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Somatostatin (D-20) antibody

RRID:AB_2302603

Antibody ID

AB_2302603

Target Antigen

Somatostatin (D-20) human, mouse, rat, mouse, rat, human

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-7819, RRID:AB_2302603)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: WB, IP, IF, ELISA; ELISA; Western Blot; Immunofluorescence; Immunoprecipitation

Host Organism

human

Vendor

Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Ultraconserved Enhancers Are Required for Normal Development.

  • Dickel DE
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Non-coding "ultraconserved" regions containing hundreds of consecutive bases of perfect sequence conservation across mammalian genomes can function as distant-acting enhancers. However, initial deletion studies in mice revealed that loss of such extraordinarily constrained sequences had no immediate impact on viability. Here, we show that ultraconserved enhancers are required for normal development. Focusing on some of the longest ultraconserved sites genome wide, located near the essential neuronal transcription factor Arx, we used genome editing to create an expanded series of knockout mice lacking individual or combinations of ultraconserved enhancers. Mice with single or pairwise deletions of ultraconserved enhancers were viable and fertile but in nearly all cases showed neurological or growth abnormalities, including substantial alterations of neuron populations and structural brain defects. Our results demonstrate the functional importance of ultraconserved enhancers and indicate that remarkably strong sequence conservation likely results from fitness deficits that appear subtle in a laboratory setting.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027303()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR029668()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003988()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - UM1 HG009421()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R24 HL123879()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL094274-01A2(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - UM1 HL098166()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH049428()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS034661()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS099099()

Distinct Inhibitory Circuits Orchestrate Cortical beta and gamma Band Oscillations.

  • Chen G
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneuron are known to shape diverse rhythmic activities in the cortex, but how they interact to orchestrate specific band activity remains largely unknown. By recording optogenetically tagged interneurons of specific subtypes in the primary visual cortex of behaving mice, we show that spiking of somatostatin (SOM)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons preferentially correlates with cortical beta and gamma band oscillations, respectively. Suppression of SOM cell spiking reduces the spontaneous low-frequency band (<30-Hz) oscillations and selectively reduces visually induced enhancement of beta oscillation. In comparison, suppressing PV cell activity elevates the synchronization of spontaneous activity across a broad frequency range and further precludes visually induced changes in beta and gamma oscillations. Rhythmic activation of SOM and PV cells in the local circuit entrains resonant activity in the narrow 5- to 30-Hz band and the wide 20- to 80-Hz band, respectively. Together, these findings reveal differential and cooperative roles of SOM and PV inhibitory neurons in orchestrating specific cortical oscillations.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P51RR165(United States)

Molecular Integration of Incretin and Glucocorticoid Action Reverses Immunometabolic Dysfunction and Obesity.

  • Quarta C
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. However, scarce therapeutic options are available to treat obesity and the associated immunometabolic complications. Glucocorticoids are routinely employed for the management of inflammatory diseases, but their pleiotropic nature leads to detrimental metabolic side effects. We developed a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-dexamethasone co-agonist in which GLP-1 selectively delivers dexamethasone to GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells. GLP-1-dexamethasone lowers body weight up to 25% in obese mice by targeting the hypothalamic control of feeding and by increasing energy expenditure. This strategy reverses hypothalamic and systemic inflammation while improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The selective preference for GLP-1 receptor bypasses deleterious effects of dexamethasone on glucose handling, bone integrity, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Thus, GLP-1-directed glucocorticoid pharmacology represents a safe and efficacious therapy option for diet-induced immunometabolic derangements and the resulting obesity.

Parvalbumin and Somatostatin Interneurons Control Different Space-Coding Networks in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

  • Miao C
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains several discrete classes of GABAergic interneurons, but their specific contributions to spatial pattern formation in this area remain elusive. We employed a pharmacogenetic approach to silence either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons while MEC cells were recorded in freely moving mice. PV-cell silencing antagonized the hexagonally patterned spatial selectivity of grid cells, especially in layer II of MEC. The impairment was accompanied by reduced speed modulation in colocalized speed cells. Silencing SOM cells, in contrast, had no impact on grid cells or speed cells but instead decreased the spatial selectivity of cells with discrete aperiodic firing fields. Border cells and head direction cells were not affected by either intervention. The findings point to distinct roles for PV and SOM interneurons in the local dynamics underlying periodic and aperiodic firing in spatially modulated cells of the MEC. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

ARX polyalanine expansion mutations lead to migration impediment in the rostral cortex coupled with a developmental deficit of calbindin-positive cortical GABAergic interneurons.

