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Anti-GAD67 antibody

RRID:AB_2278725

Antibody ID

AB_2278725

Target Antigen

GAD67 human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# MAB5406, RRID:AB_2278725)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: IH, IH(P), WB

Clone ID

1G10.2

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Millipore

Cat Num

MAB5406

Publications that use this research resource

Pathology of nNOS-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Choi S
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, in advance of the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region. The loss of GAD67+ neurons in APPSweDI mice accompanied with decreased spatial cognition as well as increased anxiety-like behaviors and kainic acid-induced seizure susceptibility at early phase. In the hippocampal CA1 region, GAD67+ neurons expressed high basal levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nitrosative stress (nitrotyrosine). Similarly, GAD67+ neurons in primary cortical and hippocampal neuron cultures also expressed high basal levels of nNOS and degenerated in response to lower Aβ concentrations due to their high basal levels of nitrosative stress. Given the role of GABAergic neurons in cognitive and neuropsychiatric functions, this study reports the role of nNOS-mediated nitrosative stress in dysfunction of GABAergic neurons and its potential participation in early development of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK073722(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS037766()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072511()

Organization of projection from brainstem auditory nuclei to the inferior colliculus of Japanese house bat (Pipistrellus abramus).

  • Ito T
  • Brain Behav
  • 2018 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Echolocating bats show remarkable specialization which is related to analysis of echoes of biosonars in subcortical auditory brainstem pathways. The inferior colliculus (IC) receives inputs from all lower brainstem auditory nuclei, i.e., cochlear nuclei, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and superior olivary complex, and create de novo responses to sound, which is considered crucial for echolocation. Inside the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), small domains which receive specific combination of extrinsic inputs are the basis of integration of sound information. In addition to extrinsic inputs, each domain is interconnected by local IC neurons but the cell types related to the interconnection are not well-understood. The primary objective of the current study is to examine whether the ascending inputs are reorganized and terminate in microdomains inside the ICC. METHODS: We made injection of a retrograde tracer into different parts of the ICC, and analyzed distribution of retrogradely labeled cells in the auditory brainstem of Japanese house bat (Pipistrellus abramus). RESULTS: Pattern of ascending projections from brainstem nuclei was similar to other bat species. Percentages of labeled cells in several nuclei were correlated each other. Furthermore, within the IC, we identified that large GABAergic (LG) and glutamatergic neurons made long-range connection. CONCLUSIONS: Synaptic organization of IC of Japanese house bat shows specialization which is likely to relate for echolocation. Input nuclei to the IC make clusters which terminate in specific part of the ICC, implying the presence of microdomains. LG neurons have roles for binding IC microdomains.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

C-Fos marking of identified midbrain neurons co-active after nicotine administration in-vivo.

  • Lingelbach K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the reduced life expectancy and staggering financial burden of medical treatment associated with tobacco smoking, the molecular, cellular and ensemble adaptations associated with chronic nicotine consumption remain poorly understood. Complex circuitry interconnecting dopaminergic and cholinergic regions of the midbrain and mesopontine tegmentum are critical for nicotine associated reward. Yet our knowledge of the nicotine activation of these regions is incomplete, in part due to their cell type diversity. We performed double immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene and surrogate activity sensor, c-Fos, and markers for either cholinergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic cell types in mice treated with nicotine. Both acute (0.5 mg/kg) and chronic (0.5 mg/kg/day for 7 days) nicotine strongly activated GABAergic neurons of the interpeduncular nucleus and medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract (MT). Acute but not chronic nicotine also activated small percentages of dopaminergic and other neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as well as non-cholinergic neurons in the pedunculotegmental and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (PTg/LDTg). 24 h of nicotine withdrawal after chronic nicotine treatment suppressed c-Fos activation in the MT. In comparison to nicotine, a single dose of cocaine caused a similar activation in the PTg/LDTg but not the VTA where GABAergic cells were strongly activated but dopaminergic neurons were not affected. These results indicate the existence of drug of abuse specific ensembles. The loss of ensemble activation in the VTA and PTg/LDTg after chronic nicotine represents a molecular and cellular tolerance which may have implications for the mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK062292(United States)

PTPσ drives excitatory presynaptic assembly via various extracellular and intracellular mechanisms.

  • Han KA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leukocyte common antigen-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are hub proteins that organize excitatory and inhibitory synapse development through binding to various extracellular ligands. Here, we report that knockdown (KD) of the LAR-RPTP family member PTPσ reduced excitatory synapse number and transmission in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas KD of PTPδ produced comparable decreases at inhibitory synapses, in both cases without altering expression levels of interacting proteins. An extensive series of rescue experiments revealed that extracellular interactions of PTPσ with Slitrks are important for excitatory synapse development. These experiments further showed that the intracellular D2 domain of PTPσ is required for induction of heterologous synapse formation by Slitrk1 or TrkC, suggesting that interaction of LAR-RPTPs with distinct intracellular presynaptic proteins drives presynaptic machinery assembly. Consistent with this, double-KD of liprin-α2 and -α3 or KD of PTPσ substrates (N-cadherin and p250RhoGAP) in neurons inhibited Slitrk6-induced, PTPσ-mediated heterologous synapse formation activity. We propose a synaptogenesis model in presynaptic neurons involving LAR-RPTP-organized retrograde signaling cascades, in which both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are critical in orchestrating distinct synapse types.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTIn this study, we sought to test the unproven hypothesis that PTPσ and PTPδ are required for excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation/transmission, respectively, in cultured hippocampal neurons, using knockdown-based loss-of-function analyses. We further performed extensive structure-function analyses, focusing on PTPσ-mediated actions, to address the mechanisms of presynaptic assembly at excitatory synaptic sites. Utilizing interdisciplinary approaches, we systematically applied varied set of PTPσ deletion variants, point mutants, and splice variants to demonstrate that both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are involved in organizing presynaptic assembly. Strikingly, extracellular interactions of PTPσ with heparan sulfates and Slitrks, intracellular interactions of PTPσ with liprin-α and its associated proteins through the D2 domain, as well as distinct substrates are all critical.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE14036(United States)

Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Paraventricular Thalamus Attenuate Cocaine Locomotor Sensitization.

  • Clark AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alterations in thalamic dopamine (DA) or DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) have been measured in drug addiction and schizophrenia, but the relevance of thalamic D2Rs for behavior is largely unknown. Using in situ hybridization and mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the Drd2 promoter, we found that D2R expression within the thalamus is enriched in the paraventricular nucleus (PVT) as well as in more ventral midline thalamic nuclei. Within the PVT, D2Rs are inhibitory as their activation inhibits neuronal action potentials in brain slices. Using Cre-dependent anterograde and retrograde viral tracers, we further determined that PVT neurons are reciprocally interconnected with multiple areas of the limbic system including the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Based on these anatomical findings, we analyzed the role of D2Rs in the PVT in behaviors that are supported by these areas and that also have relevance for schizophrenia and drug addiction. Male and female mice with selective overexpression of D2Rs in the PVT showed attenuated cocaine locomotor sensitization, whereas anxiety levels, fear conditioning, sensorimotor gating, and food-motivated behaviors were not affected. These findings suggest the importance of PVT inhibition by D2Rs in modulating the sensitivity to cocaine, a finding that may have novel implications for human drug use.

Immunolocalization of muscarinic M1 receptor in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

  • Oda S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions. Actually, M1R is abundant in mPFC. However, the proportion of somata containing M1R among cortical cellular types, and the precise intracellular localization of M1R remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the precise immunolocalization of M1R in rat mPFC, we examined three major cellular types, pyramidal neurons, inhibitory neurons, and astrocytes. M1R immunopositivity signals were found in the majority of the somata of both pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons. In pyramidal neurons, strong M1R immunopositivity signals were usually found throughout their somata and dendrites including spines. On the other hand, the signal strength of M1R immunopositivity in the somata of inhibitory neurons significantly varied. Some neurons showed strong signals. Whereas about 40% of GAD67-immunopositive neurons and 30% of parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons (PV neurons) showed only weak signals. In PV neurons, M1R immunopositivity signals were preferentially distributed in somata. Furthermore, we found that many astrocytes showed substantial M1R immunopositivity signals. These signals were also mainly distributed in their somata. Thus, the distribution pattern of M1R markedly differs between cellular types. This difference might underlie the cholinergic modulation of higher cognitive functions subserved by mPFC.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30DK056336(United States)

A Non-canonical Feedback Circuit for Rapid Interactions between Somatosensory Cortices.

  • Minamisawa G
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory perception depends on interactions among cortical areas. These interactions are mediated by canonical patterns of connectivity in which higher areas send feedback projections to lower areas via neurons in superficial and deep layers. Here, we probed the circuit basis of interactions among two areas critical for touch perception in mice, whisker primary (wS1) and secondary (wS2) somatosensory cortices. Neurons in layer 4 of wS2 (S2L4) formed a major feedback pathway to wS1. Feedback from wS2 to wS1 was organized somatotopically. Spikes evoked by whisker deflections occurred nearly as rapidly in wS2 as in wS1, including among putative S2L4 → S1 feedback neurons. Axons from S2L4 → S1 neurons sent stimulus orientation-specific activity to wS1. Optogenetic excitation of S2L4 neurons modulated activity across both wS2 and wS1, while inhibition of S2L4 reduced orientation tuning among wS1 neurons. Thus, a non-canonical feedback circuit, originating in layer 4 of S2, rapidly modulates early tactile processing.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01-HL070561(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS050274()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085121()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089652()

Rbfox1 Regulates Synaptic Transmission through the Inhibitory Neuron-Specific vSNARE Vamp1.

  • Vuong CK
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dysfunction of the neuronal RNA binding protein RBFOX1 has been linked to epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. Rbfox1 loss in mice leads to neuronal hyper-excitability and seizures, but the physiological basis for this is unknown. We identify the vSNARE protein Vamp1 as a major Rbfox1 target. Vamp1 is strongly downregulated in Rbfox1 Nes-cKO mice due to loss of 3' UTR binding by RBFOX1. Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 stimulates Vamp1 expression in part by blocking microRNA-9. We find that Vamp1 is specifically expressed in inhibitory neurons, and that both Vamp1 knockdown and Rbfox1 loss lead to decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission and E/I imbalance. Re-expression of Vamp1 selectively within interneurons rescues the electrophysiological changes in the Rbfox1 cKO, indicating that Vamp1 loss is a major contributor to the Rbfox1 Nes-cKO phenotype. The regulation of interneuron-specific Vamp1 by Rbfox1 provides a paradigm for broadly expressed RNA-binding proteins performing specialized functions in defined neuronal subtypes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK094311(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114463()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007185()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH060919()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH101684()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS093923()

JIP1-Mediated JNK Activation Negatively Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory.

  • Morel C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we examined the role of JNK activation mediated by the JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) scaffold protein. We compared male wild-type mice with a mouse model harboring a point mutation in the Jip1 gene that selectively blocks JIP1-mediated JNK activation. These male mutant mice exhibited increased NMDAR currents, increased NMDAR-mediated gene expression, and a lower threshold for induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation. The JIP1 mutant mice also displayed improved hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and enhanced associative fear conditioning. These results were confirmed using a second JIP1 mutant mouse model that suppresses JNK activity. Together, these observations establish that JIP1-mediated JNK activation contributes to the regulation of hippocampus-dependent, NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity and learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The results of this study demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation induced by the JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) scaffold protein negatively regulates the threshold for induction of long-term synaptic plasticity through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. This change in plasticity threshold influences learning. Indeed, mice with defects in JIP1-mediated JNK activation display enhanced memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze, indicating that JIP1-JNK constrains spatial memory. This study identifies JIP1-mediated JNK activation as a novel molecular pathway that negatively regulates NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - SC1 AG046907()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI-52786(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - S11 NS055883()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS083932()

Repeat propofol anesthesia does not exacerbate plaque deposition or synapse loss in APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease mice.

  • Woodhouse A
  • BMC Anesthesiol
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in whether anesthetic agents affect the risk or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To mitigate many of the methodological issues encountered in human retrospective cohort studies we have used a transgenic model of AD to investigate the effect of propofol on AD pathology. METHODS: Six month-old amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD mice and control mice were exposed to 3 doses of propofol (200 mg/kg) or vehicle, delivered at monthly intervals. RESULTS: There was no difference in the extent of β-amyloid (Aβ) immunolabeled plaque deposition in APP/PS1 mice in vehicle versus propofol treatment groups. We also detected no difference in plaque-associated synapse loss in APP/PS1 mice following repeat propofol exposure relative to vehicle. Western blotting indicated that there was no difference in post-synaptic density protein 95, synaptophysin or glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 expression in control or APP/PS1 mice subjected to repeat propofol treatment relative to vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that repeat propofol anesthesia may not exacerbate plaque deposition or associated synapse loss in AD. Interestingly, this data also provides some of the first evidence suggesting that repeat propofol exposure in adult wild-type mice does not result in robust long-term alterations in the levels of key excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers.

Funding information:
  • Alzheimer's Australia Dementia Research Foundation - N/A()
  • JO and JR Wicking Trust - N/A()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - AR42309(United States)
  • Royal Hospital Research Foundation - N/A()

Histamine Excites Striatal Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor-Expressing Neurons via Postsynaptic H1 and H2 Receptors.

  • Zhuang QX
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The central histaminergic nervous system, originating from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus, widely innervates almost the whole brain, including the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, the histaminergic system is altered in parkinsonian patients. Yet, little is known about the effect and mechanisms of histamine on different types of neurons in the basal ganglia circuitry. Here, by using anterograde tracing, immunostaining, patch clamp recording, and single-cell qPCR techniques, we investigate the histaminergic afferents in the striatum, the major input structure of the basal ganglia, as well as the effect of histamine on the striatal GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs). We report a direct histaminergic projection from the hypothalamic TMN to the striatum in rats. Furthermore, histamine exerts a strong postsynaptic excitatory effect on both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs. The concentration-response curves and the EC50 values for histamine on these two types of MSNs are similar. In addition, dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs co-express histamine H1 and H2 receptor mRNAs. Both histamine H1 and H2 receptors are co-localized on dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs and co-mediate the histamine-induced excitation on the two types of neurons. These results suggest that the histaminergic afferent inputs in the striatum may modulate both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs by activation of postsynaptic histamine H1 and H2 receptors and thus serve as an important extrastriatal modulator for biasing the direct and indirect pathways to actively regulate functions of the basal ganglia and participate in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of basal ganglia diseases.

