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Anti-Kisspeptin antibody

RRID:AB_2296529

Antibody ID

AB_2296529

Target Antigen

Kisspeptin m, r, sh

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# AB9754, RRID:AB_2296529)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IH, RIA; Radioimmunoassay; Immunohistochemistry

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Pubertal Escape From Estradiol Negative Feedback in Ewe Lambs Is Not Accounted for by Decreased ESR1 mRNA or Protein in Kisspeptin Neurons.

  • Bedenbaugh MN
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study, we investigated whether decreased sensitivity to estradiol negative feedback is associated with reduced estrogen receptor α (ESR1) expression in kisspeptin neurons as ewe lambs approach puberty. Lambs were ovariectomized and received no implant (OVX) or an implant containing estradiol (OVX+E). In the middle arcuate nucleus (mARC), ESR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was greater in OVX than OVX+E lambs but did not differ elsewhere. Post hoc analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from OVX+E lambs revealed three patterns of LH pulsatility: low [1 to 2 pulses per 12 hours; low frequency (LF), n = 3], moderate [6 to 7 pulses per 12 hours; moderate frequency (MF), n = 6], and high [>10 pulses per 12 hours; high frequency (HF), n = 5]. The percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 mRNA in the preoptic area did not differ among HF, MF, or LF groups. However, the percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 mRNA in the mARC was greater in HF (57%) than in MF (36%) or LF (27%) lambs and did not differ from OVX (50%) lambs. A higher percentage of kisspeptin neurons contained ESR1 protein in all regions of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in OVX compared with OVX+E lambs. There were no differences in ESR1 protein among the HF, MF, or LF groups in the preoptic area or ARC. Contrary to our hypothesis, increases in LH pulsatility were associated with enhanced ESR1 mRNA abundance in kisspeptin neurons in the ARC, and absence of estradiol increased the percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 protein in the ARC. Therefore, changes in the expression of ESR1, particularly in kisspeptin neurons in the ARC, do not explain the pubertal escape from estradiol negative feedback in ewe lambs.

JMJD3 Is Crucial for the Female AVPV RIP-Cre Neuron-Controlled Kisspeptin-Estrogen Feedback Loop and Reproductive Function.

  • Song A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. Although most studies have focused on the hierarchy from the brain to the gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from the gonad to the central nervous system, especially regarding the potential epigenetic modifications in hypothalamic neurons. In the present report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3) in hypothalamic rat-insulin-promoter-expressing neurons (RIP-Cre neurons). The female mutant mice displayed late-onset obesity owing to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure. JMJD3 deficiency in RIP-Cre neurons also results in delayed pubertal onset, an irregular estrous cycle, impaired fertility, and accelerated ovarian failure in female mice owing to the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-ovarian axis. We found that JMJD3 directly regulates Kiss1 gene expression by binding to the Kiss1 promoter and triggering H3K27me3 demethylation in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Further study confirmed that the aberrations arose from impaired kisspeptin signaling in the hypothalamic AVPV nucleus and subsequent estrogen deficiency. Estrogen replacement therapy can reverse obesity in mutant mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that Jmjd3 is an estrogen target gene in the hypothalamus. These results provide direct genetic and molecular evidence that JMJD3 is a key mediator for the kisspeptin-estrogen feedback loop.

Evidence That Endogenous Somatostatin Inhibits Episodic, but Not Surge, Secretion of LH in Female Sheep.

  • McCosh RB
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two modes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion are necessary for female fertility: surge and episodic secretion. However, the neural systems that regulate these GnRH secretion patterns are still under investigation. The neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) inhibits episodic LH secretion in humans and sheep, and several lines of evidence suggest SST may regulate secretion during the LH surge. In this study, we examined whether SST alters the LH surge in ewes by administering a SST receptor (SSTR) 2 agonist (octreotide) or antagonist [CYN154806 (CYN)] into the third ventricle during an estrogen-induced LH surge and whether endogenous SST alters episodic LH secretion. Neither octreotide nor CYN altered the amplitude or timing of the LH surge. Administration of CYN to intact ewes during the breeding season or anestrus increased LH secretion and increased c-Fos in a subset GnRH and kisspeptin cells during anestrus. To determine if these stimulatory effects are steroid dependent or independent, we administered CYN to ovariectomized ewes. This SSTR2 antagonist increased LH pulse frequency in ovariectomized ewes during anestrus but not during the breeding season. This study provides evidence that endogenous SST contributes to the control of LH secretion. The results demonstrate that SST, acting through SSTR2, inhibits episodic LH secretion, likely acting in the mediobasal hypothalamus, but action at this receptor does not alter surge secretion. Additionally, these data provide evidence that SST contributes to the steroid-independent suppression of LH pulse frequency during anestrus.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR016440()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD039916()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD082135()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103434()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P30 GM103488()

Demonstration of a Functional Kisspeptin/Kisspeptin Receptor System in Amphioxus With Implications for Origin of Neuroendocrine Regulation.