  • Lee K
  • Neuroscience
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is indispensable for interneuron development. Patients with ARX polyalanine expansion mutations of the first two tracts (namely PA1 and PA2) suffer from intellectual disability of varying severity, with seizures a frequent comorbidity. The impact of PA1 and PA2 mutations on the brain development is unknown, hindering the search for therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized the disturbances to cortical interneuron development in mice modeling the two most common ARX polyalanine expansion mutations in human. We found a consistent ∼40-50% reduction of calbindin-positive interneurons, but not Stt+ or Cr+ interneurons, within the cortex of newborn hemizygous mice (p=0.024) for both mutant strains compared to wildtype (p=0.011). We demonstrate that this was a consequence of calbindin precursor cells being arrested or delayed at the ventral subpallium en route of tangential migration. Ex-vivo assay validated this migration deficit in PA1 cells (p=0.0002) suggesting that the defect is contributed by intrinsic loss of Arx function within migrating cells. Both humans and mice with PA1 mutations present with severe clinical features, including intellectual disability and infantile spasms. Our data further demonstrated the pathogenic mechanism was robustly shared between PA1 and PA2 mutations, as previously reported including Arx protein reduction and overlapping transcriptome profiles within the developing mouse brains. Data from our study demonstrated that cortical calbindin interneuron development and migration is negatively affected by ARX polyalanine expansion mutations. Understanding the cellular pathogenesis contributing to disease manifestation is necessary to screen efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions.

Interrupted Glucagon Signaling Reveals Hepatic α Cell Axis and Role for L-Glutamine in α Cell Proliferation.

  • Dean ED
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs. Mimicking these AA levels stimulated α cell proliferation in a newly developed in vitro assay with L-glutamine being a critical AA. α cell expression of the AA transporter Slc38a5 was markedly increased in mice with interrupted glucagon signaling and played a role in α cell proliferation. These results indicate a hepatic α islet cell axis where glucagon regulates serum AA availability and AAs, especially L-glutamine, regulate α cell proliferation and mass via mTOR-dependent nutrient sensing.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX000666()
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX002728()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK069603()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK094199()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097829()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R21 DK066636()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK106755()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R33 DK066636()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007563()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK072473()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK089538()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK089572()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104211()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK108120()

Global Representations of Goal-Directed Behavior in Distinct Cell Types of Mouse Neocortex.

  • Allen WE
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The successful planning and execution of adaptive behaviors in mammals may require long-range coordination of neural networks throughout cerebral cortex. The neuronal implementation of signals that could orchestrate cortex-wide activity remains unclear. Here, we develop and apply methods for cortex-wide Ca2+ imaging in mice performing decision-making behavior and identify a global cortical representation of task engagement encoded in the activity dynamics of both single cells and superficial neuropil distributed across the majority of dorsal cortex. The activity of multiple molecularly defined cell types was found to reflect this representation with type-specific dynamics. Focal optogenetic inhibition tiled across cortex revealed a crucial role for frontal cortex in triggering this cortex-wide phenomenon; local inhibition of this region blocked both the cortex-wide response to task-initiating cues and the voluntary behavior. These findings reveal cell-type-specific processes in cortex for globally representing goal-directed behavior and identify a major cortical node that gates the global broadcast of task-related information.

Induced Quiescence of Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Intestinal Organoids Enables Differentiation of Hormone-Producing Enteroendocrine Cells.

  • Basak O
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lgr5+ adult intestinal stem cells are highly proliferative throughout life. Single Lgr5+ stem cells can be cultured into three-dimensional organoids containing all intestinal epithelial cell types at near-normal ratios. Conditions to generate the main cell types (enterocyte, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and M cells) are well established, but signals to induce the spectrum of hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells (EECs) have remained elusive. Here, we induce Lgr5+ stem cell quiescence in vitro by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in organoids and show that their quiescent state is readily reverted. Quiescent Lgr5+ stem cells acquire a distinct molecular signature biased toward EEC differentiation. Indeed, combined inhibition of Wnt, Notch, and MAPK pathways efficiently generates a diversity of EEC hormone-expressing subtypes in vitro. Our observations uncouple Wnt-dependent stem cell maintenance from EGF-dependent proliferation and provide an approach for the study of the elusive EECs in a defined environment.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008061(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21NS073585-01A1(United States)

Asymmetric effects of activating and inactivating cortical interneurons.