Funding information:
  • Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China - Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 02081438()
  • Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China - SRFDP/RGC ERG grant 20130091140003()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31330033()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31471112()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31500848()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31771143()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81671107()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 91332124()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - NSFC/RGC Joint Research Scheme 31461163001()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province - BK20140599()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province - BK20151384()
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA131152(United States)

Collateral Projections Innervate the Mammillary Bodies and Retrosplenial Cortex: A New Category of Hippocampal Cells.

  • Kinnavane L
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29). These collateral projections included subiculum efferents that cross to the contralateral MBs. Within the granular RSP, the collateral projections form a particularly dense plexus in deep Layer II and Layer III. This retrosplenial termination site colocalized with markers for VGluT2 and neurotensin. While efferents from the hippocampal CA fields standardly collateralize, subiculum projections often have only one target site. Consequently, the many collateral projections involving the RSP and the MBs present a relatively unusual pattern for the subiculum, which presumably relates to how both targets have complementary roles in spatial processing. Furthermore, along with the anterior thalamic nuclei, the MBs and RSP are key members of a memory circuit, which is usually described as both starting and finishing in the hippocampus. The present findings reveal how the hippocampus simultaneously engages different parts of this circuit, so forcing an important revision of this network.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM63024(United States)

LRRTM1 underlies synaptic convergence in visual thalamus.

  • Monavarfeshani A
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has long been thought that the mammalian visual system is organized into parallel pathways, with incoming visual signals being parsed in the retina based on feature (e.g. color, contrast and motion) and then transmitted to the brain in unmixed, feature-specific channels. To faithfully convey feature-specific information from retina to cortex, thalamic relay cells must receive inputs from only a small number of functionally similar retinal ganglion cells. However, recent studies challenged this by revealing substantial levels of retinal convergence onto relay cells. Here, we sought to identify mechanisms responsible for the assembly of such convergence. Using an unbiased transcriptomics approach and targeted mutant mice, we discovered a critical role for the synaptic adhesion molecule Leucine Rich Repeat Transmembrane Neuronal 1 (LRRTM1) in the emergence of retinothalamic convergence. Importantly, LRRTM1 mutant mice display impairment in visual behaviors, suggesting a functional role of retinothalamic convergence in vision.

Funding information:
  • National Eye Institute - EY021222()
  • National Eye Institute - EY024712()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM059507-09(United States)
  • Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute - Medical Research Scholars Program()

Subcellular Localization and Activity of TRPM4 in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Layer 2/3.

  • Riquelme D
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel that conducts monovalent cations. TRPM4 has been proposed to contribute to burst firing and sustained activity in several brain regions, however, the cellular and subcellular pattern of TRPM4 expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during postnatal development has not been elucidated. Here, we use multiplex immunofluorescence labeling of brain sections to characterize the postnatal developmental expression of TRPM4 in the mouse mPFC. We also performed electrophysiological recordings to correlate the expression of TRPM4 immunoreactivity with the presence of TRPM4-like currents. We found that TRPM4 is expressed from the first postnatal day, with expression increasing up to postnatal day 35. Additionally, in perforated patch clamp experiments, we found that TRPM4-like currents were active at resting membrane potentials at all postnatal ages studied. Moreover, TRPM4 is expressed in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons. TRPM4 expression is localized in the soma and proximal dendrites, but not in the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons. This subcellular localization is consistent with a reduction in the basal current only when we locally perfused 9-Phenanthrol in the soma, but not upon perfusion in the medial or distal dendrites. Our results show a specific localization of TRPM4 expression in neurons in the mPFC and that a 9-Phenanthrol sensitive current is active at resting membrane potential, suggesting specific functional roles in mPFC neurons during postnatal development and in adulthood.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 281967(International)

Activity in the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is Necessary for the Therapeutic Effects of Extinction in Rats.

  • Fucich EA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects. The inhibitory Gi-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug CaMKIIα-hM4Di was expressed in vmPFC before administering chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). vmPFC projection neurons were then inhibited during extinction treatment by administering clozapine-N-oxide. Coping behavior and cognitive flexibility were assessed 24 h later on the shock-probe defensive burying test and attentional set-shifting test, respectively. Replicating previous results, extinction reversed the CUS-induced deficits in coping behavior and cognitive flexibility. Inhibiting vmPFC during extinction blocked these therapeutic effects. Further, increasing vmPFC activity with the excitatory Gq-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug hM3Dq 24 h before testing was sufficient to reverse the CUS-induced deficits. CUS reduced mPFC responsivity, assessed by measuring afferent-evoked field potentials in the mPFC, and this reduction was reversed by extinction treatment 24 h before testing. These results demonstrate the necessity of vmPFC activity in the therapeutic effects of extinction as a model of exposure therapy, and suggest that increased vmPFC activity induced by extinction is sufficient to produce lasting plastic changes that underlie its beneficial effects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress-related psychiatric disorders remain poorly treated. Psychotherapies can be effective, but their mechanisms remain unknown, hindering progress toward improved treatment. We used a rat model of behavioral therapy to identify potential targets for enhancing treatment. Fear extinction as a therapeutic behavioral intervention reversed stress-induced cognitive dysfunction and passive coping in rats, modeling components of stress-related psychiatric disease. Extinction also reversed stress-induced attenuation of mPFC responsivity. The therapeutic effects were prevented by blocking activity of glutamatergic neurons in the mPFC during extinction, and were mimicked by inducing activity in lieu of extinction. Thus, activity and plasticity in the mPFC underlie the beneficial effects of extinction on cognitive flexibility and coping behavior compromised by stress, and could be targets to enhance behavioral therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA118750(United States)

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation.

  • Toossi H
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABAARs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABAAR and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 5P01CA013106-38(United States)

Radial Glial Fibers Promote Neuronal Migration and Functional Recovery after Neonatal Brain Injury.

  • Jinnou H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK082659(United States)

Distribution and diversity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in tree shrew.

  • Johnson EN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates. They are highly visual, diurnal animals with a cone-dominated retina and a geniculo-cortical organization resembling that of primates. We identified cells with morphological similarities to M1 and M2 cells described previously in rodents and primates. M1-like cells typically had somas in the ganglion cell layer, with 23% displaced to the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, unlike M1 cells, they had bistratified dendritic fields ramifying in S1 and S5 that collectively tiled space. M2-like cells had dendritic fields restricted to S5 that were smaller and more densely branching. A novel third type of melanopsin immunopositive cell was identified. These cells had somata exclusively in the INL and monostratified dendritic fields restricted to S1 that tiled space. Surprisingly, these cells immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key component in dopamine synthesis. These cells immunolabeled for an RGC marker, not amacrine cell markers, suggesting that they are dopaminergic ipRGCs. We found no evidence for M4 or M5 ipRGCs, described previously in rodents. These results identify some organizational features of the ipRGC system that are canonical versus species-specific.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024567()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY027193()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004401(United States)

Mechanosensory-Based Phase Coding of Odor Identity in the Olfactory Bulb.

  • Iwata R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitral and tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb produce rich temporal patterns of activity in response to different odors. However, it remains unknown how these temporal patterns are generated and how they are utilized in olfaction. Here we show that temporal patterning effectively discriminates between the two sensory modalities detected by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): odor and airflow-driven mechanical signals. Sniff-induced mechanosensation generates glomerulus-specific oscillatory activity in M/T cells, whose phase was invariant across airflow speed. In contrast, odor stimulation caused phase shifts (phase coding). We also found that odor-evoked phase shifts are concentration invariant and stable across multiple sniff cycles, contrary to the labile nature of rate coding. The loss of oscillatory mechanosensation impaired the precision and stability of phase coding, demonstrating its role in olfaction. We propose that phase, not rate, coding is a robust encoding strategy of odor identity and is ensured by airflow-induced mechanosensation in OSNs.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - G0401641(United Kingdom)

Tonotopic alterations in inhibitory input to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome.

  • McCullagh EA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hyperexcitability and the imbalance of excitation/inhibition are one of the leading causes of abnormal sensory processing in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The precise timing and distribution of excitation and inhibition is crucial for auditory processing at the level of the auditory brainstem, which is responsible for sound localization ability. Sound localization is one of the sensory abilities disrupted by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. Using triple immunofluorescence staining we tested whether there were alterations in the number and size of presynaptic structures for the three primary neurotransmitters (glutamate, glycine, and GABA) in the auditory brainstem of Fmr1 knockout mice. We found decreases in either glycinergic or GABAergic inhibition to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) specific to the tonotopic location within the nucleus. MNTB is one of the primary inhibitory nuclei in the auditory brainstem and participates in the sound localization process with fast and well-timed inhibition. Thus, a decrease in inhibitory afferents to MNTB neurons should lead to greater inhibitory output to the projections from this nucleus. In contrast, we did not see any other significant alterations in balance of excitation/inhibition in any of the other auditory brainstem nuclei measured, suggesting that the alterations observed in the MNTB are both nucleus and frequency specific. We furthermore show that glycinergic inhibition may be an important contributor to imbalances in excitation and inhibition in FXS and that the auditory brainstem is a useful circuit for testing these imbalances.

Neurochemical differences between target-specific populations of rat dorsal raphe projection neurons.

  • Prouty EW
  • Brain Res.
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits. The goal of this study was to link DR neurons to a specific functional role by characterizing cells according to both their neurotransmitter expression and efferent connectivity; specifically, cells projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in cognition, emotion, and responses to stress. Following retrograde tracer injection, brainstem sections from Sprague-Dawley rats were immunohistochemically stained for markers of serotonin, glutamate, GABA, and nitric oxide (NO). 98% of the mPFC-projecting serotonergic neurons co-expressed the marker for glutamate, while the markers for NO and GABA were observed in 60% and less than 1% of those neurons, respectively. To identify potential target-specific differences in co-transmitter expression, we also characterized DR neurons projecting to a visual sensory structure, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The proportion of serotonergic neurons co-expressing NO was greater amongst cells targeting the mPFC vs LGN (60% vs 22%). The established role of 5-HT in affective disorders and the emerging role of NO in stress signaling suggest that the impact of 5-HT/NO co-localization in DR neurons that regulate mPFC circuit function may be clinically relevant.

cTag-PAPERCLIP Reveals Alternative Polyadenylation Promotes Cell-Type Specific Protein Diversity and Shifts Araf Isoforms with Microglia Activation.

  • Hwang HW
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is increasingly recognized to regulate gene expression across different cell types, but obtaining APA maps from individual cell types typically requires prior purification, a stressful procedure that can itself alter cellular states. Here, we describe a new platform, cTag-PAPERCLIP, that generates APA profiles from single cell populations in intact tissues; cTag-PAPERCLIP requires no tissue dissociation and preserves transcripts in native states. Applying cTag-PAPERCLIP to profile four major cell types in the mouse brain revealed common APA preferences between excitatory and inhibitory neurons distinct from astrocytes and microglia, regulated in part by neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins NOVA2 and PTBP2. We further identified a role of APA in switching Araf protein isoforms during microglia activation, impacting production of downstream inflammatory cytokines. Our results demonstrate the broad applicability of cTag-PAPERCLIP and a previously undiscovered role of APA in contributing to protein diversity between different cell types and cellular states within the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - UM1 HG008901()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS034389()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081706()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097404()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS034389()

HDAC5 and Its Target Gene, Npas4, Function in the Nucleus Accumbens to Regulate Cocaine-Conditioned Behaviors.

  • Taniguchi M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Individuals suffering from substance-use disorders develop strong associations between the drug's rewarding effects and environmental cues, creating powerful, enduring triggers for relapse. We found that dephosphorylated, nuclear histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) reduced cocaine reward-context associations and relapse-like behaviors in a cocaine self-administration model. We also discovered that HDAC5 associates with an activity-sensitive enhancer of the Npas4 gene and negatively regulates NPAS4 expression. Exposure to cocaine and the test chamber induced rapid and transient NPAS4 expression in a small subpopulation of FOS-positive neurons in the NAc. Conditional deletion of Npas4 in the NAc significantly reduced cocaine conditioned place preference and delayed learning of the drug-reinforced action during cocaine self-administration, without affecting cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. These data suggest that HDAC5 and NPAS4 in the NAc are critically involved in reward-relevant learning and memory processes and that nuclear HDAC5 limits reinstatement of drug seeking independent of NPAS4.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA008227()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA027664()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA032708()

Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Cerebellar Motor Control and Ataxia.

  • Wang Y
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellar ataxia, characterized by motor incoordination, postural instability, and gait abnormality [1-3], greatly affects daily activities and quality of life. Although accumulating genetic and non-genetic etiological factors have been revealed [4-7], effective therapies for cerebellar ataxia are still lacking. Intriguingly, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter [8, 9], is considered a putative neurotransmitter in the olivo-cerebellar system [10-14]. Notably, decreased levels of CRF in the inferior olive (IO), the sole origin of cerebellar climbing fibers, have been reported in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration or olivopontocerebellar atrophy [15, 16], yet little is known about the exact role of CRF in cerebellar motor coordination and ataxia. Here we report that deficiency of CRF in the olivo-cerebellar system induces ataxia-like motor abnormalities. CRFergic neurons in the IO project directly to the cerebellar nuclei, the ultimate integration and output node of the cerebellum, and CRF selectively excites glutamatergic projection neurons rather than GABAergic neurons in the cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IN) via two CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, and their downstream inward rectifier K+ channel and/or hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel. Furthermore, CRF promotes cerebellar motor coordination and rescues ataxic motor deficits. The findings define a previously unknown role for CRF in the olivo-cerebellar system in the control of gait, posture, and motor coordination, and provide new insight into the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment strategy of cerebellar ataxia.

Input-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA2 Region and Its Potential Role in Social Memory.

