal primordium. From E16-E20 to adulthood, the highest expression levels of both protein and mRNA were observed in striatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and neocortex, whereas in spinal cord, pons, and medulla GPR88 expression remains discrete. We observed an intracellular redistribution of GPR88 during cortical lamination. In the cortical plate of the developing cortex, GPR88 presents a classical GPCR plasma membrane/cytoplasmic localization that shifts, on the day of birth, to nuclei of neurons progressively settling in layers V to II. This intranuclear localization remains throughout adulthood and was also detected in monkey and human cortex as well as in the amygdala and hypothalamus of rats. Apart from the central nervous system, GPR88 was transiently expressed at high levels in peripheral tissues, including adrenal cortex (E16-E21) and cochlear ganglia (E19-P3), and also at moderate levels in retina (E18-E19) and spleen (E21-P7). The description of the GPR88 anatomical expression pattern may provide precious functional insights into this novel receptor. Furthermore, the GRP88 nuclear localization suggests nonclassical GPCR modes of action of the protein that could be relevant for cortical development and psychiatric disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2776-2802, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dpp dependent Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to Hh dependent blood progenitors in larval lymph gland of Drosophila.

  • Dey NS
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drosophila hematopoiesis bears striking resemblance with that of vertebrates, both in the context of distinct phases and the signaling molecules. Even though, there has been no evidence of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Drosophila, the larval lymph gland with its Hedgehog dependent progenitors served as an invertebrate model of progenitor biology. Employing lineage-tracing analyses, we have now identified Notch expressing HSCs in the first instar larval lymph gland. Our studies clearly establish the hierarchical relationship between Notch expressing HSCs and the previously described Domeless expressing progenitors. These HSCs require Decapentapelagic (Dpp) signal from the hematopoietic niche for their maintenance in an identical manner to vertebrate aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) HSCs. Thus, this study not only extends the conservation across these divergent taxa, but also provides a new model that can be exploited to gain better insight into the AGM related Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY04067(United States)

Immunocytochemical heterogeneity of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons in layers II and III of the mouse cingulate cortex: A combined immunofluorescence/design-based stereologic study.

  • Riedemann T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many neurological diseases including major depression and schizophrenia manifest as dysfunction of the GABAergic system within the cingulate cortex. However, relatively little is known about the properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. Therefore, we investigated the neurochemical properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex of FVB-Tg(GadGFP)45704Swn/J mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of GABAergic interneurons (GFP-expressing inhibitory interneurons [GINs]) by means of immunocytochemical and design-based stereologic techniques. We found that GINs represent around 12% of all GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. In contrast to other neocortical areas, GINs were only found in cortical layers II and III. More than 98% of GINs coexpressed the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM), but only 50% of all SOM + neurons were GINs. By analyzing the expression of calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB), parvalbumin, and various neuropeptides, we identified several distinct GIN subgroups. In particular, we observed coexpression of SOM with CR and CB. In addition, we found neuropeptide Y expression almost exclusively in those GINs that coexpressed SOM and CR. Thus, with respect to the expression of calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides, GINs are surprisingly heterogeneous in the mouse cingulate cortex, and the minority of GINs express only one marker protein or peptide. Furthermore, our observation of overlap between the SOM + and CR + interneuron population was in contrast to earlier findings of non-overlapping SOM + and CR + interneuron populations in the human cortex. This might indicate that findings in mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases may not be directly transferred to human patients. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2281-2299, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY 15224(United States)

Melanopsin-Encoded Response Properties of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells.