  • Phillips EA
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bidirectional manipulations - activation and inactivation - are widely used to identify the functions supported by specific cortical interneuron types. Implicit in much of this work is the notion that tonic activation and inactivation will both produce valid, internally consistent insights into interneurons' computational roles. Here, using single-unit recordings in auditory cortex of awake mice, we show that this may not generally hold true. Optogenetically manipulating somatostatin-positive (Sst+) or parvalbumin-positive (Pvalb+) interneurons while recording tone-responses showed that Sst+ inactivation increased response gain, while Pvalb+ inactivation weakened tuning and decreased information transfer, implying that these neurons support delineable computational functions. But activating Sst+ and Pvalb+ interneurons revealed no such differences. We used a simple network model to understand this asymmetry, and showed how relatively small changes in key parameters, such as spontaneous activity or strength of the light manipulation, determined whether activation and inactivation would produce consistent or paradoxical conclusions regarding interneurons' computational functions.

Strategies and Tools for Combinatorial Targeting of GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Cerebral Cortex.

  • He M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Systematic genetic access to GABAergic cell types will facilitate studying the function and development of inhibitory circuitry. However, single gene-driven recombinase lines mark relatively broad and heterogeneous cell populations. Although intersectional approaches improve precision, it remains unclear whether they can capture cell types defined by multiple features. Here we demonstrate that combinatorial genetic and viral approaches target restricted GABAergic subpopulations and cell types characterized by distinct laminar location, morphology, axonal projection, and electrophysiological properties. Intersectional embryonic transcription factor drivers allow finer fate mapping of progenitor pools that give rise to distinct GABAergic populations, including laminar cohorts. Conversion of progenitor fate restriction signals to constitutive recombinase expression enables viral targeting of cell types based on their lineage and birth time. Properly designed intersection, subtraction, conversion, and multi-color reporters enhance the precision and versatility of drivers and viral vectors. These strategies and tools will facilitate studying GABAergic neurons throughout the mouse brain.

Psychedelics Recruit Multiple Cellular Types and Produce Complex Transcriptional Responses Within the Brain.

  • Martin DA
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

There has recently been a resurgence of interest in psychedelics, substances that profoundly alter perception and cognition and have recently demonstrated therapeutic efficacy to treat anxiety, depression, and addiction in the clinic. The receptor mechanisms that drive their molecular and behavioral effects involve activation of cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but the responses of specific cellular populations remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that a small subset of 5-HT2A-expressing excitatory neurons is directly activated by psychedelics and subsequently recruits other select cell types including subpopulations of inhibitory somatostatin and parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons, as well as astrocytes, to produce distinct and regional responses. To gather data regarding the response of specific neuronal populations, we developed methodology for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to segregate and enrich specific cellular subtypes in the brain. These methods allow for robust neuronal sorting based on cytoplasmic epitopes followed by downstream nucleic acid analysis, expanding the utility of FACS in neuroscience research.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS072030(United States)

Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear.

  • Zhu XN
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amygdala serves as emotional center to mediate innate fear behaviors that are reflected through neuronal responses to environmental aversive cues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the initial neuron responses is poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the innate defensive responses to aversive stimuli of either elevated plus maze or predator odor in juvenile mice and found that glutamatergic neurons were activated in amygdala. Loss of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in amygdala neurons, suppressed the reactions and led to defects in spine morphogenesis and fear behaviors. We further found a coupling of spinogenesis with these threat cues induced neuron activation in developing amygdala that was controlled by EphB2. A constitutively active form of EphB2 was sufficient to rescue the behavioral and morphological defects caused by ablation of ephrin-B3, a brain-enriched ligand to EphB2. These data suggest that kinase-dependent EphB2 intracellular signaling plays a major role for innate fear responses during the critical developing period, in which spinogenesis in amygdala glutamatergic neurons was involved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Generation of innate fear responses to threat as an evolutionally conserved brain feature relies on development of functional neural circuit in amygdala, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We here identify that EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is specifically expressed in glutamatergic neurons, is required for the innate fear responses in the neonatal brain. We further reveal that EphB2 mediates coordination of spinogenesis and neuron activation in amygdala during the critical period for the innate fear. EphB2 catalytic activity plays a major role for the behavior upon EphB-ephrin-B3 binding and transnucleus neuronal connections. Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal developing brain.