  • Wang P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amphioxus belongs to the Cephalochordata, which is the most basal subphylum of the chordates. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, key information about its regulation remains ambiguous. Here we clearly demonstrate the presence of a functional kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (Kiss-Kissr) system, which is involved in the regulation of reproduction in amphioxus. Evolutionary analyses revealed large expansion of Kiss and Kissr (gpr54) genes in amphioxus, and they might represent the ancestral type of the Kiss/gpr54 genes in chordates. Amphioxus Kiss was obviously expression at the cerebral vesicle and the Hatschek pit, whereas amphioxus gpr54 messenger RNA (mRNA) was abundantly present in nerve cord, ovary, and testes. Amphioxus GPR54-Like1 (GPR54L-1) was shown to be located on the cell membrane. The synthetic amphioxus Kiss-like (KissL) peptides were capable of activating the amphioxus GPR54L-1 with different potencies, hinting the interaction between Kiss and GPR54. Moreover, the expression of amphioxus gpr54 mRNA was significantly decreased during low or high temperature extremes. Importantly, the injection of amphioxus KissL could cause an elevation of zebrafish blood luteinizing hormone level and induce the expression of amphioxus gpb5, a gene encoding the ancestral type of vertebrate pituitary glycoprotein hormones. Also, the expression levels of BjkissL-2 or Bjgpr54L-1 were downregulated after spermiation or spawning. Collectively, the amphioxus Kiss-Kissr system has a correlation with the regulation of reproduction. Our studies provide insights into the functional roles and evolutionary history of the Kiss-Kissr system, as well as the origin of the vertebrate neuroendocrine axis for controlling reproduction.

Do Substance P and Neurokinin A Play Important Roles in the Control of LH Secretion in Ewes?

  • Fergani C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via neurokinin-3-receptor (NK3R) to stimulate secretion of GnRH and LH in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However, the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A, which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R, respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus. In this study, we examined the possible role of these tachykinins in control of the reproductive axis in sheep. Immunohistochemistry was used to describe the expression of SP and NK1R in the ovine diencephalon and determine whether these proteins are colocalized in kisspeptin or GnRH neurons. SP-containing cell bodies were largely confined to the arcuate nucleus, but NK1R-immunoreactivity was more widespread. However, there was very low coexpression of SP or NK1R in kisspeptin cells and none in GnRH neurons. We next determined the minimal effective dose of these three tachykinins that would stimulate LH secretion when administered into the third ventricle of ovary-intact anestrous sheep. A much lower dose of NKB (0.2 nmol) than of neurokinin A (2 nmol) or SP (10 nmol) consistently stimulated LH secretion. Moreover, the relative potency of these three neuropeptides parallels the relative selectivity of NK3R. Based on these anatomical and pharmacological data, we conclude that NKB-NK3R signaling is the primary pathway for the control of GnRH secretion by tachykinins in ewes.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN271200577531C(United States)
  • Telethon - GGP13187(Italy)

Kisspeptin in the Hypothalamus of 2 Rat Models of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

  • Osuka S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hyperandrogenism, disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis followed by elevated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and insulin resistance are involved in the complicated pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Kisspeptin is coexpressed with neurokinin B (NKB) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the center of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator that is responsible for pulsatile LH secretion. We compared 2 androgenized rat models of PCOS to evaluate the estrous cycle, hormonal profiles, and expression of kisspeptin and NKB in the ARC. Rats in our postnatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treatment model exhibited weight gain and persistent diestrus with normal LH levels. In contrast, irregular cycles, with elevated LH serum levels and normal body weight, were found in the prenatally DHT-treated rats. We also found increased signals of kisspeptin and NKB in the ARC of the prenatally DHT-treated rats, and not in the postnatally DHT-treated rats. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to androgens may result in higher kisspeptin and NKB levels in the ARC, which could be associated with 1 phenotype of PCOS that is characterized by normal body weight and higher LH secretion, whereas in postnatally DHT-treated rats, characteristics such as weight gain and normal LH levels are seen in the obese PCOS phenotype.

ERα in Tac2 Neurons Regulates Puberty Onset in Female Mice.