  • Mure LS
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Melanopsin photopigment expressed in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) plays a crucial role in the adaptation of mammals to their ambient light environment through both image-forming and non-image-forming visual responses. The ipRGCs are structurally and functionally distinct from classical rod/cone photoreceptors and have unique properties, including single-photon response, long response latency, photon integration over time, and slow deactivation. We discovered that amino acid sequence features of melanopsin protein contribute to the functional properties of the ipRGCs. Phosphorylation of a cluster of Ser/Thr residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of melanopsin contributes to deactivation, which in turn determines response latency and threshold sensitivity of the ipRGCs. The poorly conserved region distal to the phosphorylation cluster inhibits phosphorylation's functional role, thereby constituting a unique delayed deactivation mechanism. Concerted action of both regions sustains responses to dim light, allows for the integration of light over time, and results in precise signal duration.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R37 DK027627(United States)

Astrocyte Intermediaries of Septal Cholinergic Modulation in the Hippocampus.

  • Pabst M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine, derived from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca complex, has been accorded an important role in hippocampal learning and memory processes. However, the precise mechanisms whereby acetylcholine released from septohippocampal cholinergic neurons acts to modulate hippocampal microcircuits remain unknown. Here, we show that acetylcholine release from cholinergic septohippocampal projections causes a long-lasting GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal dentate granule cells in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition is caused by cholinergic activation of hilar astrocytes, which provide glutamatergic excitation of hilar inhibitory interneurons. These results demonstrate that acetylcholine release can cause slow inhibition of principal neuronal activity via astrocyte intermediaries.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R21-HL122443(United States)

Mice lacking circadian clock components display different mood-related behaviors and do not respond uniformly to chronic lithium treatment.

  • Schnell A
  • Chronobiol. Int.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genomic studies suggest an association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder (BD) and lithium response in humans. Therefore, we tested mice mutant in various clock genes before and after lithium treatment in the forced swim test (FST), a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of depressive-like states. We find that expression of circadian clock components, including Per2, Cry1 and Rev-erbα, is affected by lithium treatment, and thus, these clock components may contribute to the beneficial effects of lithium therapy. In particular, we observed that Cry1 is important at specific times of the day to transmit lithium-mediated effects. Interestingly, the pathways involving Per2 and Cry1, which regulate the behavior in the FST and the response to lithium, are distinct as evidenced by the phosphorylation of GSK3β after lithium treatment and the modulation of dopamine levels in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed the co-existence of depressive and mania-like symptoms in Cry1 knock-out mice, which resembles the so-called mixed state seen in BD patients. Taken together our results strengthen the concept that a defective circadian timing system may impact directly or indirectly on mood-related behaviors.

A subpopulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the adult mouse forebrain is γ-Aminobutyric acidergic.

  • Zhu J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in reproductive function. GnRH is released in distinct pulses that are regulated by neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. With immunohistochemistry and GAD67-GFP knockin mice, this study shows for the first time that a subset of GnRH neurons in the forebrain of adult mouse is γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic. There is a gender difference in the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing GAD67-GFP in female vs. male mice. The percentage of GnRH neurons expressing GAD67-GFP decreased after castration of female mice and increased to the normal female level after estradiol treatment. The percentage of GnRH neurons expressing GAD67-GFP did not change significantly in intact, castrated, or castration + testosterone propionate-treated male mice. During the female estrous cycle, the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing GAD67-GFP was higher during the estrous stage than during the diestrous stage. During sexual maturation of postnatal development, GnRH neurons did not express GAD67-GFP until postnatal day (P) 15, and the gender differences were first detected at P30, which corresponds to the maturation stage. In conclusion, our data suggest that 1) a subset of GnRH neurons in mouse forebrain is GABA-ergic, 2) expression of GAD67-GFP in GnRH neurons is at least in part regulated by estrogen, and 3) GnRH neurons secrete GABA to regulate themselves.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD040128(United States)

Distribution and density of contacts from noradrenergic and serotonergic boutons on the dendrites of neck flexor motoneurons in the adult cat.

