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beta-Actin (8H10D10) Mouse mAb antibody

RRID:AB_2242334

Aerobic Glycolysis Controls Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Tumor Immunity via a Specific CEBPB Isoform in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

  • Li W
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit anti-tumor immunity. Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer. However, the link between MDSCs and glycolysis is unknown in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we detect abundant glycolytic activities in human TNBC. In two TNBC mouse models, 4T1 and Py8119, glycolysis restriction inhibits tumor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression and reduces MDSCs. These are accompanied with enhanced T cell immunity, reduced tumor growth and metastasis, and prolonged mouse survival. Mechanistically, glycolysis restriction represses the expression of a specific CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB) isoform, liver-enriched activator protein (LAP), via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-ULK1 and autophagy pathways, whereas LAP controls G-CSF and GM-CSF expression to support MDSC development. Glycolytic signatures that include lactate dehydrogenase A correlate with high MDSCs and low T cells, and are associated with poor human TNBC outcome. Collectively, tumor glycolysis orchestrates a molecular network of the AMPK-ULK1, autophagy, and CEBPB pathways to affect MDSCs and maintain tumor immunosuppression.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AR041159-02(United States)

Bi-allelic Loss of CDKN2A Initiates Melanoma Invasion via BRN2 Activation.

  • Zeng H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor is associated with melanoma metastasis, but the mechanisms connecting the phenomena are unknown. Using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer a cellular model of melanoma initiation from primary human melanocytes, we discovered that a lineage-restricted transcription factor, BRN2, is downstream of CDKN2A and directly regulated by E2F1. In a cohort of melanocytic tumors that capture distinct progression stages, we observed that CDKN2A loss coincides with both the onset of invasive behavior and increased BRN2 expression. Loss of the CDKN2A protein product p16INK4A permitted metastatic dissemination of human melanoma lines in mice, a phenotype rescued by inhibition of BRN2. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which CDKN2A suppresses the initiation of melanoma invasion through inhibition of BRN2.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - N01-AR-1-2256(United States)

Cancer Lipid Metabolism Confers Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

  • Iwamoto H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsic and evasive antiangiogenic drug (AAD) resistance is frequently developed in cancer patients, and molecular mechanisms underlying AAD resistance remain largely unknown. Here we describe AAD-triggered, lipid-dependent metabolic reprogramming as an alternative mechanism of AAD resistance. Unexpectedly, tumor angiogenesis in adipose and non-adipose environments is equally sensitive to AAD treatment. AAD-treated tumors in adipose environment show accelerated growth rates in the presence of a minimal number of microvessels. Mechanistically, AAD-induced tumor hypoxia initiates the fatty acid oxidation metabolic reprogramming and increases uptake of free fatty acid (FFA) that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1) significantly compromises the FFA-induced cell proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of CPT1 function sensitizes AAD therapeutic efficacy and enhances its anti-tumor effects. Together, we propose an effective cancer therapy concept by combining drugs that target angiogenesis and lipid metabolism.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - G0802266(United Kingdom)

Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors.

  • Pavlyukov MS
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, we identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183991()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA201402()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()

Lipid Peroxidation Drives Gasdermin D-Mediated Pyroptosis in Lethal Polymicrobial Sepsis.

  • Kang R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by pathogen infection and associated with pyroptosis. Pyroptosis occurs upon activation of proinflammatory caspases and their subsequent cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), resulting in GSDMD N-terminal fragments that form membrane pores to induce cell lysis. Here, we show that antioxidant defense enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, negatively regulate macrophage pyroptosis, and septic lethality in mice. Conditional Gpx4 knockout in myeloid lineage cells increases lipid peroxidation-dependent caspase-11 activation and GSDMD cleavage. The resultant N-terminal GSDMD fragments then trigger macrophage pyroptotic cell death in a phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCG1)-dependent fashion. Administration of the antioxidant vitamin E that reduces lipid peroxidation, chemical inhibition of PLCG1, or genetic Caspase-11 deletion or Gsdmd inactivation prevents polymicrobial sepsis in Gpx4-/- mice. Collectively, this study suggests that lipid peroxidation drives GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and hence constitutes a potential therapeutic target for lethal infection.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - N01 CA015083(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA160417()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115366()

A Somatically Acquired Enhancer of the Androgen Receptor Is a Noncoding Driver in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

  • Takeda DY
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased androgen receptor (AR) activity drives therapeutic resistance in advanced prostate cancer. The most common resistance mechanism is amplification of this locus presumably targeting the AR gene. Here, we identify and characterize a somatically acquired AR enhancer located 650 kb centromeric to the AR. Systematic perturbation of this enhancer using genome editing decreased proliferation by suppressing AR levels. Insertion of an additional copy of this region sufficed to increase proliferation under low androgen conditions and to decrease sensitivity to enzalutamide. Epigenetic data generated in localized prostate tumors and benign specimens support the notion that this region is a developmental enhancer. Collectively, these observations underscore the importance of epigenomic profiling in primary specimens and the value of deploying genome editing to functionally characterize noncoding elements. More broadly, this work identifies a therapeutic vulnerability for targeting the AR and emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements as highly recurrent oncogenic drivers.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA218530()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01CA45548(United States)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG005220()

Different Neuronal Activity Patterns Induce Different Gene Expression Programs.