  • Leroy F
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Input-timing-dependent plasticity (ITDP) is a circuit-based synaptic learning rule by which paired activation of entorhinal cortical (EC) and Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) produces a long-term enhancement of SC excitation. We now find that paired stimulation of EC and SC inputs also induces ITDP of SC excitation of CA2 PNs. However, whereas CA1 ITDP results from long-term depression of feedforward inhibition (iLTD) as a result of activation of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors on cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons, CA2 ITDP results from iLTD through activation of δ-opioid receptors on parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Furthermore, whereas CA1 ITDP has been previously linked to enhanced specificity of contextual memory, we find that CA2 ITDP is associated with enhanced social memory. Thus, ITDP may provide a general synaptic learning rule for distinct forms of hippocampal-dependent memory mediated by distinct hippocampal regions.

Distinct Neural Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of Episodic Memories.

  • Roy DS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.

Differential Control of Dopaminergic Excitability and Locomotion by Cholinergic Inputs in Mouse Substantia Nigra.

  • Estakhr J
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Understanding how dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) govern movements requires a detailed knowledge of how different neurotransmitter systems modulate DA neuronal excitability. We report a heterogeneity of electrophysiological properties between medial and lateral SNc neurons modulated by cholinergic neurotransmission. Lateral DA neurons received mainly excitatory (nicotinic or glutamatergic) mediated cholinergic neurotransmission. Medial DA neurons received predominantly GABAergic currents mediated by presynaptic nicotinic receptors or biphasic GABAergic and nicotinic neurotransmission conveyed by GABA and ACh corelease, which inhibited DA neurons. To examine whether cholinergic signaling in the SNc controls mouse behavior, we used optogenetics in awake behaving mice and found that activation of cholinergic terminals in the medial SNc decreased locomotion, whereas activation in the lateral SNc increased locomotion. Our findings provide novel insights on how cholinergic inputs to subregions of the SNc regulate the excitability of DA neurons differentially, resulting in different patterns of motor behavior.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM048677()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM103801()

Epidermal growth factor signals attenuate phenotypic and functional development of neocortical GABA neurons.

  • Namba H
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Phenotypic development of neocortical GABA neurons is highly plastic and promoted by various neurotrophic factors such as neuregulin-1. A subpopulation of GABA neurons expresses not only neuregulin receptor (ErbB4) but also epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (ErbB1) during development, but the neurobiological action of EGF on this cell population is less understood than that of neuregulin-1. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous EGF on immature GABA neurons both in culture and in vivo and also explored physiological consequences in adults. We prepared low density cultures from the neocortex of rat embryos and treated neocortical neurons with EGF. EGF decreased protein levels of glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD65 and GAD67), and EGF influences on neuronal survival and glial proliferation were negligible or limited. The EGF treatment also diminished the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). In vivo administration of EGF to mouse pups reproduced the above GABAergic phenomena in neocortical culture. In EGF-injected postnatal mice, GAD- and parvalbumin-immunoreactivities were reduced in the frontal cortex. In addition, postnatal EGF treatment decreased mIPSC frequency in, and the density of, GABAergic terminals on pyramidal cells. Although these phenotypic influences on GABA neurons became less marked during development, it later resulted in the reduced β- and γ-powers of sound-evoked electroencephalogram in adults, which is regulated by parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons and implicated in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. These findings suggest that, in contrast to the ErbB4 ligand of neuregulin-1, the ErbB1 ligand of EGF exerts unique maturation-attenuating influences on developing cortical GABAergic neurons.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 090108/Z/09/Z(United Kingdom)

Mid-life environmental enrichment increases synaptic density in CA1 in a mouse model of Aβ-associated pathology and positively influences synaptic and cognitive health in healthy ageing.

  • Stuart KE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Early-life cognitive enrichment may reduce the risk of experiencing cognitive deterioration and dementia in later-life. However, an intervention to prevent or delay dementia is likely to be taken up in mid to later-life. Hence, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment in wildtype mice and in a mouse model of Aβ neuropathology (APPSWE /PS1dE9 ) from 6 months of age. After 6 months of housing in standard laboratory cages, APPSWE /PS1dE9 (n = 27) and healthy wildtype (n = 21) mice were randomly assigned to either enriched or standard housing. At 12 months of age, wildtype mice showed altered synaptic protein levels and relatively superior cognitive performance afforded by environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment was not associated with alterations to Aβ plaque pathology in the neocortex or hippocampus of APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice. However, a significant increase in synaptophysin immunolabeled puncta in the hippocampal subregion, CA1, in APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice was detected, with no significant synaptic density changes observed in CA3, or the Fr2 region of the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF was detected in APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice exposed to EE, however, no changes were detected in neocortex or between Wt animals. These results demonstrate that mid to later-life cognitive enrichment has the potential to promote synaptic and cognitive health in ageing, and to enhance compensatory capacity for synaptic connectivity in pathological ageing associated with Aβ deposition.

Short-Term Depression of Sprouted Mossy Fiber Synapses from Adult-Born Granule Cells.

  • Hendricks WD
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epileptic seizures potently modulate hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and adult-born dentate granule cells contribute to the pathologic retrograde sprouting of mossy fiber axons, both hallmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The characteristics of these sprouted synapses, however, have been largely unexplored, and the specific contribution of adult-born granule cells to functional mossy fiber sprouting is unknown, primarily due to technical barriers in isolating sprouted mossy fiber synapses for analysis. Here, we used DcxCreERT2 transgenic mice to permanently pulse-label age-defined cohorts of granule cells born either before or after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Using optogenetics, we demonstrate that adult-born granule cells born before SE form functional recurrent monosynaptic excitatory connections with other granule cells. Surprisingly, however, although healthy mossy fiber synapses in CA3 are well characterized "detonator" synapses that potently drive postsynaptic cell firing through their profound frequency-dependent facilitation, sprouted mossy fiber synapses from adult-born cells exhibited profound frequency-dependent depression, despite possessing some of the morphological hallmarks of mossy fiber terminals. Mature granule cells also contributed to functional mossy fiber sprouting, but exhibited less synaptic depression. Interestingly, granule cells born shortly after SE did not form functional excitatory synapses, despite robust sprouting. Our results suggest that, although sprouted mossy fibers form recurrent excitatory circuits with some of the morphological characteristics of typical mossy fiber terminals, the functional characteristics of sprouted synapses would limit the contribution of adult-born granule cells to hippocampal hyperexcitability in the epileptic hippocampus.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the hippocampal dentate gyrus, seizures drive retrograde sprouting of granule cell mossy fiber axons. We directly activated sprouted mossy fiber synapses from adult-born granule cells to study their synaptic properties. We reveal that sprouted synapses from adult-born granule cells have a diminished ability to sustain recurrent excitation in the epileptic hippocampus, which raises questions about the role of sprouting and adult neurogenesis in sustaining seizure-like activity.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX002949()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS098597()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS061800()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080979()

Development of a systems-based in situ multiplex biomarker screening approach for the assessment of immunopathology and neural tissue plasticity in male rats after traumatic brain injury.

  • Bogoslovsky T
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) pose a massive burden of disease and continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A major obstacle in developing effective treatments is the lack of comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms that mediate tissue damage and recovery after TBI. As such, our work aims to highlight the development of a novel experimental platform capable of fully characterizing the underlying pathobiology that unfolds after TBI. This platform encompasses an empirically optimized multiplex immunohistochemistry staining and imaging system customized to screen for a myriad of biomarkers required to comprehensively evaluate the extent of neuroinflammation, neural tissue damage, and repair in response to TBI. Herein, we demonstrate that our multiplex biomarker screening platform is capable of evaluating changes in both the topographical location and functional states of resident and infiltrating cell types that play a role in neuropathology after controlled cortical impact injury to the brain in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results demonstrate that our multiplex biomarker screening platform lays the groundwork for the comprehensive characterization of changes that occur within the brain after TBI. Such work may ultimately lead to the understanding of the governing pathobiology of TBI, thereby fostering the development of novel therapeutic interventions tailored to produce optimal tissue protection, repair, and/or regeneration with minimal side effects, and may ultimately find utility in a wide variety of other neurological injuries, diseases, and disorders that share components of TBI pathobiology.

Chronic Loss of CA2 Transmission Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability.

  • Boehringer R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network. In behaving mice, this led to spatially triggered episodes of network-wide hyperexcitability during exploration accompanied by the emergence of high-frequency discharges during rest. These findings reveal CA2 as a regulator of network processing in hippocampus and suggest that CA2-mediated inhibition in CA3 plays a key role in establishing the dynamic excitatory and inhibitory balance required for proper network function.

Migrating Interneurons Secrete Fractalkine to Promote Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Developing Mammalian Brain.

  • Voronova A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, newborn interneurons migrate throughout the embryonic brain. Here, we provide evidence that these interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to regulate developmental oligodendrocyte formation. Specifically, we show that medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) interneurons secrete factors that promote genesis of oligodendrocytes from glially biased cortical precursors in culture. Moreover, when MGE interneurons are genetically ablated in vivo prior to their migration, this causes a deficit in cortical oligodendrogenesis. Modeling of the interneuron-precursor paracrine interaction using transcriptome data identifies the cytokine fractalkine as responsible for the pro-oligodendrocyte effect in culture. This paracrine interaction is important in vivo, since knockdown of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in embryonic cortical precursors, or constitutive knockout of CX3CR1, causes decreased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes in the postnatal cortex. Thus, in addition to their role in regulating neuronal excitability, interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to promote the developmental genesis of oligodendrocytes.

Transformation of Cortex-wide Emergent Properties during Motor Learning.

  • Makino H
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Learning involves a transformation of brain-wide operation dynamics. However, our understanding of learning-related changes in macroscopic dynamics is limited. Here, we monitored cortex-wide activity of the mouse brain using wide-field calcium imaging while the mouse learned a motor task over weeks. Over learning, the sequential activity across cortical modules became temporally more compressed, and its trial-by-trial variability decreased. Moreover, a new flow of activity emerged during learning, originating from premotor cortex (M2), and M2 became predictive of the activity of many other modules. Inactivation experiments showed that M2 is critical for the post-learning dynamics in the cortex-wide activity. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging revealed that M2 ensemble activity also showed earlier activity onset and reduced variability with learning, which was accompanied by changes in the activity-movement relationship. These results reveal newly emergent properties of macroscopic cortical dynamics during motor learning and highlight the importance of M2 in controlling learned movements.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY025349()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014690()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC012641()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091010()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS094342()

GABAergic Neurons in Ferret Visual Cortex Participate in Functionally Specific Networks.

  • Wilson DE
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Functional circuits in the visual cortex require the coordinated activity of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Molecular genetic approaches in the mouse have led to the "local non-specific pooling principle" of inhibitory connectivity, in which inhibitory neurons are untuned for stimulus features due to the random pooling of local inputs. However, it remains unclear whether this principle generalizes to species with a columnar organization of feature selectivity such as carnivores, primates, and humans. Here we use virally mediated GABAergic-specific GCaMP6f expression to demonstrate that inhibitory neurons in ferret visual cortex respond robustly and selectively to oriented stimuli. We find that the tuning of inhibitory neurons is inconsistent with the local non-specific pooling of excitatory inputs and that inhibitory neurons exhibit orientation-specific noise correlations with local and distant excitatory neurons. These findings challenge the generality of the non-specific pooling principle for inhibitory neurons, suggesting different rules for functional excitatory-inhibitory interactions in non-murine species.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY011488()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023408()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH071679()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS074972()

Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

  • Patel MB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Single-Cell Profiling of an In Vitro Model of Human Interneuron Development Reveals Temporal Dynamics of Cell Type Production and Maturation.

  • Close JL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

GABAergic interneurons are essential for neural circuit function, and their loss or dysfunction is implicated in human neuropsychiatric disease. In vitro methods for interneuron generation hold promise for studying human cellular and functional properties and, ultimately, for therapeutic cell replacement. Here we describe a protocol for generating cortical interneurons from hESCs and analyze the properties and maturation time course of cell types using single-cell RNA-seq. We find that the cell types produced mimic in vivo temporal patterns of neuron and glial production, with immature progenitors and neurons observed early and mature cortical neurons and glial cell types produced late. By comparing the transcriptomes of immature interneurons to those of more mature neurons, we identified genes important for human interneuron differentiation. Many of these genes were previously implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R24 HD000836()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - DP1 MH099906()

Regulation of Thalamic and Cortical Network Synchrony by Scn8a.

  • Makinson CD
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations cause severe epilepsies marked by intermittent, pathological hypersynchronous brain states. Here we present two mechanisms that help to explain how mutations in one VGSC gene, Scn8a, contribute to two distinct seizure phenotypes: (1) hypoexcitation of cortical circuits leading to convulsive seizure resistance, and (2) hyperexcitation of thalamocortical circuits leading to non-convulsive absence epilepsy. We found that loss of Scn8a leads to altered RT cell intrinsic excitability and a failure in recurrent RT synaptic inhibition. We propose that these deficits cooperate to enhance thalamocortical network synchrony and generate pathological oscillations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first clear demonstration of a pathological state tied to disruption of the RT-RT synapse. Our observation that loss of a single gene in the thalamus of an adult wild-type animal is sufficient to cause spike-wave discharges is striking and represents an example of absence epilepsy of thalamic origin.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS034774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048336()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065187()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072221()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090911()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007280()

Leaky Gate Model: Intensity-Dependent Coding of Pain and Itch in the Spinal Cord.

  • Sun S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coding of itch versus pain has been heatedly debated for decades. However, the current coding theories (labeled line, intensity, and selectivity theory) cannot accommodate all experimental observations. Here we identified a subset of spinal interneurons, labeled by gastrin-releasing peptide (Grp), that receive direct synaptic input from both pain and itch primary sensory neurons. When activated, these Grp+ neurons generated rarely seen, simultaneous robust pain and itch responses that were intensity dependent. Accordingly, we propose a "leaky gate" model in which Grp+ neurons transmit both itch and weak pain signals; however, upon strong painful stimuli, the recruitment of endogenous opioids works to close this gate, reducing overwhelming pain generated by parallel pathways. Consistent with our model, loss of these Grp+ neurons increased pain responses while itch was decreased. Our new model serves as an example of non-monotonic coding in the spinal cord and better explains observations in human psychophysical studies.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024704()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI125743()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE022750()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS054791()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070814()

Selective plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneuron populations following kindling of different brain regions.