  • Maratta R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic (NA) input to spinal motoneurons is essential for generating plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Extensor motoneurons are densely innervated by 5-HT and NA synapses and have robust plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Conversely, plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges are very rare in flexor motoneurons. The most likely reasons for this difference are that flexor motoneurons have few 5-HT and NA synapses and/or they are distributed distant to the channels responsible for plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. However, the distribution of 5-HT and NA synapses on flexor motoneurons is unknown. Here we describe the distribution and density of 5-HT and NA synapses on motoneurons that innervate the flexor neck muscle, rectus capitis anterior (RCA), in the adult cat. Using a combination of intracellular staining, fluorescent immunohistochemistry, and 3D reconstruction techniques, we found that 5-HT and NA synapses are widely distributed throughout the dendritic trees of RCA motoneurons, albeit with a strong bias to small-diameter dendrites and to medial dendrites in the case of NA contacts. The number of 5-HT and NA contacts per motoneuron ranged, respectively, from 381 to 1,430 and from 642 to 1,382, which is 2.3- and 1.4-fold less than neck extensor motoneurons (Montague et al., J Comp Neurol 2013;521:638-656). These results suggest that 5-HT and NA synapses on flexor motoneurons may provide a powerful means of amplifying synaptic currents without incurring plateau potentials or self-sustained discharges. This feature is well suited to meet the biomechanical demands imposed on flexor muscles during different motor tasks.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R37 EY006837(United States)

Circadian Control of the Female Reproductive Axis Through Gated Responsiveness of the RFRP-3 System to VIP Signaling.

  • Russo KA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Throughout most of the ovulatory cycle, estrogen negative feedback restrains the GnRH neuronal system. Just before ovulation, however, estrogen negative feedback is removed to permit stimulation of the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge (positive feedback) by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3), participates in the circadian-timed removal of estrogen negative feedback to permit the LH surge. The present study examined the specific neurochemical means by which the SCN controls RFRP-3 activity and explored whether the RFRP-3 system exhibits time-dependent responsiveness to SCN signaling to precisely time the LH surge. We found that RFRP-3 cells in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) receive close appositions from SCN-derived vasopressin-ergic and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-ergic terminal fibers. Central VIP administration markedly suppressed RFRP-3 cellular activity in the evening, but not the morning, relative to saline controls, whereas vasopressin was without effect at either time point. Double-label in situ hybridization for Rfrp-3 and the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 revealed that the majority of RFRP-3 cells do not coexpress either receptor in Syrian hamsters or mice, suggesting that SCN VIP-ergic signaling inhibits RFRP-3 cells indirectly. The timing of this VIP-mediated disinhibition is further coordinated via temporally gated responsiveness of RFRP-3 cells to circadian signaling. Together, these findings reveal a novel circadian hierarchy of control coordinating the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P51 OD011133(United States)

Colocalization of allatotropin and tachykinin-related peptides with classical transmitters in physiologically distinct subtypes of olfactory local interneurons in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

  • Fusca D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the insect antennal lobe different types of local interneurons mediate complex excitatory and inhibitory interactions between the glomerular pathways to structure the spatiotemporal representation of odors. Mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical studies have shown that in local interneurons classical neurotransmitters are likely to colocalize with a variety of substances that can potentially act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. In the antennal lobe of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been identified as the potential inhibitory transmitter of spiking type I local interneurons, whereas acetylcholine is most likely the excitatory transmitter of nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons. This study used whole-cell patch clamp recordings combined with single-cell labeling and immunohistochemistry to test if the GABAergic type I local interneurons and the cholinergic type IIa1 local interneurons express allatotropin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides (TKRPs). These are two of the most abundant types of peptides in the insect antennal lobe. GABA-like and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity were used as markers for GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. About 50% of the GABA-like immunoreactive (-lir) spiking type I local interneurons were allatotropin-lir, and ∼ 40% of these neurons were TKRP-lir. About 20% of nonspiking ChAT-lir type IIa1 local interneurons were TKRP-lir. Our results suggest that in subpopulations of GABAergic and cholinergic local interneurons, allatotropin and TKRPs might act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. To unequivocally assign neurotransmitters, cotransmitters, and neuromodulators to identified classes of antennal lobe neurons is an important step to deepen our understanding of information processing in the insect olfactory system.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL107147(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK057038(United States)

Reprogramming Mouse Cells With a Pancreatic Duct Phenotype to Insulin-Producing β-Like Cells.