Development of early-born γ-Aminobutyric acid hub neurons in mouse hippocampus from embryogenesis to adulthood.

  • Villette V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Early-born γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons (EBGNs) are major components of the hippocampal circuit because at early postnatal stages they form a subpopulation of "hub cells" transiently supporting CA3 network synchronization (Picardo et al. [2011] Neuron 71:695-709). It is therefore essential to determine when these cells acquire the remarkable morphofunctional attributes supporting their network function and whether they develop into a specific subtype of interneuron into adulthood. Inducible genetic fate mapping conveniently allows for the labeling of EBGNs throughout their life. EBGNs were first analyzed during the perinatal week. We observed that EBGNs acquired mature characteristics at the time when the first synapse-driven synchronous activities appeared in the form of giant depolarizing potentials. The fate of EBGNs was next analyzed in the adult hippocampus by using anatomical characterization. Adult EBGNs included a significant proportion of cells projecting selectively to the septum; in turn, EBGNs were targeted by septal and entorhinal inputs. In addition, most EBGNs were strongly targeted by cholinergic and monoaminergic terminals, suggesting significant subcortical innervation. Finally, we found that some EBGNs located in the septum or the entorhinal cortex also displayed a long-range projection that we traced to the hippocampus. Therefore, this study shows that the maturation of the morphophysiological properties of EBGNs mirrors the evolution of early network dynamics, suggesting that both phenomena may be causally linked. We propose that a subpopulation of EBGNs forms into adulthood a scaffold of GABAergic projection neurons linking the hippocampus to distant structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2440-2461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA189437(United States)

Neurotensin Is Coexpressed, Coreleased, and Acts Together With GLP-1 and PYY in Enteroendocrine Control of Metabolism.

  • Grunddal KV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The 2 gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are well known to be coexpressed, costored, and released together to coact in the control of key metabolic target organs. However, recently, it became clear that several other gut hormones can be coexpressed in the intestinal-specific lineage of enteroendocrine cells. Here, we focus on the anatomical and functional consequences of the coexpression of neurotensin with GLP-1 and PYY in the distal small intestine. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, laser capture, and triple staining demonstrated that GLP-1 cells in the crypts become increasingly multihormonal, ie, coexpressing PYY and neurotensin as they move up the villus. Proglucagon promoter and pertussis toxin receptor-driven cell ablation and reappearance studies indicated that although all the cells die, the GLP-1 cells reappear more quickly than PYY- and neurotensin-positive cells. High-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that neurotensin is stored in secretory granules distinct from GLP-1 and PYY storing granules. Nevertheless, the 3 peptides were cosecreted from both perfused small intestines and colonic crypt cultures in response to a series of metabolite, neuropeptide, and hormonal stimuli. Importantly, neurotensin acts synergistically, ie, more than additively together with GLP-1 and PYY to decrease palatable food intake and inhibit gastric emptying, but affects glucose homeostasis in a more complex manner. Thus, neurotensin is a major gut hormone deeply integrated with GLP-1 and PYY, which should be taken into account when exploiting the enteroendocrine regulation of metabolism pharmacologically.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH106934(United States)

Transcriptional and Functional Characterization of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Repertoire of Gastric Somatostatin Cells.