  • Greenwald-Yarnell ML
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

A variety of data suggest that estrogen action on kisspeptin (Kiss1)-containing arcuate nucleus neurons (which coexpress Kiss1, neurokinin B (the product of Tac2) and dynorphin (KNDy) neurons restrains reproductive onset and function, but roles for estrogen action in these Kiss1 neurons relative to a distinct population of rostral hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons (which does not express Tac2 or dynorphin) have not been directly tested. To test the role for estrogen receptor (ER)α in KNDy cells, we thus generated Tac2(Cre) and Kiss1(Cre) knock-in mice and bred them onto the Esr1(flox) background to ablate ERα specifically in Tac2-expressing cells (ERα(Tac2)KO mice) or all Kiss1 cells (ERα(Kiss1)KO mice), respectively. Most ERα-expressing Tac2 neurons represent KNDy cells. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 expression was elevated in ERα(Tac2)KO and ERα(Kiss1)KO females independent of gonadal hormones, whereas rostral hypothalamic Kiss1 expression was normal in ERα(Tac2)KO but decreased in ERα(Kiss1)KO females; this suggests that ERα in rostral Kiss1 cells is crucial for control of Kiss1 expression in these cells. Both ERα(Kiss1)KO and ERα(Tac2)KO females displayed early vaginal opening, early and persistent vaginal cornification, increased gonadotropins, uterine hypertrophy, and other evidence of estrogen excess. Thus, deletion of ERα in Tac2 neurons suffices to drive precocious gonadal hyperstimulation, demonstrating that ERα in Tac2 neurons typically restrains pubertal onset and hypothalamic reproductive drive.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006640(United States)

EP24.15 as a Potential Regulator of Kisspeptin Within the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

  • Woitowich NC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neuropeptide kisspeptin (Kiss1) is integral to the advent of puberty and the generation of cyclical LH surges. Although many complex actions of Kiss1 are known, the mechanisms governing the processing/regulation of this peptide have not been unveiled. The metallo enzyme, endopeptidase 24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase), has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and thus the duration of action of the reproductive neuropeptide, GnRH, which signals downstream of Kiss1. Initial in silico modeling implied that Kiss1 could also be a putative substrate for EP24.15. Coincubation of Kiss1 and EP24.15 demonstrated multiple cleavages of the peptide predominantly between Arg29-Gly30 and Ser47-Phe48 (corresponding to Ser5-Phe6 in Kiss-10; Kiss-10 as a substrate had an additional cleavage between Phe6-Gly7) as determined by mass spectrometry. Vmax for the reaction was 2.37±0.09 pmol/min · ng with a Km of 19.68 ± 2.53μM, which is comparable with other known substrates of EP24.15. EP24.15 immunoreactivity, as previously demonstrated, is distributed in cell bodies, nuclei, and processes throughout the hypothalamus. Kiss1 immunoreactivity is localized primarily to cell bodies and fibers within the mediobasal and anteroventral-periventricular hypothalamus. Double-label immunohistochemistry indicated coexpression of EP24.15 and Kiss1, implicating that the regulation of Kiss1 by EP24.15 could occur in vivo. Further studies will be directed at determining the precise temporal sequence of EP24.15 effects on Kiss1 as it relates to the control of reproductive hormone secretion and treatment of fertility issues.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R33 AG030524(United States)

KNDy Neurons Modulate the Magnitude of the Steroid-Induced Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Ovariectomized Rats.

  • Helena CV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kisspeptin is the most potent stimulator of LH release. There are two kisspeptin neuronal populations in the rodent brain: in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus. The arcuate neurons coexpress kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and are called KNDy neurons. Because estradiol increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV whereas it inhibits KNDy neurons, AVPV and KNDy neurons have been postulated to mediate the positive and negative feedback effects of estradiol on LH secretion, respectively. Yet the role of KNDy neurons during the positive feedback is not clear. In this study, ovariectomized rats were microinjected bilaterally into the arcuate nucleus with a saporin-conjugated neurokinin B receptor agonist for targeted ablation of approximately 70% of KNDy neurons. In oil-treated animals, ablation of KNDy neurons impaired the rise in LH after ovariectomy and kisspeptin content in both populations. In estradiol-treated animals, KNDy ablation did not influence the negative feedback of steroids during the morning. Surprisingly, KNDy ablation increased the steroid-induced LH surges, accompanied by an increase of kisspeptin content in the AVPV. This increase seems to be due to lack of dynorphin input from KNDy neurons to the AVPV as the following: 1) microinjections of a dynorphin antagonist into the AVPV significantly increased the LH surge in estradiol-treated rats, similar to KNDy ablation, and 2) intra-AVPV microinjections of dynorphin in KNDy-ablated rats restored LH surge levels. Our results suggest that KNDy neurons provide inhibition to AVPV kisspeptin neurons through dynorphin and thus regulate the amplitude of the steroid-induced LH surges.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS014841(United States)

Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats.