  • Botterill JJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The vulnerability and plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is a topic of broad interest and debate in the field of epilepsy. In this experiment, we used the electrical kindling model of epilepsy to determine whether seizures that originate in different brain regions have differential effects on hippocampal interneuron subpopulations. Long-Evans rats received 99 electrical stimulations of the hippocampus, amygdala, or caudate nucleus, followed by sacrifice and immunohistochemical or western blot analyses. We analyzed markers of dendritic (somatostatin), perisomatic (parvalbumin), and interneuron-selective (calretinin) inhibition, as well as an overall indicator (GAD67) of interneuron distribution across all major hippocampal subfields. Our results indicate that kindling produces selective effects on the number and morphology of different functional classes of GABAergic interneurons. In particular, limbic kindling appears to enhance dendritic inhibition, indicated by a greater number of somatostatin-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the CA1 pyramidal layer and robust morphological sprouting in the dentate gyrus. We also found a reduction in the number of interneuron-selective calretinin-ir cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal-kindled rats, which suggests a possible reduction of synchronized dendritic inhibition. In contrast, perisomatic inhibition indicated by parvalbumin immunoreactivity appears to be largely resilient to the effects of kindling. Finally, we found a significant induction in the number of GAD67-cells in caudate-kindled rats in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields. Taken together, our results demonstrate that kindling has subfield-selective effects on the different functional classes of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:389-406, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Transient oxytocin signaling primes the development and function of excitatory hippocampal neurons.

  • Ripamonti S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons. Conversely, genetic elimination of oxytocin receptors increases the expression of protein components of excitatory synapses and excitatory synaptic transmission in vitro. In vivo, oxytocin-receptor-deficient hippocampal pyramidal neurons develop more complex dendrites, which leads to increased spine number and reduced γ-oscillations. These results indicate that oxytocin controls the development of hippocampal excitatory neurons and contributes to the maintenance of a physiological excitation/inhibition balance, whose disruption can cause neurobehavioral disturbances.

Organization of the Claustrum-to-Entorhinal Cortical Connection in Mice.

  • Kitanishi T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored. Here, we investigated the organization and function of identified claustro-cortical pathways in mice using multiple anatomical and optogenetic techniques. Retrograde and anterograde tracing demonstrated that the density of anterior claustrum-to-cortical projection differs substantially depending on the target cortical areas. One of the major targets was the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the MEC-projecting claustral neurons were largely segregated from the neurons projecting to primary cortices M1, S1, or V1. Exposure to a novel environment induced c-Fos expression in a substantial number of MEC-projecting claustral neurons and some M1/S1/V1-projecting claustral neurons. Optogenetic silencing of the MEC-projecting claustral neurons during contextual fear conditioning impaired later memory retrieval without affecting basal locomotor activity or anxiety-related behavior. These results suggest that the dense, anterior claustro-MEC pathway that is largely separated from other claustro-cortical pathways is activated by novel context and modulates the MEC function in contextual memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The claustrum is a poorly understood subcortical structure reciprocally connected with widespread neocortical regions. We investigated the organization and function of identified claustro-cortical projections in mice using pathway-specific approaches. Anatomical tracing showed that the density of anterior claustrum-to-cortical projection is dependent on the target cortical areas and that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is one of the major projection targets. Novel context exposure activated multiple claustro-cortical pathways and a large fraction of the activated neurons projected to the MEC. Optogenetic silencing of the claustro-MEC pathway during contextual fear learning suppressed subsequent memory retrieval. These results suggest that the dense claustro-MEC pathway is activated by novel context and modulates MEC function in contextual memory.

SUMOylation of NaV1.2 channels mediates the early response to acute hypoxia in central neurons.

  • Plant LD
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism for the earliest response of central neurons to hypoxia-an increase in voltage-gated sodium current (INa)-has been unknown. Here, we show that hypoxia activates the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) pathway in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) and that SUMOylation of NaV1.2 channels increases INa. The time-course for SUMOylation of single NaV1.2 channels at the cell surface and changes in INa coincide, and both are prevented by mutation of NaV1.2-Lys38 or application of a deSUMOylating enzyme. Within 40 s, hypoxia-induced linkage of SUMO1 to the channels is complete, shifting the voltage-dependence of channel activation so that depolarizing steps evoke larger sodium currents. Given the recognized role of INa in hypoxic brain damage, the SUMO pathway and NaV1.2 are identified as potential targets for neuroprotective interventions.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL105949()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111716()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS056313()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS058505()

Activity-dependent switch of GABAergic inhibition into glutamatergic excitation in astrocyte-neuron networks.

  • Perea G
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interneurons are critical for proper neural network function and can activate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes. However, the impact of the interneuron-astrocyte signaling into neuronal network operation remains unknown. Using the simplest hippocampal Astrocyte-Neuron network, i.e., GABAergic interneuron, pyramidal neuron, single CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapse, and astrocytes, we found that interneuron-astrocyte signaling dynamically affected excitatory neurotransmission in an activity- and time-dependent manner, and determined the sign (inhibition vs potentiation) of the GABA-mediated effects. While synaptic inhibition was mediated by GABAA receptors, potentiation involved astrocyte GABAB receptors, astrocytic glutamate release, and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Using conditional astrocyte-specific GABAB receptor (Gabbr1) knockout mice, we confirmed the glial source of the interneuron-induced potentiation, and demonstrated the involvement of astrocytes in hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations in vivo. Therefore, astrocytes decode interneuron activity and transform inhibitory into excitatory signals, contributing to the emergence of novel network properties resulting from the interneuron-astrocyte interplay.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH100024()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS097312()

In Utero Exposure to Valproic Acid Induces Neocortical Dysgenesis via Dysregulation of Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation/Differentiation.

  • Fujimura K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, which epigenetically modify cell proliferation/differentiation in developing tissues. A series of recent clinical studies in humans reported that VPA exposure in utero impaired histogenesis and the development of the central nervous system, leading to increased risks of congenital malformation and the impairment of higher brain functions in children. In the present study conducted in mice, we report that VPA exposure in utero (1) increases the amount of acetylated histone proteins, (2) alters the expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins, (3) inhibits the cell cycle exit of neural progenitor cells during the early stage of neocortical histogenesis, and (4) increases the production of projection neurons distributed in the superficial neocortical layers in embryonic brains. Together, our findings show that VPA exposure in utero alters proliferation/differentiation characteristics of neural progenitor cells and hence leads to the neocortical dysgenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of how an altered in utero environment, such as drug exposure, affects the generation of neurons prenatally. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is a good target molecule as in utero exposure to VPA has been repeatedly reported to increase the risk of nervous system malformations and to impair higher brain functions in children. We show that VPA decreases the probability of differentiation of the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in mice, resulting in an abnormally increased number of projection neurons in the superficial layers of the neocortex. Further, we suggest that histone deacetylase inhibition by VPA may be involved in the dysregulation of proliferation/differentiation characteristics of NPCs.

The Foxb1-expressing neurons of the ventrolateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus project to defensive circuits.

  • Bilella A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The parvafox nucleus is an elongated structure that is lodged within the ventrolateral hypothalamus and lies along the optic tract. It comprises axially located parvalbumin (Parv)-positive neurons and a peripheral cuff of Foxb1-expressing ones. In the present study, injections of Cre-dependent adenoviral constructs were targeted to the ventrolateral hypothalamus of Foxb1/Cre mice to label specifically and map the efferent connections of the Foxb1-expressing subpopulation of neurons of the parvafox nucleus. These neurons project more widely than do the Parv-positive ones and implicate a part of the axons known to emanate from the lateral hypothalamus. High labeling densities were found in the dorsolateral and the upper lateral portion of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the Su3 and PV2 nuclei of the ventrolateral PAG, the cuneiform nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation, and the superior colliculus. Intermediate densities of terminals were encountered in the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia innominata, various thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, pedunculopontine nucleus, Barrington's nucleus, retrofacial nucleus, and retroambigual nucleus. Scattered terminals were observed in the olfactory bulbs, the prefrontal cortex and the lamina X of the cervical spinal cord. Because the terminals were demonstrated to express the glutamate transporter VGlut2, the projections are presumed to be excitatory. A common denominator of the main target sites of the Foxb1-positive axons of the parvafox nucleus appears to be an involvement in the defensive reactions to life-threatening situations. The hypothalamic parvafox nucleus may contribute to the autonomic manifestations that accompany the expression of emotions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2955-2981, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Strategies and Tools for Combinatorial Targeting of GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Cerebral Cortex.

  • He M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Systematic genetic access to GABAergic cell types will facilitate studying the function and development of inhibitory circuitry. However, single gene-driven recombinase lines mark relatively broad and heterogeneous cell populations. Although intersectional approaches improve precision, it remains unclear whether they can capture cell types defined by multiple features. Here we demonstrate that combinatorial genetic and viral approaches target restricted GABAergic subpopulations and cell types characterized by distinct laminar location, morphology, axonal projection, and electrophysiological properties. Intersectional embryonic transcription factor drivers allow finer fate mapping of progenitor pools that give rise to distinct GABAergic populations, including laminar cohorts. Conversion of progenitor fate restriction signals to constitutive recombinase expression enables viral targeting of cell types based on their lineage and birth time. Properly designed intersection, subtraction, conversion, and multi-color reporters enhance the precision and versatility of drivers and viral vectors. These strategies and tools will facilitate studying GABAergic neurons throughout the mouse brain.

Psychedelics Recruit Multiple Cellular Types and Produce Complex Transcriptional Responses Within the Brain.

  • Martin DA
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

There has recently been a resurgence of interest in psychedelics, substances that profoundly alter perception and cognition and have recently demonstrated therapeutic efficacy to treat anxiety, depression, and addiction in the clinic. The receptor mechanisms that drive their molecular and behavioral effects involve activation of cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but the responses of specific cellular populations remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that a small subset of 5-HT2A-expressing excitatory neurons is directly activated by psychedelics and subsequently recruits other select cell types including subpopulations of inhibitory somatostatin and parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons, as well as astrocytes, to produce distinct and regional responses. To gather data regarding the response of specific neuronal populations, we developed methodology for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to segregate and enrich specific cellular subtypes in the brain. These methods allow for robust neuronal sorting based on cytoplasmic epitopes followed by downstream nucleic acid analysis, expanding the utility of FACS in neuroscience research.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS072030(United States)

Brn3a and Brn3b knockout mice display unvaried retinal fine structure despite major morphological and numerical alterations of ganglion cells.

  • Ghinia MG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ganglion cells (GCs), the retinal output neurons, receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and send information to the brain nuclei via the optic nerve. Although GCs constitute less than 1% of the total retinal cells, they occur in numerous types and are the first neurons formed during retinal development. Using Brn3a and Brn3b mutant mice in which the alkaline phosphatase gene was knocked-in (Badea et al. [Neuron] 2009;61:852-864; Badea and Nathans [Vision Res] 2011;51:269-279), we studied the general effects after gene removal on the retinal neuropil together with the consequences of lack of development of large numbers of GCs onto the remaining retinal neurons of the same class. We analyzed the morphology, number, and general architecture of various neuronal types presynaptic to GCs, searching for changes secondary to the decrement in the number of their postsynaptic partners, as well as the morphology and distribution of retinal astrocytes, for their strong topographical relation to GCs. We found that, despite GC losses, retinal organization in Brn3 null mice is remarkably similar to that of wild-type controls. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL110952(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS041590(United States)

ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains.

  • Held RG
  • Elife
  • 2016 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming.

Hippocampal Somatostatin Interneurons Control the Size of Neuronal Memory Ensembles.

  • Stefanelli T
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal neurons activated during encoding drive the recall of contextual fear memory. Little is known about how such ensembles emerge during acquisition and eventually form the cellular engram. Manipulating the activity of granule cells (GCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG), we reveal a mechanism of lateral inhibition that modulates the size of the cellular engram. GCs engage somatostatin-positive interneurons that inhibit the dendrites of surrounding GCs. Our findings reveal a microcircuit within the DG that controls the size of the cellular engram and the stability of contextual fear memory.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103490(United States)

Coexpression of auxiliary subunits KChIP and DPPL in potassium channel Kv4-positive nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

  • Cheng CF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the somata of nociceptors and spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons, which sense and modulate pain, respectively. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. Accumulative evidence suggests that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits and two types of auxiliary subunits: K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). Previous reports have shown Kv4.3 in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and Kv4.2/Kv4.3 in certain spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons. However, whether and which KChIP and DPPL are coexpressed with Kv4 in these ISA -expressing pain-related neurons is unknown. In this study we mapped the protein distribution of KChIP1, KChIP2, KChIP3, DPP6, and DPP10 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. In the DRG, we found colocalization of KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP10 in the somatic surface and cytoplasm of Kv4.3(+) nociceptors. KChIP3 appears in most Aβ and Aδ sensory neurons as well as a small population of peptidergic nociceptors, whereas DPP6 is absent in sensory neurons. In the spinal cord, KChIP1 is coexpressed with Kv4.3 in the cell bodies of a subset of lamina II excitatory interneurons, while KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP6 are colocalized with Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in their dendrites. Within the dorsal horn, besides KChIP3 in the inner lamina II and lamina III, we detected DPP10 in most projection neurons, which transmit pain signal to brain. The results suggest the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complexes in ISA -expressing nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30NS048154(United States)
  • PHS HHS - T32 016434-33(United States)

Differential distribution of GABA and glycine terminals in the inferior colliculus of rat and mouse.

  • Choy Buentello D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain component of the auditory pathway, integrates virtually all inputs from the auditory brainstem. These are a mixture of excitatory and inhibitory ascending inputs, and the inhibitory transmitters include both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (GLY). Although the presence of these inhibitory inputs is well established, their relative location in the IC is not, and there is little information on the mouse. Here, we study the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 and GLY transporter 2 (T2) in axonal terminals to better understand the relative contributions of these inputs. Large-scale mosaic composite images of immunohistochemistry sections of rat and mice were used to isolate the signals related to the concentrations of these axonal terminals in the tissue, and the ratio of GLYT2/GAD67 in each pixel was calculated. GLYT2 was seen only in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), whereas GAD67 was seen throughout the IC. The map of the GAD67 and GLYT2 axonal distribution revealed a gradient that runs from ventrolateral to dorsomedial along the axis of the laminae of the ICC and perpendicular to the tonotopic axis. Although anatomically different, both the mouse and the rat had relatively more GAD67 dorsomedially in the ICC and relatively more GLYT2 ventrolaterally. This organization of GABA and GLY inputs may be related to functional zones with different properties in ICC that are based, in part, on different sets of inhibitory inputs to each zone.