  • Egerod KL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the stomach, somatostatin (SST) acts as a general paracrine negative regulator of exocrine secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and endocrine secretion of gastrin, ghrelin, and histamine. Using reporter mice expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) under control of the SST promotor, we have characterized the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in gastric Sst-RFP-positive cells and probed their effects on SST secretion in primary cell cultures. Surprisingly, besides SST, amylin and PYY were also highly enriched in the SST cells. Several receptors found to regulate SST secretion were highly expressed and/or enriched. 1) The metabolite receptors calcium-sensing receptor and free fatty acid receptor 4 (GPR120) functioned as positive and negative regulators, respectively. 2) Among the neurotransmitter receptors, adrenergic receptors α1a, α2a, α2b, and β1 were all highly expressed, with norepinephrine and isoproterenol acting as positive regulators. The muscarinic receptor M3 acted as a positive regulator, whereas M4 was conceivably a negative regulator. 3) Of the hormone receptors, the GLP-1 and GIP receptors, CCKb (stimulated by both CCK and gastrin) and surprisingly the melanocortin MC1 receptor were all positive regulators. 4) The neuropeptide receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide acted as positive regulators, no effect was observed using galanin and nociceptin although transcripts for the corresponding receptors appeared highly expressed. 5) The SST receptors 1 and 2 functioned in an autocrine negative feedback loop. Thus, the article provides a comprehensive map of receptors through which SST secretion is regulated by hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and metabolites that act directly on the SST cells in the gastric mucosa.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK031036(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007319(United States)

The α2-subunit of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor is specifically expressed in medial subpallium-derived cells of mammalian amygdala.

  • Pombero A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in specific neuronal populations, which are involved in numerous neural functions such as sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and cognition, as well as the central processing of pain and food intake. Moreover, mutations in nAChRs subunits have been related to frontal lobe epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and other neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown that the α2-subunit of the AChR (Chrna2) is expressed in the basal forebrain, in the septum, and in some amygdalar nuclei in the adult rodent brain. However, although the importance of this amygdalar expression in emotion-related behavior and the physiopathology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been accepted, a detailed study of the Chrna2 expression pattern during development has been lacking. In this study we found that Chrna2 is specifically expressed in medial subpallium-derived amygdalar nuclei from early developmental stages to adult. This finding could help us to better understand the role of Chrna2 in the differentiation and functional maturation of amygdalar neurons involved in cholinergic-regulated emotional behavior.

Immunohistochemical localization of DPP10 in rat brain supports the existence of a Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in neurons.

  • Wang WC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the cell bodies of hippocampal and neocortical interneurons as well as neocortical pyramidal neurons. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. It has been proposed that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits, K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). However, colocalization evidence was still lacking. The distribution of DPP10 mRNA in rodent brain has been reported but its protein localization remains unknown. In this study, we generated a DPP10 antibody to label DPP10 protein in adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. Absent from glia, DPP10 proteins appear mainly in the cell bodies of DPP10(+) neurons, not only at the plasma membrane but also in the cytoplasm. At least 6.4% of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus coexpressed Kv4.3, KChIP1, and DPP10, with the highest density in the CA1 strata alveus/oriens/pyramidale and the dentate hilus. Colocalization of Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10 was also detected in at least 6.9% of inhibitory interneurons scattered throughout the neocortex. Both hippocampal and neocortical Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10(+) inhibitory interneurons expressed parvalbumin or somatostatin, but not calbindin or calretinin. Furthermore, we found colocalization of Kv4.2/Kv4.3/KChIP3/DPP10 in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons and olfactory bulb mitral cells. Together, although DPP10 is also expressed in some brain neurons lacking Kv4 (such as parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive Golgi cells in the cerebellum), colocalization of DPP10 with Kv4 and KChIP at the plasma membrane of ISA -expressing neuron somata supports the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in vivo.

Somatostatin receptors type 2 and 5 expression and localization during human pituitary development.

  • Peineau S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatostatin (SRIF), by acting mainly through sst2 and sst5 receptors, is a potent inhibitor of hormonal secretion by the human anterior pituitary gland. However, the pattern of protein expression of these SRIF receptors remains unknown during pituitary development. To get further insights into the physiological role of SRIF receptors in human development and pituitary function, the present study examined the developmental expression of the sst2 and sst5 receptors in the individual cell types of the anterior human pituitary. Thirteen fetal human pituitaries were investigated between 13 to 38 weeks of gestation (WG) by double-labeling immunofluorescence with antibodies raised against sst2 or sst5 receptors and GH, LH, FSH, TSH, or pro-opiomelanocortin proteins. SRIF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and median eminence was investigated at the same developmental ages. Immunoreactivity for the sst2 receptor was evident as early as 13 to 15 WG and onward mainly in TSH-, LH-, and FSH-expressing cells, whereas sst5 immunoreactivity was apparent at the late development stages (35-38 WG). GH-expressing cells mainly expressed sst5 immunoreactivity. SRIF-positive fibers and cells were detected as soon as 13 to 16 WG in the hypothalamus and median eminence and their densities increased with gestational age. The early appearance of hypothalamic SRIF cells and fibers suggests a physiological link between SRIF and its receptors during pituitary development. Whereas sst2 receptors might play a primary role in the differentiation and regulation of TSH, LH, and FSH cells, sst5 receptors appear to be mainly involved in GH regulation from birth onward.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR055299(United States)
  • PHS HHS - ESO 12961(United States)