  • Hu MH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R37 HL32987(United States)

Absence of Female-Typical Pheromone-Induced Hypothalamic Neural Responses and Kisspeptin Neuronal Activity in α-Fetoprotein Knockout Female Mice.

  • Taziaux M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pheromones induce sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine responses, such as LH secretion. However, the neuronal network by which pheromones are converted into signals that will initiate and modulate endocrine changes remains unclear. We asked whether 2 sexually dimorphic populations in the anteroventral periventricular and periventricular nuclei that express kisspeptin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) are potential candidates that will transduce the olfactory signal to the neuroendocrine system. Furthermore, we assessed whether this transduction is sensitive to perinatal actions of estradiol by using female mice deficient in α-fetoprotein (AfpKO), which lack the protective actions of Afp against maternal estradiol. Wild-type (WT) and AfpKO male and female mice were exposed to same- versus opposite-sex odors and the expression of Fos (the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos) was analyzed along the olfactory projection pathways as well as whether kisspeptin, TH, and GnRH neurons are responsive to opposite-sex odors. Male odors induced a female-typical Fos expression in target forebrain sites of olfactory inputs involved in reproduction in WT, but not in AfpKO females, whereas female odors induced a male-typical Fos expression in males of both genotypes. In WT females, opposite-sex odors induced Fos in kisspeptin and TH neurons, whereas in AfpKO females and WT males, only a lower, but still significant, Fos expression was observed in TH but not in kisspeptin neurons. Finally, opposite-sex odors did not induce any significant Fos expression in GnRH neurons of both sexes or genotypes. Our results strongly suggest a role for fetal estrogen in the sexual differentiation of neural responses to sex-related olfactory cues.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS021184(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - BB/E52708X/1(United Kingdom)

Classical and membrane-initiated estrogen signaling in an in vitro model of anterior hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons.

  • Mittelman-Smith MA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neuropeptide kisspeptin is essential for sexual maturation and reproductive function. In particular, kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the anterior rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle are generally recognized as mediators of estrogen positive feedback for the surge release of LH, which stimulates ovulation. Estradiol induces kisspeptin expression in the neurons of the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle but suppresses kisspeptin expression in neurons of the arcuate nucleus that regulate estrogen-negative feedback. To focus on the intracellular signaling and response to estradiol underlying positive feedback, we used mHypoA51 cells, an immortalized line of kisspeptin neurons derived from adult female mouse hypothalamus. mHypoA51 neurons express estrogen receptor (ER)-α, classical progesterone receptor (PR), and kisspeptin, all key elements of estrogen-positive feedback. As with kisspeptin neurons in vivo, 17β-estradiol (E2) induced kisspeptin and PR in mHypoA51s. The ERα agonist, 1,3,5-Tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole, produced similar increases in expression, indicating that these events were mediated by ERα. However, E2-induced PR up-regulation required an intracellular ER, whereas kisspeptin expression was stimulated through a membrane ER activated by E2 coupled to BSA. These data suggest that anterior hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons integrate both membrane-initiated and classical nuclear estrogen signaling to up-regulate kisspeptin and PR, which are essential for the LH surge.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103723(United States)

Loss of Ntrk2/Kiss1r signaling in oocytes causes premature ovarian failure.

  • Dorfman MD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurotrophins (NTs), once believed to be neural-specific trophic factors, are now known to also provide developmental cues to non-neural cells. In the ovary, NTs contribute to both the formation and development of follicles. Here we show that oocyte-specific deletion of the Ntrk2 gene that encodes the NTRK2 receptor (NTRK2) for neurotrophin-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results in post-pubertal oocyte death, loss of follicular organization, and early adulthood infertility. Oocytes lacking NTRK2 do not respond to gonadotropins with activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mediated signaling. Before puberty, oocytes only express a truncated NTRK2 form (NTRK2.T1), but at puberty full-length (NTRK2.FL) receptors are rapidly induced by the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. A cell line expressing both NTRK2.T1 and the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) responds to BDNF stimulation with activation of Ntrk2 expression only if kisspeptin is present. This suggests that BDNF and kisspeptin that are produced by granulosa cells (GCs) of periovulatory follicles act in concert to mediate the effect of gonadotropins on Ntrk2 expression in oocytes. In keeping with this finding, the oocytes of NTRK2-intact mice fail to respond to gonadotropins with increased Ntrk2 expression in the absence of KISS1R. Our results demonstrate that the preovulatory gonadotropin surge promotes oocyte survival at the onset of reproductive cyclicity by inducing oocyte expression of NTRK2.FL receptors that set in motion an AKT-mediated survival pathway. They also suggest that gonadotropins activate NTRK2.FL expression via a dual communication pathway involving BDNF and kisspeptin produced in GCs and their respective receptors NTRK2.T1 and KISS1R expressed in oocytes.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH110404(United States)

The physiological role of arcuate kisspeptin neurons in the control of reproductive function in female rats.