GABAergic interneuronal loss and reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region after mild traumatic brain injury.

  • Almeida-Suhett CP
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Patients that suffer mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) often develop cognitive impairments, including memory and learning deficits. The hippocampus shows a high susceptibility to mTBI-induced damage due to its anatomical localization and has been implicated in cognitive and neurological impairments after mTBI. However, it remains unknown whether mTBI cognitive impairments are a result of morphological and pathophysiological alterations occurring in the CA1 hippocampal region. We investigated whether mTBI induces morphological and pathophysiological alterations in the CA1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. Seven days after CCI, animals subjected to mTBI showed cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test and deficits to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Deficiencies in inducing or maintaining LTP were likely due to an observed reduction in the activation of NMDA but not AMPA receptors. Significant reductions in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous and miniature GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were also observed 7 days after CCI. Design-based stereology revealed that although the total number of neurons was unaltered, the number of GABAergic interneurons is significantly reduced in the CA1 region 7 days after CCI. Additionally, the surface expression of α1, ß2/3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were reduced, contributing to a reduced mIPSC frequency and amplitude, respectively. Together, these results suggest that mTBI causes a significant reduction in GABAergic inhibitory transmission and deficits to NMDA receptor mediated currents in the CA1, which may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability and subsequent cognitive impairments after mTBI.

Convergence of Lemniscal and Local Excitatory Inputs on Large GABAergic Tectothalamic Neurons.

  • Ito T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Large GABAergic (LG) neurons form a distinct cell type in the inferior colliculus (IC), identified by the presence of dense VGLUT2-containing axosomatic terminals. Although some of the axosomatic terminals originate from local and commissural IC neurons, it has been unclear whether LG neurons also receive axosomatic inputs from the lower auditory brainstem nuclei, i.e., cochlear nuclei (CN), superior olivary complex (SOC), and nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL). In this study we injected recombinant viral tracers that force infected cells to express GFP in a Golgi-like manner into the lower auditory brainstem nuclei to determine whether these nuclei directly innervate LG cell somata. Labeled axons from CN, SOC, and NLL terminated as excitatory axosomatic endings, identified by colabeling of GFP and VGLUT2, on single LG neurons in the IC. Each excitatory axon made only a few axosomatic contacts on each LG neuron. Inputs to a single LG cell are unlikely to be from a single brainstem nucleus, since lesions of individual nuclei failed to eliminate most VGLUT2-positive terminals on the LG neurons. The estimated number of inputs on a single LG cell body was almost proportional to the surface area of the cell body. Double injections of different viruses into IC and a brainstem nucleus showed that LG neurons received inputs from both. These results demonstrated that both ascending and intrinsic sources converge on the LG somata to control inhibitory tectothalamic projections.

Differential expression patterns of K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter 2 in neurons within the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats.

  • Javdani F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-mediated hyperpolarizing inhibition is associated with a chloride influx that depends on the inwardly directed chloride electrochemical gradient. In neurons, the extrusion of chloride from the cytosol primarily depends on the expression of an isoform of potassium-chloride cotransporters (KCC2s). KCC2 is crucial in the regulation of the inhibitory tone of neural circuits, including pain processing neural assemblies. Thus we investigated the cellular distribution of KCC2 in neurons underlying pain processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats by using high-resolution immunocytochemical methods. We demonstrated that perikarya and dendrites widely expressed KCC2, but axon terminals proved to be negative for KCC2. In single ultrathin sections, silver deposits labeling KCC2 molecules showed different densities on the surface of dendritic profiles, some of which were negative for KCC2. In freeze fracture replicas and tissue sections double stained for the β3-subunit of GABAA receptors and KCC2, GABAA receptors were revealed on dendritic segments with high and also with low KCC2 densities. By measuring the distances between spots immunoreactive for gephyrin (a scaffolding protein of GABAA and glycine receptors) and KCC2 on the surface of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-immunoreactive dendrites, we found that gephyrin-immunoreactive spots were located at various distances from KCC2 cotransporters; 5.7 % of them were recovered in the middle of 4-10-µm-long dendritic segments that were free of KCC2 immunostaining. The variable local densities of KCC2 may result in variable postsynaptic potentials evoked by the activation of GABAA and glycine receptors along the dendrites of spinal neurons.

Absence of aryl hydrocarbon receptors increases endogenous kynurenic acid levels and protects mouse brain against excitotoxic insult and oxidative stress.

  • García-Lara L
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Sep 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

L-kynurenine (Kyn) is a key element of tryptophan metabolism; it is enzymatically converted by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist to the NMDA receptor-glycine site. Kyn is also an endogenous ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse set of genes. KYNA levels are reduced in several regions of the brain of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. The present work uses an AhR-null mouse and age-matched wild-type mice to determine the effect of the absence of AhR on KYNA availability. We found that, in AhR-null mice, there is an increase of KYNA levels in specific brain areas associated with higher expression of KAT II. Moreover, we induced an excitotoxic insult by intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid, a biochemical model of HD, in both AhR-null and wild-type mice to evaluate the neurological damage as well as the oxidative stress caused by the lesion. The present work demonstrates that, in specific brain regions of AhR-null mice, the levels of KYNA are increased and that this induces a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxic insults. Moreover, AhR-null mice also show improved motor performance in the rotarod test, indicating a constitutive protection of striatal tissue.

Expression and cellular localization of the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ3 in the rodent retina.

  • Pérez de Sevilla Müller L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-voltage-activated calcium channels are hetero-oligomeric protein complexes that mediate multiple cellular processes, including the influx of extracellular Ca(2+), neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, and synaptic plasticity. These channels consist of a primary α(1) pore-forming subunit, which is associated with an extracellular α(2)δ subunit and an intracellular β auxiliary subunit, which alter the gating properties and trafficking of the calcium channel. The cellular localization of the α(2)δ(3) subunit in the mouse and rat retina is unknown. In this study using RT-PCR, a single band at ∼ 305 bp corresponding to the predicted size of the α(2)δ(3) subunit fragment was found in mouse and rat retina and brain homogenates. Western blotting of rodent retina and brain homogenates showed a single 123-kDa band. Immunohistochemistry with an affinity-purified antibody to the α(2)δ(3) subunit revealed immunoreactive cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer and immunoreactive processes in the inner plexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer. α(2)δ(3) immunoreactivity was localized to multiple cell types, including ganglion, amacrine, and bipolar cells and photoreceptors, but not horizontal cells. The expression of the α(2)δ(3) calcium channel subunit to multiple cell types suggests that this subunit participates widely in Ca-channel-mediated signaling in the retina.

Septal projections to nucleus incertus in the rat: bidirectional pathways for modulation of hippocampal function.

  • Sánchez-Pérez AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Projections from the nucleus incertus (NI) to the septum have been implicated in the modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In this study we describe a previously uncharacterized projection from the septum to the NI, which may provide feedback modulation of the ascending circuitry. Fluorogold injections into the NI resulted in retrograde labeling in the septum that was concentrated in the horizontal diagonal band and areas of the posterior septum including the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. Double-immunofluorescent staining indicated that the majority of NI-projecting septal neurons were calretinin-positive and some were parvalbumin-, calbindin-, or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-67-positive. Choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons were Fluorogold-negative. Injection of anterograde tracers into medial septum, or triangular septal and septofimbrial nuclei, revealed fibers descending to the supramammillary nucleus, median raphe, and the NI. These anterogradely labeled varicosities displayed synaptophysin immunoreactivity, indicating septal inputs form synapses on NI neurons. Anterograde tracer also colocalized with GAD-67-positive puncta in labeled fibers, which in some cases made close synaptic contact with GAD-67-labeled NI neurons. These data provide evidence for the existence of an inhibitory descending projection from medial and posterior septum to the NI that provides a "feedback loop" to modulate the comparatively more dense ascending NI projections to medial septum and hippocampus. Neural processes and associated behaviors activated or modulated by changes in hippocampal theta rhythm may depend on reciprocal connections between ascending and descending pathways rather than on unidirectional regulation via the medial septum.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115545(United States)

Cell-specific and developmental expression of lectican-cleaving proteases in mouse hippocampus and neocortex.

  • Levy C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that a specialized extracellular matrix exists in the mammalian brain and that this glycoprotein-rich matrix contributes to many aspects of brain development and function. The most prominent supramolecular assemblies of these extracellular matrix glycoproteins are perineuronal nets, specialized lattice-like structures that surround the cell bodies and proximal neurites of select classes of interneurons. Perineuronal nets are composed of lecticans, a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that includes aggrecan, brevican, neurocan, and versican. These lattice-like structures emerge late in postnatal brain development, coinciding with the ending of critical periods of brain development. Despite our knowledge of the presence of lecticans in perineuronal nets and their importance in regulating synaptic plasticity, we know little about the development or distribution of the extracellular proteases that are responsible for their cleavage and turnover. A subset of a large family of extracellular proteases (called a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]) is responsible for endogenously cleaving lecticans. We therefore explored the expression pattern of two aggrecan-degrading ADAMTS family members, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4, in the hippocampus and neocortex. Here, we show that both lectican-degrading metalloproteases are present in these brain regions and that each exhibits a distinct temporal and spatial expression pattern. Adamts15 mRNA is expressed exclusively by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons during synaptogenesis, whereas Adamts4 mRNA is exclusively generated by telencephalic oligodendrocytes during myelination. Thus, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4 not only exhibit unique cellular expression patterns but their developmental upregulation by these cell types coincides with critical aspects of neural development.

Patterned, but not tonic, optogenetic stimulation in motor thalamus improves reaching in acute drug-induced Parkinsonian rats.

  • Seeger-Armbruster S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Jan 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in motor thalamus (Mthal) ameliorates tremor but not akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are effective methods of Mthal stimulation to treat akinesia. Glutamatergic Mthal neurons, transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 by injection of lentiviral vector (Lenti.CaMKII.hChR2(H134R).mCherry), were selectively stimulated with blue light (473 nm) via a chronically implanted fiber-optic probe. Rats performed a reach-to-grasp task in either acute drug-induced parkinsonian akinesia (0.03-0.07 mg/kg haloperidol, s.c.) or control (vehicle injection) conditions, and the number of reaches was recorded for 5 min before, during, and after stimulation. We compared the effect of DBS using complex physiological patterns previously recorded in the Mthal of a control rat during reaching or exploring behavior, with tonic DBS delivering the same number of stimuli per second (rate-control 6.2 or 1.8 Hz, respectively) and with stimulation patterns commonly used in other brain regions to treat neurological conditions (tonic 130 Hz, theta burst (TBS), and tonic 15 Hz rate-control for TBS). Control rats typically executed >150 reaches per 5 min, which was unaffected by any of the stimulation patterns. Acute parkinsonian rats executed <20 reaches, displaying marked akinesia, which was significantly improved by stimulating with the physiological reaching pattern or TBS (both p < 0.05), whereas the exploring and all tonic patterns failed to improve reaching. Data indicate that the Mthal may be an effective site to treat akinesia, but the pattern of stimulation is critical for improving reaching in parkinsonian rats.

GABAergic projections from the medial septum selectively inhibit interneurons in the medial entorhinal cortex.

  • Gonzalez-Sulser A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25-60 Hz) and high (60-180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC001856(United States)

Reduced reach-related modulation of motor thalamus neural activity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

  • Bosch-Bouju C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor thalamus (Mthal) is a key node in the corticobasal ganglia (BG) loop that controls complex, cognitive aspects of movement. In Parkinson's disease (PD), profound alterations in neuronal activity occur in BG nuclei and cortex. Because Mthal is located between these two structures, altered Mthal activity has been assumed to underlie the pathogenesis of PD motor deficits. However, to date, inconsistent changes in neuronal firing rate and pattern have been reported in parkinsonian animals. Moreover, although a distinct firing pattern of Mthal neurons, called low-threshold calcium spike bursts (LTS bursts), is observed in reduced preparations, it remains unknown whether they occur or what their role might be in behaving animals. We recorded Mthal spiking activity in control and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats performing a skilled forelimb-reaching task. We show for the first time that Mthal firing rate in control rats is modulated in a temporally precise pattern during reach-to-grasp movements, with a peak at the time of the reach-end and troughs just before and after it. We identified LTS-like events on the basis of LTS burst characteristics. These were rare, but also modulated, decreasing in incidence just after reach-end. The inhibitory modulations in firing rate and LTS-like events were abolished in parkinsonian rats. These data confirm that nigrostriatal dopamine depletion is accompanied by profound and specific deficits in movement-related Mthal activity. These changes would severely impair Mthal contributions to motor program development in motor cortex and are likely to be an important factor underlying the movement deficits of PD.

Local and commissural IC neurons make axosomatic inputs on large GABAergic tectothalamic neurons.

  • Ito T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Large GABAergic (LG) neurons are a distinct type of neuron in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by their dense vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-containing axosomatic synaptic terminals. Yet the sources of these terminals are unknown. Since IC glutamatergic neurons express VGLUT2, and IC neurons are known to have local collaterals, we tested the hypothesis that these excitatory, glutamatergic axosomatic inputs on LG neurons come from local axonal collaterals and commissural IC neurons. We injected a recombinant viral tracer into the IC which enabled Golgi-like green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling in both dendrites and axons. In all cases, we found terminals positive for both GFP and VGLUT2 (GFP+/VGLUT2+) that made axosomatic contacts on LG neurons. One to six axosomatic contacts were made on a single LG cell body by a single axonal branch. The GFP-labeled neurons giving rise to the VGLUT2+ terminals on LG neurons were close by. The density of GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals on the LG neurons was related to the number of nearby GFP-labeled cells. On the contralateral side, a smaller number of LG neurons received axosomatic contacts from GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals. In cases with a single GFP-labeled glutamatergic neuron, the labeled axonal plexus was flat, oriented in parallel to the fibrodendritic laminae, and contacted 9-30 LG cell bodies within the plexus. Our data demonstrated that within the IC microcircuitry there is a convergence of inputs from local IC excitatory neurons on LG cell bodies. This suggests that LG neurons are heavily influenced by the activity of the nearby laminar glutamatergic neurons in the IC.