The PACAP-regulated gene selenoprotein T is abundantly expressed in mouse and human β-cells and its targeted inactivation impairs glucose tolerance.

  • Prevost G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Selenoproteins are involved in the regulation of redox status, which affects several cellular processes, including cell survival and homeostasis. Considerable interest has arisen recently concerning the role of selenoproteins in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we found that selenoprotein T (SelT), a new thioredoxin-like protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, is present at high levels in human and mouse pancreas as revealed by immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR. Confocal immunohistochemistry studies revealed that SelT is mostly confined to insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells in mouse and human islets. To elucidate the role of SelT in β-cells, we generated, using a Cre-Lox strategy, a conditional pancreatic β-cell SelT-knockout C57BL/6J mice (SelT-insKO) in which SelT gene disruption is under the control of the rat insulin promoter Cre gene. Glucose administration revealed that male SelT-insKO mice display impaired glucose tolerance. Although insulin sensitivity was not modified in the mutant mice, the ratio of glucose to insulin was significantly higher in the SelT-insKO mice compared with wild-type littermates, pointing to a deficit in insulin production/secretion in mutant mice. In addition, morphometric analysis showed that islets from SelT-insKO mice were smaller and that their number was significantly increased compared with islets from their wild-type littermates. Finally, we found that SelT is up-regulated by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in β-pancreatic cells and that SelT could act by facilitating a feed-forward mechanism to potentiate insulin secretion induced by the neuropeptide. Our findings are the first to show that the PACAP-regulated SelT is localized in pancreatic β- and δ-cells and is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097820(United States)

Hilar interneuron vulnerability distinguishes aged rats with memory impairment.

  • Spiegel AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal interneuron populations are reportedly vulnerable to normal aging. The relationship between interneuron network integrity and age-related memory impairment, however, has not been tested directly. That question was addressed in the present study using a well-characterized model in which outbred, aged, male Long-Evans rats exhibit a spectrum of individual differences in hippocampal-dependent memory. Selected interneuron populations in the hippocampus were visualized for stereological quantification with a panel of immunocytochemical markers, including glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67), somatostatin, and neuropeptide Y. The overall pattern of results was that, although the numbers of GAD67- and somatostatin-positive interneurons declined with age across multiple fields of the hippocampus, alterations specifically related to the cognitive outcome of aging were observed exclusively in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Because the total number of NeuN-immunoreactive hilar neurons was unaffected, the decline observed with other markers likely reflects a loss of target protein rather than neuron death. In support of that interpretation, treatment with the atypical antiepileptic levetiracetam at a low dose shown previously to improve behavioral performance fully restored hilar SOM expression in aged, memory-impaired rats. Age-related decreases in GAD67- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neuron number beyond the hilus were regionally selective and spared the CA1 field of the hippocampus entirely. Together these findings confirm the vulnerability of hippocampal interneurons to normal aging and highlight that the integrity of a specific subpopulation in the hilus is coupled with age-related memory impairment.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004881(United States)

Functional, anatomical, and neurochemical differentiation of medial preoptic area subregions in relation to maternal behavior in the mouse.