  • Tyssowski KM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

A vast number of different neuronal activity patterns could each induce a different set of activity-regulated genes. Mapping this coupling between activity pattern and gene induction would allow inference of a neuron's activity-pattern history from its gene expression and improve our understanding of activity-pattern-dependent synaptic plasticity. In genome-scale experiments comparing brief and sustained activity patterns, we reveal that activity-duration history can be inferred from gene expression profiles. Brief activity selectively induces a small subset of the activity-regulated gene program that corresponds to the first of three temporal waves of genes induced by sustained activity. Induction of these first-wave genes is mechanistically distinct from that of the later waves because it requires MAPK/ERK signaling but does not require de novo translation. Thus, the same mechanisms that establish the multi-wave temporal structure of gene induction also enable different gene sets to be induced by different activity durations.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C20691/A11834(United Kingdom)

BACE1 Mediates HIV-Associated and Excitotoxic Neuronal Damage Through an APP-Dependent Mechanism.

  • Stern AL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) share common symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. Plaques are formed by aggregation of Aβ oligomers, which may be the toxic species in AD pathogenesis, and oligomers are generated by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). BACE1 inhibitors reverse neuronal loss and cognitive decline in animal models of AD. Although studies have also found evidence of altered APP processing in HIV+ patients, it is unknown whether increased BACE1 expression or Aβ oligomer production is a common neuropathological feature of HAND. Moreover, it is unknown whether BACE1 or APP is involved in the excitotoxic, NMDAR-dependent component of HIV-associated neurotoxicity in vitro Herein, we hypothesize that HIV-associated neurotoxicity is mediated by NMDAR-dependent elevation of BACE1 and subsequent altered processing of APP. Supporting this, we observed elevated levels of BACE1 and Aβ oligomers in CNS of male and female HIV+ patients. In a model of HIV-associated neurotoxicity in which rat neurons are treated with supernatants from HIV-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages, we observed NMDAR-dependent elevation of BACE1 protein. NMDA treatment also increased BACE1 and both pharmacological BACE1 inhibition and genetic loss of APP were partially neuroprotective. Moreover, in APP knock-out (APP-/-) mouse neurons, NMDA-induced toxicity was BACE1 independent, indicating that cytotoxicity of BACE1 is dependent upon APP cleavage. Our findings suggest that increased BACE1 and the resultant Aβ oligomer production may contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis and inhibition of BACE1 could have therapeutic potential in HANDs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) represent a range of cognitive impairments affecting ∼50% of HIV+ individuals. The specific causes of HAND are unknown, but evidence suggests that HIV-infected macrophage infiltration into the brain may cause neuronal damage. Herein, we show that neurons treated with conditioned media from HIV-infected macrophages have increased expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of BACE1 prevented neuronal loss after conditioned media exposure, but had no effect on HIV-associated neurotoxicity in neurons lacking its cleavage target amyloid precursor protein. We also observed increased BACE1 expression in HIV+ patient brain tissue, confirming the potential relevance of BACE1 as a therapeutic target in HANDs.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024986(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH098742(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106967(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH109382(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U24 MH100930(United States)

Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 inhibition alleviates aberrant bone formation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells from Saethre-Chotzen syndrome patients.

  • Camp E
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), associated with TWIST-1 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures. TWIST-1 haploinsufficiency, leads to alterations in suture mesenchyme cellular gene expression patterns, resulting in aberrant osteogenesis and craniosynostosis. We analyzed the expression of the TWIST-1 target, Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 (C-ROS-1) in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients and calvaria of Twist-1del/+ mutant mice and found it to be highly expressed when compared to TWIST-1 wild-type controls. Knock-down of C-ROS-1 expression in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients was associated with decreased capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, treatment of human SCS calvarial cells with the tyrosine kinase chemical inhibitor, Crizotinib, resulted in reduced C-ROS-1 activity and the osteogenic potential of human SCS calvarial cells with minor effects on cell viability or proliferation. Cultured human SCS calvarial cells treated with Crizotinib exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition, with an associated decrease in expression levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 and OSTEOPONTIN, with reduced PI3K/Akt signalling in vitro. Furthermore, Crizotinib treatment resulted in reduced BMP-2 mediated bone formation potential of whole Twist-1del/+ mutant mouse calvaria organotypic cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that C-ROS-1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial osteogenic progenitor cells. Furthermore, the aberrant osteogenic potential of these cells is inhibited by the reduction of C-ROS-1. Therefore, targeting C-ROS-1 with a pharmacological agent, such as Crizotinib, may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate craniosynostosis associated with aberrant TWIST-1 function.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY12975(United States)

The Stem Cell Factor Sox2 Is a Positive Timer of Oligodendrocyte Development in the Postnatal Murine Spinal Cord.