The active zone protein family ELKS supports Ca2+ influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

  • Liu C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking and priming of synaptic vesicles. Vertebrate ELKS proteins are enriched at presynaptic active zones, but their functions are not well understood. ELKS proteins are produced by two genes in vertebrates, and each gene contributes ∼50% to total brain ELKS. We generated knock-out mice for ELKS1 and found that its constitutive removal causes lethality. To bypass lethality, and to circumvent redundancy between ELKS1 and ELKS2 in synaptic transmission, we used a conditional genetic approach to remove both genes in cultured hippocampal neurons after synapses are established. Simultaneous removal of ELKS1 and ELKS2 resulted in a 50% decrease of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses, paralleled by a reduction in release probability. Removal of ELKS did not affect synapse numbers or their electron microscopic appearance. Using Ca(2+) imaging, we found that loss of ELKS caused a 30% reduction in single action potential-triggered Ca(2+) influx in inhibitory nerve terminals, consistent with the deficits in synaptic transmission and release probability. Unlike deletion of the active zone proteins RIM, RIM-BP, or bruchpilot, ELKS removal did not lead to a measurable reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) channel levels. Our results reveal that ELKS is required for normal Ca(2+) influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

Nerve growth factor is primarily produced by GABAergic neurons of the adult rat cortex.

  • Biane J
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2014 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Within the cortex, nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates the innervation of cholinergic neurons during development, maintains cholinergic corticopetal projections during adulthood and modulates cholinergic function through phenotypic control of the cholinergic gene locus. Recent studies suggest NGF may also play an important role in cortical plasticity in adulthood. Previously, NGF-producing cells have been shown to colocalize with GABAergic cell markers within the hippocampus, striatum, and basal forebrain. Classification of cells producing NGF in the cortex is lacking, however, and cholinergic corticopetal projections have been shown to innervate both pyramidal and GABAergic neurons in the cortex. In order to clarify potential trophic interactions between cortical neurons and cholinergic projections, we used double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry to classify NGF-expressing cells in several cortical regions, including the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parietal cortex and temporal cortex. Our results show that NGF colocalizes extensively with GABAergic cell markers in all cortical regions examined, with >91% of NGF-labeled cells coexpressing GAD65/67. Conversely, NGF-labeled cells exhibit very little co-localization with the excitatory cell marker CaMKIIα (<5% of cells expressing NGF). NGF expression was present in 56% of GAD-labeled cells, suggesting that production is confined to a specific subset of GABAergic neurons. These findings demonstrate that GABAergic cells are the primary source of NGF production in the cortex, and likely support the maintenance and function of basal forebrain cholinergic projections in adulthood.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG013622(United States)

Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse.

  • Albrecht O
  • Front Neural Circuits
  • 2014 Aug 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive prominent excitatory input through the calyx of Held, a giant synapse that produces large and fast excitatory currents. MNTB neurons also receive inhibitory glycinergic inputs that are also large and fast, and match the calyceal excitation in terms of synaptic strength. GABAergic inputs provide additional inhibition to MNTB neurons. Inhibitory inputs to MNTB modify spiking of MNTB neurons both in-vitro and in-vivo, underscoring their importance. Surprisingly, the origin of the inhibitory inputs to MNTB has not been shown conclusively. We performed retrograde tracing, anterograde tracing, immunohistochemical experiments, and electrophysiological recordings to address this question. The results support the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) as at least one major source of glycinergic input to MNTB. VNTB fibers enter the ipsilateral MNTB, travel along MNTB principal neurons and produce several bouton-like presynaptic terminals. Further, the contribution of GABA to the total inhibition declines during development, resulting in only a very minor fraction of GABAergic inhibition in adulthood, which is matched in time by a reduction in expression of a GABA synthetic enzyme in VNTB principal neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - DP2 GM119139(United States)

Large GABAergic neurons form a distinct subclass within the mouse dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus with respect to intrinsic properties, synaptic inputs, sound responses, and projections.

  • Geis HR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) show a remarkable diversity in their responses to sound, but it has been difficult to relate these responses to their morphology. Large cells, which are found in all subdivisions of the IC, may form an exception. We found that large neurons of the mouse dorsal cortex of the IC were GABAergic and were contacted by vesicular glutamate transporter 2-containing somatic terminals, as previously observed for the rat IC. Large cells, which were targeted under two-photon guidance, typically had a low input resistance in comparison with the other cells in the dorsal cortex of the IC. Large cells received short-latency excitatory inputs and had short first-spike latencies. These excitatory inputs were often followed by long-latency inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. In four cells, it was possible to reconstruct the ascending axon following labeling with biocytin. We found evidence that they projected to both the ventral and the dorsal divisions of the medial geniculate body of the thalamus, but they also branched off large collaterals while passing through the brachium of the IC. Our data indicate that, owing to their somatic glutamatergic inputs, large GABAergic tectothalamic projection neurons can generate short-latency, well-timed, feed-forward inhibition, which affects not only the thalamus, but also other ascending nuclei. Their remarkably homogeneous properties, which generally differed from those of the other cells in the dorsal cortex of the IC, suggest that large neurons form a distinct subclass within the dorsal cortex of the IC.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018005(United States)

Distribution and targets of the relaxin-3 innervation of the septal area in the rat.

  • Olucha-Bordonau FE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural tracing studies have revealed that the rat medial and lateral septum are targeted by ascending projections from the nucleus incertus, a population of tegmental GABA neurons. These neurons express the relaxin-family peptide, relaxin-3, and pharmacological modulation of relaxin-3 receptors in medial septum alters hippocampal theta rhythm and spatial memory. In an effort to better understand the basis of these interactions, we have characterized the distribution of relaxin-3 fibers/terminals in relation to different septal neuron populations identified using established protein markers. Dense relaxin-3 fiber plexuses were observed in regions of medial septum containing hippocampal-projecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons. In lateral septum (LS), relaxin-3 fibers were concentrated in the ventrolateral nucleus of rostral LS and the ventral nucleus of caudal LS, with sparse labeling in the dorsolateral and medial nuclei of rostral LS, dorsal nucleus of caudal LS, and ventral portion nuclei. Relaxin-3 fibers were also observed in the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. In the medial septum, we observed relaxin-3-immunoreactive contacts with ChAT-, PV-, and glutamate decarboxylase-67-positive neurons that projected to hippocampus, and contacts between relaxin-3 terminals and calbindin- and calretinin-positive neurons. Relaxin-3 colocalized with synaptophysin in nerve terminals in all septal areas, and ultrastructural analysis revealed these terminals were symmetrical and contacted spines, somata, dendritic shafts, and occasionally other axonal terminals. These data predict that this GABA/peptidergic projection modulates septohippocampal activity and hippocampal theta rhythm related to exploratory navigation, defensive and ingestive behaviors, and responses to neurogenic stressors.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - U1051178808(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS043174-08(United States)

DNA methyltransferases1 (DNMT1) and 3a (DNMT3a) colocalize with GAD67-positive neurons in the GAD67-GFP mouse brain.

  • Kadriu B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

DNA methylation is an epigenetic regulatory mechanism commonly associated with transcriptional silencing. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are a family of related proteins that both catalyze the de novo formation of 5-methylcytosine and maintain these methylation marks in cell-specific patterns in virtually all mitotic cells of the body. In the adult brain, methylation occurs in progenitor cells of the neurogenic zones and in postmitotic neurons. Of the DNMTs, DNMT1 and DNMT3a are most highly expressed in postmitotic neurons. While it has been commonly thought all postmitotic neurons and glia express DNMTs at comparable levels, the coexpression of selected DNMTs with markers of distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes has not been previously examined in detail in the mouse. To this end, we analyzed the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a along with GAD67 in the brains of the glutamic acid decarboxylase67-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GAD67-GFP) knockin mice. After first confirming that GFP-immunopositive neurons were also GAD67-positive, we showed that in the motor cortex, piriform cortex, striatum, CA1 region of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and basolateral amygdala (BLA), GFP immunofluorescence coincided with the signal corresponding to DNMT1 and DNMT3a. A detailed examination of cortical neurons, showed that ≈30% of NeuN-immunopositive neurons were also DNMT1-positive. These data do not exclude the expression of DNMT1 or DNMT3a in glutamatergic neurons and glia. However, they suggest that their expression is low compared with the levels present in GABAergic neurons.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Aging reduces total neuron number in the dorsal component of the rodent prefrontal cortex.

  • Stranahan AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

For many years, aging was thought to be accompanied by significant decreases in total neuron number across multiple brain regions. However, this view was revised with the advent of modern quantification methods, and it is now widely accepted that the hippocampus and many regions of the cortex show substantially preserved numbers of neurons during normal aging. Nonetheless, age-related changes in neuron number do occur in focal regions of the primate prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the question of whether age-related neuron loss is an exclusive characteristic of the PFC in primates remains relatively unexplored. To investigate the loss of neurons with normal aging in rodents, we used unbiased stereological methods to quantify the number of principal neurons and interneurons in the PFC of young and aged rats. We observed a significant age-related decline in the number of principal neurons in the dorsal PFC. The number of interneurons positively stained with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 was also reduced in the dorsal PFC of aged rats. These observations indicate that the dorsal PFC is susceptible to neuron loss with aging in rodent brain and suggest some common basis for vulnerability in cortical circuits across species.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH093445(United States)

Characterization of axo-axonic synapses in the piriform cortex of Mus musculus.

  • Wang X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous anatomical and physiological studies have established major glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal subtypes within the piriform cortical circuits. However, quantitative information regarding axo-axonic inhibitory synapses mediated by chandelier cells across major cortical subdivisions of piriform cortex is lacking. Therefore, we examined the properties of these synapses across the entire piriform cortex. Our results show the following. 1) γ-Aminobutyric acid membrane transporter 1-positive varicosities, whose appearance resembles chandelier cartridges, are found around the initial segments of axons of glutamatergic cells across layers II and III. 2) Both the density of axo-axonic cartridges and the degree of γ-aminobutyric acid membrane transporter 1 innervation in each axo-axonic synapse are significantly higher in the piriform cortex than in the neocortex. 3) Glutamate decarboxylase 67, vesicular GABA transporter, and parvalbumin, but not calbindin, are colocalized with the presynaptic varicosities, whereas gephyrin, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1, and GABA(A) receptor α1 subunit, but not K-Cl cotransporter 2, are colocalized at the presumed postsynaptic sites. 4) The axo-axonic cartridges innervate the majority of excitatory neurons and are distributed more frequently in putative centrifugal cells and posterior piriform cortex. We further describe the morphology of chandelier cells by using parvalbumin-immunoreactivity and single-cell labeling. In summary, our results demonstrate that a small population of chandelier cells mediates abundant axo-axonic synapses across the entire piriform cortex. Because of the critical location of these inhibitory synapses in relation to action potential regulation, our results highlight a critical role of axo-axonic synapses in regulating information flow and olfactory-related oscillations within the piriform cortex in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F32 DC000210(United States)

The mouse olfactory peduncle.

  • Brunjes PC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm(3) and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm(3) . Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar to although smaller than those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]ergic neurons), although the relative numbers of each cell type differ between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in rats. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species, as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - 4R00LM-010943-02(United States)

Characterization of NPY Y2 receptor protein expression in the mouse brain. II. Coexistence with NPY, the Y1 receptor, and other neurotransmitter-related molecules.

  • Stanić D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the brain and its biological effects are mediated through a variety of receptors. We examined, using immunohistochemistry, expression of the Y2 receptor (R) protein in the adult mouse brain and its association with NPY and the Y1R, as well as a range of additional neurotransmitters and signaling-related molecules, which previously have not been defined. Our main focus was on the hippocampal formation (HiFo), amygdaloid complex, and hypothalamus, considering the known functions of NPY and the wide expression of NPY, Y1R, and Y2R in these regions. Y2R-like immunoreactivity (-LI) was distributed in nerve fibers/terminal endings throughout the brain axis, without apparent colocalization with NPY or the Y1R. Occasional coexistence between NPY- and Y1R-LI was found in the HiFo. Following colchicine treatment, Y2R-LI accumulated in cell bodies that coexpressed γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in a population of cells in the amygdaloid complex and lateral septal nucleus, but not in the HiFo. Instead, Y2R-positive nerve terminals appeared to surround GABA-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the HiFo and other neuronal populations, e.g., NPY-ir cells in HiFo and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir cells in the hypothalamus. In the HiFo, Y2R-ir mossy fibers coexpressed GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 and calbindin, and Y2R-LI was found in the same fibers that contained the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, but not together with any of the three vesicular glutamate transporters. Our findings provide further support that Y2R is mostly presynaptic, and that Y2Rs thus have a modulatory role in mediating presynaptic neurotransmitter release.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-177796(Canada)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RC1-HG005334(United States)

Spatial distribution of neural activity in the anterior olfactory nucleus evoked by odor and electrical stimulation.

  • Kay RB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several lines of evidence indicate that complex odorant stimuli are parsed into separate data streams in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, yielding a combinatorial "odotopic map." However, this pattern does not appear to be maintained in the piriform cortex, where stimuli appear to be coded in a distributed fashion. The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is intermediate and reciprocally interconnected between these two structures, and also provides a route for the interhemispheric transfer of olfactory information. The present study examined potential coding strategies used by the AON. Rats were exposed to either caproic acid, butyric acid, limonene, or purified air and the spatial distribution of Fos-immunolabeled cells was quantified. The two major subregions of the AON exhibited different results. Distinct odor-specific spatial patterns of activity were observed in pars externa, suggesting that it employs a topographic strategy for odor representation similar to the olfactory bulb. A spatially distributed pattern that did not appear to depend on odor identity was observed in pars principalis, suggesting that it employs a distributed representation of odors more similar to that seen in the piriform cortex.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003469(United States)

Distribution of Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 isoform, a sodium-potassium P-type pump associated with rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) in the adult mouse brain.