  • Tsuneoka Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In rodents, previous findings indicate critical involvement of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the neural control of maternal behavior. However, the specification of the particular MPOA subregions involved in maternal behavior and the identification of the neurochemical phenotype(s) of the essential neurons demands additional study. Therefore, we investigated the chemical neuroanatomy of the essential MPOA subregion for maternal behavior in C57BL/6J female mice. Using the oxytocinergic neurons in the dorsal MPOA as a primary regional marker, we first assessed the distribution of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the MPOA during maternal behavior using immunohistochemistry. Results showed that non-oxytocinergic neurons in the dorsal and ventral MPOA prominently expressed c-Fos during maternal behavior. Then using excitotoxic lesion studies, we determined the specific MPOA area that is necessary for maternal behavior. Bilateral lesions of the central MPOA, where c-Fos was expressed only moderately, effectively disrupted maternal behavior, although lesions to the dorsal and ventral MPOA regions were ineffective. These centrally lesioned females were highly infanticidal irrespective of their previous maternal experience. Neurochemical investigations showed that more than 75% of the c-Fos-expressing neurons in central MPOA were GABAergic. Many of them also expressed galanin, neurotensin, and/or tachykinin2 mRNAs. Finally, the central MPOA was populated by numerous glutamatergic neurons, although only a small percentage of these neurons colocalized with c-Fos. To conclude, the central MPOA is the indispensable subregion for mouse maternal behavior, and GABAergic and/or peptidergic neurons in this area were transcriptionally activated during maternal behavior.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY-02686(United States)

Nuclear receptor COUP-TFII-expressing neocortical interneurons are derived from the medial and lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence and define specific subsets of mature interneurons.

  • Cai Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neocortical GABAergic interneurons in rodents originate from subpallial progenitor zones. The majority of mouse neocortical interneurons are derived from the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE, respectively) and the preoptic area (POA). It is controversial whether the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) also generates neocortical interneurons. Previously it was shown that the transcription factor COUP-TFII is expressed in the CGE; here we show that COUP-TFII is also expressed in the dorsal MGE, dorsal LGE (dMGE and dLGE, respectively), and POA. In the adult neocortex, COUP-TFII+/somatostatin (SOM)+ interneurons are mainly located in layer V. Using a genetic fate-mapping approach (Shh-Cre and Nkx2.1-Cre), we demonstrate that the POA and ventral MGE do not give rise to COUP-TFII+ neocortical interneurons, suggesting that the dMGE is the source of COUP-TFII+/SOM+ neocortical interneurons. We also observed a migratory stream of COUP-TFII+/Sp8+ cells emanating from the dLGE and CGE to the neocortex mainly through the subventricular zone at later embryonic stages. Slice culture experiments in which dLGE progenitors were labeled with BrdU provided additional evidence that the dLGE generates neocortical interneurons. While earlier-born dMGE-derived COUP-TFII+ interneurons occupy cortical layer V, later-born dLGE- and CGE-derived COUP-TFII+ ones preferentially occupy superficial cortical layers. A similar laminar distribution was observed following neonatal transplantation of embryonic day (E)14.5 dMGE and E15.5 dLGE. These results provide novel information about interneuron fate and position from spatially and temporally distinct origins in the ganglionic eminences.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM060124(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5R01NS037070(United States)

Genetic and experimental evidence supports the continuum of the central extended amygdala and a mutiple embryonic origin of its principal neurons.

  • Bupesh M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The central extended amygdala is the major output center for telencephalic control of ingestion, fear responses, stress, and anxiety. In spite of the abundant data supporting the similarity in neurochemistry, connections, and function along the extended amygdala, embryological support for this continuum is lacking. By using a combination of in vitro migration assays, in situ hybridization, and immunostaining, here we show that its major components, including central amygdala and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), are mosaics formed by different proportions of dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE)-, ventral LGE-, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived principal neurons. The dorsal LGE produces Pax6-expressing neurons that primarily populate lateral parts of the central extended amygdala, including the capsular and part of lateral central amygdala, but also produces a few cells for the lateral BST. Based on correlation with preproenkephalin, many of these cells are likely enkephalinergic. The ventral LGE produces Islet1-expressing neurons that populate primarily the central and medial parts of the central amygdala but also produces numerous neurons for the lateral BST. Correlation with corticotropin-releasing factor suggests that these neurons express this neuropeptide. The MGE produces the majority of neurons of the lateral BST, but its ventrocaudal subdivision also produces an important subpopulation of projection neurons containing somatostatin for medial aspects of the central amygdala. Thus, distinct principal neurons originate in different embryonic domains, but the same domains contribute neurons to most subdivisions of the central extended amygdala, which may explain the similarity in neurochemistry and connections along the corridor.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR021907(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY014888(United States)

Somatostatin interneurons delineate the inner part of the external plexiform layer in the mouse main olfactory bulb.