  • Zhang S
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination in the central nervous system takes place predominantly during the postnatal development of humans and rodents by myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently reported that Sox2 is essential for developmental myelination in the murine brain and spinal cord. It is still controversial regarding the role of Sox2 in oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Analyses of a series of cell- and stage-specific Sox2 mutants reveal that Sox2 plays a biphasic role in regulating oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Sox2 controls the number of OPCs for subsequent differentiation through regulating their proliferation. In addition, Sox2 regulates the timing of OL differentiation and modulates the rate of oligodendrogenesis. Our experimental data prove that Sox2 is an intrinsic positive timer of oligodendroglial lineage progression and suggest that interventions affecting oligodendroglial Sox2 expression may be therapeutic for overcoming OPC differentiation arrest in dysmyelinating and demyelinating disorders.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - NS093559()
  • National Institutes of Health - NS094559()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK 57682(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 84307()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children (US) - 85200()
  • The National key programme of Research and Development, China - 2016YFC0503200()

ICE1 promotes the link between splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

  • Baird TD
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway detects aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs) and regulates expression of 5-10% of non-aberrant human mRNAs. To date, most proteins involved in NMD have been identified by genetic screens in model organisms; however, the increased complexity of gene expression regulation in human cells suggests that additional proteins may participate in the human NMD pathway. To identify proteins required for NMD, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen against >21,000 genes. Canonical members of the NMD pathway were highly enriched as top hits in the siRNA screen, along with numerous candidate NMD factors, including the conserved ICE1/KIAA0947 protein. RNAseq studies reveal that depletion of ICE1 globally enhances accumulation and stability of NMD-target mRNAs. Further, our data suggest that ICE1 uses a putative MIF4G domain to interact with exon junction complex (EJC) proteins and promotes the association of the NMD protein UPF3B with the EJC.

Funding information:
  • National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences - Intramural Research Program()
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - Intramural Research Program()
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32AG000222-17(United States)

Inflammation-Modulated Metabolic Reprogramming Is Required for DUOX-Dependent Gut Immunity in Drosophila.

  • Lee KA
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

DUOX, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, acts as the first line of defense against enteric pathogens by producing microbicidal reactive oxygen species. DUOX is activated upon enteric infection, but the mechanisms regulating DUOX activity remain incompletely understood. Using Drosophila genetic tools, we show that enteric infection results in "pro-catabolic" signaling that initiates metabolic reprogramming of enterocytes toward lipid catabolism, which ultimately governs DUOX homeostasis. Infection induces signaling cascades involving TRAF3 and kinases AMPK and WTS, which regulate TOR kinase to control the balance of lipogenesis versus lipolysis. Enhancing lipogenesis blocks DUOX activity, whereas stimulating lipolysis via ATG1-dependent lipophagy is required for DUOX activation. Drosophila with altered activity in TRAF3-AMPK/WTS-ATG1 pathway components exhibit abolished infection-induced lipolysis, reduced DUOX activation, and enhanced susceptibility to enteric infection. Thus, this work uncovers signaling cascades governing inflammation-induced metabolic reprogramming and provides insight into the pathophysiology of immune-metabolic interactions in the microbe-laden gut epithelia.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31-DC010519(United States)

EWS/FLI Confers Tumor Cell Synthetic Lethality to CDK12 Inhibition in Ewing Sarcoma.

  • Iniguez AB
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many cancer types are driven by oncogenic transcription factors that have been difficult to drug. Transcriptional inhibitors, however, may offer inroads into targeting these cancers. Through chemical genomics screening, we identified that Ewing sarcoma is a disease with preferential sensitivity to THZ1, a covalent small-molecule CDK7/12/13 inhibitor. The selective CDK12/13 inhibitor, THZ531, impairs DNA damage repair in an EWS/FLI-dependent manner, supporting a synthetic lethal relationship between response to THZ1/THZ531 and EWS/FLI expression. The combination of these molecules with PARP inhibitors showed striking synergy in cell viability and DNA damage assays in vitro and in multiple models of Ewing sarcoma, including a PDX, in vivo without hematopoietic toxicity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA210030()
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY000184(United States)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG002668()

Sox2 Is Essential for Oligodendroglial Proliferation and Differentiation during Postnatal Brain Myelination and CNS Remyelination.