  • Beale KE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kisspeptin plays a pivotal role in pubertal onset and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya are located in 2 major populations: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). These nuclei are believed to play functionally distinct roles in the control of reproduction. The anteroventral periventricular nucleus population is thought to be critical in the generation of the LH surge. However, the physiological role played by the ARC kisspeptin neurons remains to be fully elucidated. We used bilateral stereotactic injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC of adult female rats to investigate the physiological role of kisspeptin neurons in this nucleus. Female rats with kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC displayed a significantly reduced number of both regular and complete oestrous cycles and significantly longer cycles over the 100-day period of the study. Further, kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC resulted in a decrease in LH pulse frequency. These data suggest that maintenance of ARC-kisspeptin levels is essential for normal pulsatile LH release and oestrous cyclicity.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110041(United States)

The two kisspeptin neuronal populations are differentially organized and activated by estradiol in mice.

  • Brock O
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

In rodents, kisspeptin-expressing neurons are localized in 2 hypothalamic brain nuclei (anteroventral periventricular nucleus/periventricular nucleus continuum [AVPv/PeN] and arcuate nucleus [ARC]) and modulated by sex steroids. By using wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice (which cannot convert testosterone into estradiol) and immunohistochemistry, we observed that WT females showed a continuous increase in kisspeptin peptide expression in the ARC across postnatal ages (postnatal day 5 [P5] to P25), whereas WT males did not show any expression before P25. Kisspeptin peptide expression was also present in ArKO females but did not increase over this early postnatal period, suggesting that kisspeptin peptide expression in the ARC is organized by estradiol-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We also compared kisspeptin peptide expression between groups of adult male and female mice that were left gonadally intact or gonadectomized and treated or not with estradiol (E(2)) or DHT. In the ARC, kisspeptin peptide expression decreased after gonadectomy but was completely rescued by either E(2) or DHT treatment in each sex/genotype. However, kisspeptin peptide expression was lower in ArKO compared with WT subjects. In the AVPv/PeN, ArKO females showed a male-typical kisspeptin peptide expression, and adult E(2) treatment partially restored kisspeptin peptide expression. Finally, we showed that, after E2 treatment of WT and ArKO mice between either P5 and P15 or P15 and P25, AVPv/PeN kisspeptin peptide expression could be still masculinized at P5, but was feminized from P15 onward. In conclusion, the 2 kisspeptin neuronal populations (AVPv/PeN vs ARC) seem to be differentially organized and activated by E(2).

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - FRN15686(Canada)
  • Wellcome Trust - BB/E52708X/1(United Kingdom)

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is a potent stimulator of GnRH and kisspeptin cells and may contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition in females.

  • True C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide implicated in both metabolic and reproductive regulation, raising the possibility that CART plays a role in reproductive inhibition during negative metabolic conditions. The current study characterized CART's regulatory influence on GnRH and kisspeptin (Kiss1) cells and determined the sensitivity of different CART populations to negative energy balance. CART fibers made close appositions to 60% of GnRH cells, with the majority of the fibers (>80%) originating from the arcuate nucleus (ARH) CART/pro-opiomelanocortin population. Electrophysiological recordings in GnRH-green fluorescent protein rats demonstrated that CART postsynaptically depolarizes GnRH cells. CART fibers from the ARH were also observed in close contact with Kiss1 cells in the ARH and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Recordings in Kiss1-GFP mice demonstrated CART also postsynaptically depolarizes ARH Kiss1 cells, suggesting CART may act directly and indirectly, via Kiss1 populations, to stimulate GnRH neurons. CART protein and mRNA levels were analyzed in 2 models of negative energy balance: caloric restriction (CR) and lactation. Both CART mRNA levels and the number of CART-immunoreactive cells were suppressed in the ARH during CR but not during lactation. AVPV CART mRNA was suppressed during CR, but not during lactation when there was a dramatic increase in CART-immunoreactive cells. These data suggest differing regulatory signals of CART between the models. In conclusion, both morphological and electrophysiological methods identify CART as a novel and potent stimulator of Kiss1 and GnRH neurons and suppression of CART expression during negative metabolic conditions could contribute to inhibition of the reproductive axis.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - K01 DA034728(United States)