  • Bøttger P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase1 alpha subunit 3 (ATP1α(3)) is one of many essential components that maintain the sodium and potassium gradients across the plasma membrane in animal cells. Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene cause rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP), a rare movement disorder characterized by sudden onset of dystonic spasms and slowness of movement. To achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, we used immunohistochemical approaches to describe the regional and cellular distribution of ATP1α(3) in the adult mouse brain. Our results show that localization of ATP1α(3) is restricted to neurons, and it is expressed mostly in projections (fibers and punctuates), but cell body expression is also observed. We found high expression of ATP1α(3) in GABAergic neurons in all nuclei of the basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra), which is a key circuitry in the fine movement control. Several thalamic nuclei structures harboring connections to and from the cortex expressed high levels of the ATP1α(3) isoform. Other structures with high expression of ATP1α(3) included cerebellum, red nucleus, and several areas of the pons (reticulotegmental nucleus of pons). We also found high expression of ATP1α(3) in projections and cell bodies in hippocampus; most of these ATP1α(3)-positive cell bodies showed colocalization to GABAergic neurons. ATP1α(3) expression was not significant in the dopaminergic cells of substantia nigra. In conclusion, and based on our data, ATP1α(3) is widely expressed in neuronal populations but mainly in GABAergic neurons in areas and nuclei related to movement control, in agreement with RDP symptoms.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB007057(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH093725(United States)

Chemical neuroanatomy of the dorsal raphe nucleus and adjacent structures of the mouse brain.

  • Fu W
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serotonin neurons play a major role in many normal and pathological brain functions. In the rat these neurons have a varying number of cotransmitters, including neuropeptides. Here we studied, with histochemical techniques, the relation between serotonin, some other small-molecule transmitters, and a number of neuropeptides in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the adjacent ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) of mouse, an important question being to establish possible differences from rat. Even if similarly distributed, the serotonin neurons in mouse lacked the extensive coexpression of nitric oxide synthase and galanin seen in rat. Although partly overlapping in the vPAG, no evidence was obtained for the coexistence of serotonin with dopamine, substance P, cholecystokinin, enkephalin, somatostatin, neurotensin, dynorphin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or corticotropin-releasing hormone. However, some serotonin neurons expressed the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Work in other laboratories suggests that, as in rat, serotonin neurons in the mouse midline DRN express the vesicular glutamate transporter 3, presumably releasing glutamate. Our study also shows that many of the neuropeptides studied (substance P, galanin, neurotensin, dynorphin, and corticotropin-releasing factor) are present in nerve terminal networks of varying densities close to the serotonin neurons, and therefore may directly or indirectly influence these cells. The apparently low numbers of coexisting messengers in mouse serotonin neurons, compared to rat, indicate considerable species differences with regard to the chemical neuronatomy of the DRN. Thus, extrapolation of DRN physiology, and possibly pathology, from rat to mouse, and even human, should be made with caution.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U41HG007000(United States)

Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter.

  • Guo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is likely expressed in horizontal cells of all species, although conflicting physiological findings have led to considerable controversy regarding its role as a transmitter in the outer retina. This study has evaluated key components of the GABA system in the outer retina of guinea pig, an emerging retinal model system. The presence of GABA, its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65) and GAD(67) isoforms), the plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3), and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized antibodies. The presence of GAD(65) mRNA was also evaluated by using laser capture microdissection and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specific GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT immunostaining was localized to horizontal cell bodies, as well as to their processes and tips in the outer plexiform layer. Furthermore, immunostaining of retinal whole mounts and acutely dissociated retinas showed GAD(65) and VGAT immunoreactivity in both A-type and B-type horizontal cells. However, these cells did not contain GAD(67), GAT-1, or GAT-3 immunoreactivity. GAD(65) mRNA was detected in horizontal cells, and sequencing of the amplified GAD(65) fragment showed approximately 85% identity with other mammalian GAD(65) mRNAs. These studies demonstrate the presence of GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT in horizontal cells of the guinea pig retina, and support the idea that GABA is synthesized from GAD(65), taken up into synaptic vesicles by VGAT, and likely released by a vesicular mechanism from horizontal cells.

Altered balance of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic and glutamatergic afferent inputs in rostral ventrolateral medulla-projecting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of renovascular hypertensive rats.

  • Biancardi VC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory functions has been shown to contribute to numerous pathological disorders. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that a change in hypothalamic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory synaptic functions contributes to exacerbated neurohumoral drive in prevalent cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and neuronal substrates are still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we combined quantitative immunohistochemistry with neuronal tract tracing to determine whether plastic remodeling of afferent GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs into identified RVLM-projecting neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN-RVLM) contributes to an imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory function in renovascular hypertensive rats (RVH). Our results indicate that both GABAergic and glutamatergic innervation densities increased in oxytocin-positive, PVN-RVLM (OT-PVN-RVLM) neurons in RVH rats. Despite this concomitant increase, time-dependent and compartment-specific differences in the reorganization of these inputs resulted in an altered balance of excitatory/inhibitory inputs in somatic and dendritic compartments. A net predominance of excitatory over inhibitory inputs was found in OT-PVN-RVLM proximal dendrites. Our results indicate that, along with previously described changes in neurotransmitter release probability and postsynaptic receptor function, remodeling of GABAergic and glutamatergic afferent inputs contributes as an underlying mechanism to the altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PVN of hypertensive rats.

Expression of PTPRO in the interneurons of adult mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Kotani T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

PTPRO is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and multiple fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. In the chick, PTPRO mRNA has been shown to be particularly abundant in embryonic brain, and PTPRO is implicated in axon growth and guidance during embryonic development. However, the temporal and spatial expression of PTPRO protein in the mammalian CNS, particularly in the juvenile and adult mammalian brain, has not been evaluated in any detail. By immunohistofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody to PTPRO, we show that PTPRO is widely expressed throughout the mouse brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 1, while expression is largely confined to the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory tubercle in the adult brain. In the OB, PTPRO protein is expressed predominantly in the external plexiform layer, the granule cell layer, and the glomerular layer (GL). In these regions, expression of PTPRO is predominant in interneurons such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic or calretinin (CR)-positive granule cells. In addition, PTPRO is expressed in GABAergic, CR-positive, tyrosine hydroxylase-positive, or neurocalcin-positive periglomerular cells in the GL. Costaining of PTPRO with other neuronal markers suggests that PTPRO is likely to be localized to the dendrites or dendritic spines of these olfactory interneurons. Thus, PTPRO might participate in regulation of dendritic morphology or synapse formation of interneurons in the adult mouse OB.

Expression and localization of the calmodulin-binding protein neurogranin in the adult mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Gribaudo S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific postsynaptic protein involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity through modulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent signal transduction in neurons. In this study, using biochemical and immunohistochemical approaches, we demonstrate Ng expression in the adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB), the first relay station in odor information processing. We show that Ng is principally associated with the granule cell layer (GCL), which is composed of granule cell inhibitory interneurons. This cell type is continuously renewed during adult life and plays a key role in OB circuits, integrating and modulating the activity of mitral/tufted cells. Our results indicate that Ng localizes in the soma and dendrites of a defined subpopulation of mature GABAergic granule cells, enriched in the deep portion of the GCL. Ng-immunopositive cells largely coexpress the Ca(+)/CaM-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV), a downstream protein of CaM signaling cascade, whereas no colocalization was observed between Ng and the calcium-binding protein calretinin. Finally, we demonstrate that adult neurogenesis contributes to the Ng-expressing population, with more newly generated Ng-positive cells integrated in the deep GCL. Together, these results provide a new specific neurochemical marker to identify a subpopulation of olfactory granule cells and suggest possible functional implications for Ng in OB plasticity mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS062798-03(United States)

The GABAergic system in the retina of neonate and adult Octodon degus, studied by immunohistochemistry and electroretinography.

  • Delgado LM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the vertebrate retina, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates inhibitory processes that shape the visual response and is also thought to have neurotrophic functions during retinal development. To investigate the role of GABAergic signaling at the beginning of visual experience, we used immunohistochemistry to compare the distribution of GABA, the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65/67, and the GABA receptor types A, B, and C, in neonate versus adult Octodon degus, a native South American rodent with diurnal-crepuscular activity and a high cone-to-rod ratio. In parallel, we used electroretinography to evaluate retinal functionality and to test the contribution of fast GABAergic transmission to light responses at both developmental stages. Neonate O. degus opened their eyes on postnatal day (P)0 and displayed an adult-like retinal morphology at this time. GABA, its biosynthetic sources, and receptors had a similar cellular distribution in neonates and adults, but labeling of the outer plexiform layer and of certain amacrine and ganglion cells was more conspicuous at P0. In neonates, retinal sensitivity was 10 times lower than in adults, responses to ultraviolet light could not be detected, and oscillatory potentials were reduced or absent. Blockade of GABA(A/C) receptors by bicuculline and TPMPA had no noticeable effect in neonates, while it significantly altered the electroretinogram response in adults. CONCLUSION: In spite of modest differences regarding retinal morphology and GABAergic expression, overall light response properties and GABAergic signaling are undeveloped in neonate O. degus compared to adults, suggesting that full retinal functionality requires a period of neural refinement under visual experience.

Afferents to the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area in the rat.

  • Kaufling J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously showed that chronic psychostimulant exposure induces the transcription factor DeltaFosB in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the caudal tier of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This subregion was defined as the tail of the VTA (tVTA). In the present study, we showed that tVTA can also be visualized by analyzing FosB/DeltaFosB response following acute cocaine injection. This induction occurs in GABAergic neurons, as identified by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression. To characterize tVTA further, we mapped its inputs by using the retrograde tracers Fluoro-Gold or cholera toxin B subunit. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral septum, the ventral pallidum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the substantia innominata, the medial and lateral preoptic areas, the lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, the lateral habenula, the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, the dorsal raphe, the periaqueductal gray, and the mesencephalic and pontine reticular formation. Projections from the prefrontal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lateral habenula to the tVTA were also shown by using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). We showed that the central nucleus of the amygdala innervates the anterior extent of the VTA but not the tVTA. Moreover, the tVTA mainly receives non-aminergic inputs from the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus. Although the tVTA has a low density of dopaminergic neurons, its afferents are mostly similar to those targeting the rest of the VTA. This suggests that the tVTA can be considered as a VTA subregion despite its caudal location.

Preferential localization of neural cell recognition molecule NB-2 in developing glutamatergic neurons in the rat auditory brainstem.

  • Toyoshima M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

NB-2 is a neuronal cell recognition molecule that is preferentially expressed in auditory pathways. Mice deficient in the NB-2 gene exhibit aberrant responses to acoustic stimuli. Here we examined the expression and localization of NB-2 in the auditory brainstem during development in the rat. NB-2 was strongly expressed in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), ventral acoustic stria, lateral and medial superior olivary complex (SOC), superior paraolivary nucleus, medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), ventrolateral lemniscus, and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC). In the VCN and CIC, NB-2 was expressed in the regions that are known to respond to high frequencies. In situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry suggested that NB-2 is expressed only in neurons. NB-2 was colocalized with glutamatergic elements in the neuropil and the calyces of Held but not with glycinergic or GABAergic elements. NB-2 expression in the SOC was first detected at embryonic day (E)19, reached a maximum level at postnatal day (P)7, and declined thereafter. Immunolabeling with VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, markers for mature and premature glutamatergic synapses, respectively, in combination with NB-2 immunolabeling revealed that NB-2 is expressed at glutamatergic synapses. Collectively, our findings suggest that NB-2 plays a key role in maturation of glutamatergic synapses in the brainstem during the final stages of auditory development.

Autoantibodies in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I patients react with major brain neurotransmitter systems.

  • Fetissov SO
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) often display high titers of autoantibodies (autoAbs) directed against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Neurological symptoms, including stiff-man syndrome and cerebellar ataxia, can occur in subjects with high levels of GAD autoAbs, particularly when patient sera can immunohistochemically stain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. However, it was not known if APS1 sera can also stain major monoamine systems in the brain. Therefore, in this work we applied sera from 17 APS1 patients known to contain autoAbs against AADC, TH, TPH, and/or GAD to rat brain sections and processed the sections according to the sensitive immunohistochemical tyramide signal amplification method. We found that autoAbs in sera from 11 patients were able to stain AADC-containing dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic as well as AADC only (D-group) neurons and fibers in the rat brain, in several cases with a remarkably high quality and sensitivity (dilution up to 1:1,000,000); and, since they are human antibodies, they offer a good opportunity for performing multiple-labeling experiments using antibodies from other species. Six APS1 sera also stained GABAergic neuronal circuitries. Similar results were obtained in the mouse and primate brain. Our data demonstrate that many APS1 sera can immunostain the major monoamine and GABA systems in the brain. Only in a few cases, however, there was evidence that these autoAbs can be associated with neurological manifestations in APS1 patients, as, e.g., shown in previous studies in stiff-man syndrome.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G120/818(75098)(United Kingdom)

Deletion of the citron kinase gene selectively affects the number and distribution of interneurons in barrelfield cortex.

  • Muzzi P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Citron kinase (CIT-K), a ser/thr kinase, is required during neurogenesis for cytokinesis of neuronal precursors. Deletion of the cit-k gene in mice (cit-k(-/-) mice) leads to a severe malformative central nervous system syndrome characterized by microencephaly, ataxia, and epileptic seizures; affected mice die by the third week of postnatal life. We have used NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, immunostaining for calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), and histological staining to undertake qualitative and quantitative analyses of the morphology and distribution of interneurons in the barrelfield cortex of cit-k(-/-) mice. By postnatal day 13, lack of CIT-K results in profoundly altered cortical cell morphology: the infragranular layers are populated by large, binucleate interneurons bearing many more dendrites than in control mice, an anatomical profile that has also been reported for the cortex of humans with cortical dysplasias and epilepsy. Tessellation analyses reveal that a clustered distribution of interneurons is maintained in cit-k(-/-) mice, but that their nearest neighbor distance is significantly increased, and thus their density is reduced; the overall number of interneurons is more dramatically decreased in the absence of CIT-K than would be predicted on the basis of the reduced brain size of affected mice. This reduction of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons likely underlies the occurrence of epileptic seizures in the cit-k(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the altered distribution of NADPH-diaphorase-positive interneurons could be responsible for an impaired coupling of cortical activity to blood flow, also affecting cortical growth and functioning.

Muscarinic-2 and orexin-2 receptors on GABAergic and other neurons in the rat mesopontine tegmentum and their potential role in sleep-wake state control.