  • Lepousez G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptides play a major role in the modulation of information processing in neural networks. Somatostatin, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is found in many sensory systems including the olfactory pathway. However, its cellular distribution in the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) is yet to be characterized. Here we show that approximately 95% of mouse bulbar somatostatin-immunoreactive (SRIF-ir) cells describe a homogeneous population of interneurons. These are restricted to the inner lamina of the external plexiform layer (iEPL) with dendritic field strictly confined to the region. iEPL SRIF-ir neurons share some morphological features of Van Gehuchten short-axon cells, and always express glutamic acid decarboxylase, calretinin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. One-half of SRIF-ir neurons are parvalbumin-ir, revealing an atypical neurochemical profile when compared to SRIF-ir interneurons of other forebrain regions such as cortex or hippocampus. Somatostatin is also present in fibers and in a few sparse presumptive deep short-axon cells in the granule cell layer (GCL), which were previously reported in other mammalian species. The spatial distribution of somatostatin interneurons in the MOB iEPL clearly outlines the region where lateral dendrites of mitral cells interact with GCL inhibitory interneurons through dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses. Symmetrical and asymmetrical synaptic contacts occur between SRIF-ir dendrites and mitral cell dendrites. Such restricted localization of somatostatin interneurons and connectivity in the bulbar synaptic network strongly suggest that the peptide plays a functional role in the modulation of olfactory processing.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN268200248178C(United States)

Expression of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse amygdalar complex.

  • Real MA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent developmental studies indicate that distinct neuronal subpopulations in the amygdala, including somatostatin (SOM)-containing neurons, originate from progenitor domains in the anterior entopeduncular area, thus suggesting a different origin from subpallial territories for amygdalar versus cortical SOM-expressing interneurons, the latter derived from the dorsal part of the medial ganglionic eminence. In this context, we carried out an immunohistochemical study analyzing spatiotemporal expression patterns for SOM- and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse amygdala. Our results indicate that SOM- and NPY-immunoreactive cells are present in the amygdalar complex from embryonic day (E)12.5, and that these peptidergic cells seem to arise from the anterior entopeduncular area progenitor domain. From E12.5 on there was a notable increase in the number and immunoreactivity of cells containing these peptides in distinct territories of the amygdalar complex, reaching a peak around birth. The distribution pattern for NPY neurons was very similar to that of SOM neurons in most nuclei of the amygdala, although the number of NPY neurons was always lower than that of SOM. At postnatal ages a reduction in the number of immunoreactive cells is observed in most amygdalar nuclei, remaining then similar from P14 to the adult. We interpret this reduction of the number of immunoreactive neurons in relation to the increased immunoreactivity for axons that occurs postnatally. We also suggest that the anterior entopeduncular area-derived SOM- and NPY-containing neurons in pallial and subpallial amygdaloid nuclei become local interneurons and projection neurons, respectively.

Beta-adrenergic receptors are differentially expressed in distinct interneuron subtypes in the rat hippocampus.

  • Cox DJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Aug 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Noradrenaline (NA) acting via beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) plays an important role in the modulation of memory in the hippocampus. betaARs have been shown to be expressed in principal cells, but their distribution across different interneuron classes is unknown. We have used specific interneuron markers including calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) and neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin) together with either beta1AR or beta2AR to determine the distribution of these receptors in all major subfields of the hippocampus. We found that beta1AR-expressing interneurons were more prevalent in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus than in the dentate gyrus, where they were relatively sparse. beta2AR-expressing interneurons were more uniformly distributed between all three regions of the hippocampus. A high proportion of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus co-expressed beta2AR. beta1AR labeling was common in interneurons expressing somatostatin and parvalbumin in the CA3 and CA1 regions, particularly in the stratum oriens of these regions. beta2AR labeling was more likely to be found than beta1AR labeling in cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. In contrast, calretinin-containing interneurons were virtually devoid of beta1AR or beta2AR labeling. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences suggest functionally distinct roles for NA in modulating hippocampal activity via activation of betaARs.