  • Yamada T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reprogramming technology has opened the possibility of converting one cell type into another by forced expression of transgenes. Transduction of adenoviral vectors encoding 3 pancreatic transcription factors, Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA, into mouse pancreas results in direct reprogramming of exocrine cells to insulin-producing β-like cells. We hypothesized that cultured adult pancreatic duct cells could be reprogrammed to become insulin-producing β-cells by adenoviral-mediated expression of this same combination of factors. Exocrine were isolated from adult mouse insulin 1 promoter (MIP)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to allow new insulin-expressing cells to be detected by GFP fluorescence. Cultured cells were transduced by an adenoviral vector carrying a polycistronic construct Ngn3/Pdx1/MafA/mCherry (Ad-M3C) or mCherry sequence alone as a control vector. In addition, the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4 (Ex-4) on the reprogramming process were examined. GFP(+) cells appeared 2 days after Ad-M3C transduction; the reprogramming efficiency was 8.6 ± 2.6% by day 4 after transduction. Ad-M3C also resulted in increased expression of β-cell markers insulin 1 and 2, with enhancement by Ex-4. Expression of other β-cell markers, neuroD and GLP-1 receptor, were also significantly up-regulated. The amount of insulin release into the media and insulin content of the cells were significantly higher in the Ad-M3C-transduced cells; this too was enhanced by Ex-4. The transduced cells did not secrete insulin in response to increased glucose, indicating incomplete differentiation to β-cells. Thus, cultured murine adult pancreatic cells with a duct phenotype can be directly reprogrammed to insulin-producing β-like cells by adenoviral delivery of 3 pancreatic transcription factors.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1002033(United Kingdom)

Localization of α-synuclein in teleost central nervous system: immunohistochemical and Western blot evidence by 3D5 monoclonal antibody in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

  • Vaccaro R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alpha synuclein (α-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of α-syn aggregates suggested a role for α-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate α-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian α-syn. The distribution of α-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human α-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a α-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that α-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the α-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that α-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates.

Hindbrain oxytocin receptors contribute to the effects of circulating oxytocin on food intake in male rats.

  • Ho JM
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxytocin (OT)-elicited hypophagia has been linked to neural activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Because plasma OT levels increase after a meal, we hypothesized that circulating OT acts at both peripheral and hindbrain OT receptors (OTRs) to limit food intake. To initially determine whether circulating OT inhibits food intake by acting at hindbrain OTRs, we pretreated rats with an OTR antagonist administered into the fourth ventricle (4V) followed by either central or systemic OT administration. Administration of the OTR antagonist into the 4V blocked anorexia induced by either 4V or i.p. injection of OT. However, blockade of peripheral OTRs also weakened the anorectic response to ip OT. Our data suggest a predominant role for hindbrain OTRs in the hypophagic response to peripheral OT administration. To elucidate central mechanisms of OT hypophagia, we tested whether OT activates NTS catecholaminergic neurons. OT (ip) increased the number of NTS cells expressing c-Fos, of which 10%-15% were catecholaminergic. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies in mice revealed that OT stimulated 47% (8 of 17) of NTS catecholamine neurons through a presynaptic mechanism. However, OT-elicited hypophagia did not appear to require activation of α1-adrenoceptors, and blockade of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors similarly did not attenuate anorexia induced by OT. These findings demonstrate that OT elicits satiety through both central and peripheral OTRs and that although catecholamine neurons are a downstream target of OT signaling in the NTS, the hypophagic effect is mediated independently of α1-adrenoceptor signaling.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 2 R01 NS029467-16A2(United States)

Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

  • Saitoh Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG010668(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK098468(United States)