  • Brischoux F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in the promotion of paradoxical sleep (PS) with muscle atonia through the muscarinic-2 receptor (M2R) in the mesopontine tegmentum. Conversely, orexin (Orx or hypocretin) appears to be critical for the maintenance of waking with muscle tone through the orexin-2 (or hypocretin-B) receptor (Orx2R), which is lacking in dogs having narcolepsy with cataplexy. In dual-immunostained material viewed under fluorescence microscopy, we examined the presence and distribution of M2R or Orx2R labeling on all neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-stained neurons or on glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-stained neurons through the mesopontine tegmentum. Applying stereological analysis, we determined that many neurons bear M2Rs on their membrane ( approximately 6,300), including relatively large, non-GABAergic cells, which predominate (>75%) in the oral and caudal pontine (PnO and PnC) reticular fields, and small, GABAergic cells ( approximately 2,800), which predominate (>80%) in the mesencephalic (Mes) reticular formation. Many neurons bear Orx2Rs on their membrane ( approximately 6,800), including relatively large, non-GABAergic cells, which predominate (>70%) through all reticular fields, and comparatively few GABAergic cells ( approximately 700). In triple-immunostained material viewed by confocal microscopy, many large neurons in PnO and PnC appear to bear both M2Rs and Orx2Rs on their membrane, indicating that ACh and Orx could exert opposing influences of inhibition vs. excitation on putative reticulo-spinal neurons and thus attenuate vs. facilitate activity and muscle tone. A few GABAergic cells bear both receptors and could as PS inhibitor neurons serve under these different influences to control PS effector neurons and accordingly gate PS and muscle atonia appropriately across sleep-wake states.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - F32 AR054700(United States)

Ultrastructural examination of diffuse and specific tectopulvinar projections in the tree shrew.

  • Chomsung RD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two pathways from the superior colliculus (SC) to the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus have been described, one in which the axons terminate in dense (or specific) patches and one in which the axon arbors are more diffusely organized (Luppino et al. [1988] J. Comp. Neurol. 273:67-86). As predicted by Lyon et al. ([2003] J. Comp. Neurol. 467:593-606), we found that anterograde labeling of the diffuse tectopulvinar pathway terminated in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-rich dorsal pulvinar (Pd), whereas the specific pathway terminated in the AChE-poor central pulvinar (Pc). Injections of retrograde tracers in Pd labeled non-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic wide-field vertical cells located in the lower stratum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum of the medial SC, whereas injections in Pc labeled similar cells in more lateral regions. At the ultrastructural level, we found that tectopulvinar terminals in both Pd and Pc contact primarily non-GABAergic dendrites. When present, however, synaptic contacts on GABAergic profiles were observed more frequently in Pc (31% of all contacts) compared with Pd (16%). Terminals stained for the type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter, a potential marker of tectopulvinar terminals, also contacted more GABAergic profiles in Pc (19%) compared with Pd (4%). These results provide strong evidence for the division of the tree shrew pulvinar into two distinct tectorecipient zones. The potential functions of these pathways are discussed.

Neuronal expression and subcellular localization of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase in the mouse brain.

  • Ramirez DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP46A1) that is selectively expressed in the brain and is responsible for the majority of cholesterol turnover in the central nervous system. Mice deficient in 24-hydroxylase exhibit impaired learning and defective hippocampal long-term potentiation, suggesting that the metabolism of cholesterol by this enzyme is required for learning and memory formation. To determine where in the neuron cholesterol turnover was taking place, monoclonal antibodies directed against 24-hydroxylase were generated by immunization of mice with recombinant protein and used to detect the enzyme in brain homogenates, cultured neurons, and histological sections. 24-Hydroxylase was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and was distributed throughout the cell bodies and dendrites of multiple types of neurons; the enzyme was not detected in axon terminals or in the cells of 24-hydroxylase knockout mice. 24-Hydroxylase was highly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and in hippocampal and cerebellar interneurons. Within the retina, 24-hydroxylase was detected in ganglion cells and some but not all cells of the inner nuclear layer. These findings reveal the microsomal localization of 24-hydroxylase and provide subcellular insight into cholesterol turnover in the brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS045195(United States)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rat thoracic spinal cord send their axons to the superior cervical ganglion.

  • Ito T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing fibers have been observed in the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and, to a lesser extent, in the stellate ganglion (STG). The aim of present study is to clarify the source of these fibers. No cell body showed mRNAs for glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) or immunoreactivity for GAD of 67 kDa (GAD67) in the cervical sympathetic chain. Thus, GABA-containing fibers in the ganglia are suggested to be of extraganglionic origin. GAD67-immunoreactive fibers were found not in the dorsal roots or ganglia, but in the ventral roots, so GABA-containing fibers in the sympathetic ganglia were considered to originate from the spinal cord. Furthermore, almost all GAD67-immunoreactive fibers in the sympathetic ganglia showed immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter, suggesting that GABA was utilized by some cholinergic preganglionic neurons. This was confirmed by the following results. 1) After injection of Sindbis/palGFP virus into the intermediolateral nucleus, some anterogradely labeled fibers in the SCG were immunopositive for GAD67. 2) After injection of fluorogold into the SCG, some retrogradely labeled neurons in the thoracic spinal cord were positive for GAD67 mRNA. 3) When the ventral roots of the eighth cervical to the fourth thoracic segments were cut, almost all GAD67- and GABA-immunoreactive fibers disappeared from the ipsilateral SCG and STG, suggesting that the vast majority of GABA-containing fibers in those ganglia were of spinal origin. Thus, the present findings strongly indicate that some sympathetic preganglionic neurons are not only cholinergic but also GABAegic.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA154130(United States)

Localization of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha to GABAergic neurons during maturation of the rat brain.

  • Cowell RM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) can activate a number of transcription factors to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cell-specific responses to cold, fasting, and exercise. Recent studies indicate that PGC-1alpha knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities and progressive vacuolization in various brain regions. To investigate the roles for PGC-1alpha in the nervous system, we evaluated the temporal and cell-specific expression of PGC-1alpha in the normal developing rat brain. Western blot of whole brain homogenates with a PGC-1alpha-specific antibody revealed that PGC-1alpha protein was most abundant in the embryonic and early postnatal forebrain and cerebellum. Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we determined that PGC-1alpha mRNA expression increased most markedly between postnatal days 3 (P3) and 14 in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of brain tissue indicated that while PGC-1alpha was found in most neuronal populations from embryonic day 15 to P3, it was specifically concentrated in GABAergic populations from P3 to adulthood. Interestingly, PGC-1alpha colocalized with the developmentally regulated chemoattractant reelin in the cortex and hippocampus, and the survival-promoting transcription factor myocyte enhancing factor 2 was highly concentrated in GABAergic populations in the striatum and cerebellum at times of PGC-1alpha expression. These results implicate PGC-1alpha as a regulator of metabolism and/or survival in GABAergic neurons during a phase of mitochondrial and synaptic changes in the developing brain and suggest that PGC-1alpha may be a good target for increasing metabolism in GABAergic populations in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R15 NS087606(United States)

Quantitative analysis of neuronal diversity in the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Parrish-Aungst S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olfactory sensory information is processed and integrated by circuits within the olfactory bulb. Golgi morphology suggests the olfactory bulb contains several major neuronal classes. However, an increasingly diverse collection of neurochemical markers have been localized in subpopulations of olfactory bulb neurons. While the mouse is becoming the animal model of choice for olfactory research, little is known about the proportions of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical markers in this species. Here we characterize neuronal populations in the mouse main olfactory bulb, focusing on glomerular populations. Immunofluorescent labeling for: 1) calretinin, 2) calbindin D-28K (CB), 3) parvalbumin, 4) neurocalcin, 5) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 6) the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD67), and 7) the neuronal marker NeuN was performed in mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kDa (GAD65) promoter. Using unbiased stereological cell counts we estimated the total numbers of cells and neurons in the bulb and the number and percentage of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical populations in each layer of the olfactory bulb. Use of a genetic label for GAD65 and immunohistochemistry for GAD67 identified a much larger percentage of GABAergic neurons in the glomerular layer (55% of all neurons) than previously recognized. Additionally, while many glomerular neurons expressing TH or CB coexpress GAD, the majority of these neurons preferentially express the GAD67 isoform. These data suggest that the chemospecific populations of neurons in glomeruli form distinct subpopulations and that GAD isoforms are preferentially regulated in different neurochemical cell types.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG006193(United States)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-immunopositive terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons selectively form synapses with cholinergic interneurons in the rat neostriatum.

  • Kuramoto E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is localized mainly to presynaptic membranes in the brain. Rat neostriatum has been reported to contain two types of mGluR4-immunoreactive axon varicosities: small, weakly immunoreactive varicosities that were distributed randomly (type 1) and large, intensely immunoreactive ones that were often aligned linearly (type 2). In the present study, most type 1 terminals formed asymmetric synapses on dendritic spines, whereas type 2 terminals made symmetric synapses on dendritic shafts, showing immunoreactivity for GABAergic markers. After depletion of neostriatal neurons, type 2 but not type 1 varicosities were largely decreased in the damaged region. When medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) were labeled with Sindbis virus expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein, mGluR4 immunoreactivity was observed on some varicosities of their axon collaterals in immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopies. Furthermore, type 2 varicosities were often positive for substance P but mostly negative for striatal interneuron markers and preproenkephalin. Thus, striatonigral/striato-entopeduncular MSNs are likely to be the largest source of type 2 mGluR4-immunopositive axon terminals in the neostriatum. Next, in the double-immunofluorescence study, almost all choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive and 41% of NK1 receptor-positive dendrites were heavily associated with type 2 mGluR4-immunoreactive varicosities. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive dendrites, in contrast, seemed associated with only a few type 2 varicosities. Conversely, almost all type 2 varicosities were closely apposed to NK1 receptor-positive dendrites that were known to be derived from cholinergic and nNOS-producing interneurons. These findings indicate that the mGluR4-positive terminals of MSN axon collaterals selectively form synapses with neostriatal cholinergic interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR017677(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34865(United States)

Long-range interneurons within the medial pulvinar nucleus of macaque monkeys.

  • Imura K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Like other thalamic nuclei, the primate pulvinar is considered not to have long-range intrinsic connections, either excitatory or inhibitory. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the medial pulvinar, however, reveal retrogradely filled neurons up to 2.0 mm from the injection edge. Serial section reconstruction (n = 18) confirmed that retrogradely filled neurons projected to the injection site and showed that they had additional long-range collaterals within the posterior pulvinar. Arrays of small, beaded terminations occurred in multiple foci along the collaterals. Terminal arrays were up to 1.0 mm in length; foci were separated by about 0.7 mm. Somata were large (average area = 220 microm2), and dendritic arbors were radiate and also large (about 1.0 mm in diameter), but without either the appendages of classical interneurons or the hairlike spines characteristic of radiate pulvinocortical projection neurons. Double labeling for BDA and parvalbumin (PV) or BDA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) indicated that these large neurons were positive for both PV and GABA. Double labeling for PV and GABA, or PV and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) revealed a small number of similarly large neurons in the posterior pulvinar that were positive for both substances. Thus, we propose that these neurons are a novel class of inhibitory interneuron, longer range than the classic thalamic local circuit interneurons. Future questions include how these neurons relate to other inhibitory systems and specific postsynaptic populations and whether they are located preferentially within the posterior pulvinar, possibly related to the multimodal character of this thalamic region.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - 5P01DC004732(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS51454(United States)

Synaptologic and fine structural features distinguishing a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons embedded in the dense intrinsic fiber network of the caudal extended amygdala.

  • Loopuijt LD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons confined within the intrinsic connections of the extended amygdala in the caudal sublenticular region and anterior amygdaloid area (cSLR/AAA) differ from other basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in several morphological and neurochemical respects. These cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons have been subjected to additional investigations described in this report. First, fibers traced anterogradely following injections of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin in the central amygdaloid nucleus were shown to contact cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons and dendrites. Second, these neurons were shown to be contacted by numerous GABAergic boutons with symmetric synaptic specializations. Third, the numbers of synaptic densities of morphologically characterized symmetric contacts on the somata and proximal dendrites of cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons were shown to significantly exceed those of extra-cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons. Fourth, fine structural features distinguishing cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons from other basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were revealed. Specifically, cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons have less abundant cytoplasm and a less well-organized system of rough endoplasmic reticulum than their counterparts in other parts of the basal forebrain. Thus, morphologically and neurochemically distinct cSLR/AAA cholinergic neurons exhibit robust proximal inhibitory inputs, of which a significant number originate in the extended amygdala, while cholinergic neurons outside this region lack a substrate for strong proximal inhibitory input. The implications of these findings for interaction of fear, anxiety, and attention are considered.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P 41 RR08605-06(United States)

Localization of glutamate receptors in developing cortical neurons in culture and relationship to susceptibility to excitotoxicity.

  • King AE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Overactivation of glutamate receptors leading to excitotoxicity has been implicated in the neurodegenerative alterations of a range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We have investigated the cell-type-specific changes in glutamate receptor localization in developing cortical neurons in culture, as well as the relationship between glutamate receptor subunit distribution with synapse formation and susceptibility to excitotoxicity. Glutamate receptor subunit clustering was present prior to the formation of synapses. However, different receptor types showed distinctive temporal patterns of subunit clustering, localization to spines, and apposition to presynaptic terminals. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit immunolabelling was present in puncta along dendrites prior to the formation of synapses, with relatively little localization to spines. Vulnerability to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurred before receptor subunits became localized in apposition to presynaptic terminals. Clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors occurred concurrently with development of vulnerability to excitotoxicity and was related to localization of AMPA receptors at synapses and in spines. Different AMPA receptor subunits demonstrated cell-type-specific localization as well as distribution to spines, dendrites, and extrasynaptic subunit clusters. A subclass of neurons demonstrated substantial perineuronal synaptic innervation, and these neurons expressed relatively high levels of GluR1 and/or GluR4 at receptor puncta, indicating the presence of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors and suggesting alternative synaptic signalling mechanisms and vulnerability to excitotoxicity. These data demonstrate the relationship between glutamate receptor subunit expression and localization with synaptogenesis and development of neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxicity. These data also suggest that excitotoxicity can be mediated through extrasynaptic receptor subunit complexes along dendrites.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - N01-AI40041(United States)