  • Zhang S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the CNS, myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined. We now report that Sox2 is an essential positive regulator of developmental myelination in the postnatal murine brain of both sexes. Stage-specific paradigms of genetic disruption demonstrated that Sox2 regulated brain myelination by coordinating upstream OPC population supply and downstream OL differentiation. Transcriptomic analyses further supported a crucial role of Sox2 in brain developmental myelination. Consistently, oligodendroglial Sox2-deficient mice developed severe tremors and ataxia, typical phenotypes indicative of hypomyelination, and displayed severe impairment of motor function and prominent deficits of brain OL differentiation and myelination persisting into the later CNS developmental stages. We also found that Sox2 was required for efficient OPC proliferation and expansion and OL regeneration during remyelination in the adult brain and spinal cord. Together, our genetic evidence reveals an essential role of Sox2 in brain myelination and CNS remyelination, and suggests that manipulation of Sox2 and/or Sox2-mediated downstream pathways may be therapeutic in promoting CNS myelin repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Promoting myelin formation and repair has translational significance in treating myelin-related neurological disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis in which brain developmental myelin formation and myelin repair are severely affected, respectively. In this report, analyses of a series of genetic conditional knock-out systems targeting different oligodendrocyte stages reveal a previously unappreciated role of Sox2 in coordinating upstream proliferation and downstream differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells in the mouse brain during developmental myelination and CNS remyelination. Our study points to the potential of manipulating Sox2 and its downstream pathways to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration and CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900950(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()

METTL14 Inhibits Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Differentiation and Promotes Leukemogenesis via mRNA m6A Modification.

  • Weng H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most prevalent internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), plays critical roles in many bioprocesses. However, its functions in normal and malignant hematopoiesis remain elusive. Here, we report that METTL14, a key component of the m6A methyltransferase complex, is highly expressed in normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells carrying t(11q23), t(15;17), or t(8;21) and is downregulated during myeloid differentiation. Silencing of METTL14 promotes terminal myeloid differentiation of normal HSPCs and AML cells and inhibits AML cell survival/proliferation. METTL14 is required for development and maintenance of AML and self-renewal of leukemia stem/initiation cells (LSCs/LICs). Mechanistically, METTL14 exerts its oncogenic role by regulating its mRNA targets (e.g., MYB and MYC) through m6A modification, while the protein itself is negatively regulated by SPI1. Collectively, our results reveal the SPI1-METTL14-MYB/MYC signaling axis in myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis and highlight the critical roles of METTL14 and m6A modification in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - DP1 OD003644-05(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA178454()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA182528()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211614()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA214965()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211404()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG008935()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107615()

Cross-reactivity of anti-HMGB1 antibodies for HMGB2.

  • Davies JE
  • J. Immunol. Methods
  • 2018 Feb 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

HMGB1 and HMGB2 are DNA-interacting proteins but can also have extracellular actions during inflammation. Despite their relatively high homology, they may have distinct roles, making it essential to be able to differentiate between the two. Here we examine the specificity of five commercially-available anti-HMGB1 antibodies. By Western blotting of recombinant proteins and HMGB1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we identified only one HMGB1 antibody that, under our experimental conditions, did not also detect HMGB2. Selecting specific antibodies for HMGB1 and HMGB2 allowed identification of distinct HMGB1 and HMGB2 subcellular pools in primary neutrophils.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G120/934(United Kingdom)

β-Catenin Directs Long-Chain Fatty Acid Catabolism in the Osteoblasts of Male Mice.

  • Frey JL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt-initiated signaling through a frizzled receptor and the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor-5 coreceptor instructs key anabolic events during skeletal development, homeostasis, and repair. Recent studies indicate that Wnt signaling also regulates the intermediary metabolism of osteoblastic cells, inducing glucose consumption in osteoprogenitors and fatty acid utilization in mature osteoblasts. In this study, we examined the role of the canonical Wnt-signaling target, β-catenin, in the control of osteoblast metabolism. In vitro, Wnt ligands and agonists that stimulated β-catenin activation in osteoblasts enhanced fatty acid catabolism, whereas genetic ablation of β-catenin dramatically reduced oleate oxidation concomitant with reduced osteoblast maturation and increased glycolytic metabolism. Temporal ablation of β-catenin expression in osteoblasts in vivo produced the expected low-bone-mass phenotype and also led to an increase in white adipose tissue mass, dyslipidemia, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Because the expression levels of enzymatic mediators of fatty acid β-oxidation are reduced in the skeleton of β-catenin mutants, these results further confirm the role of the osteoblast in lipid metabolism and indicate that the influence of Wnt signaling on fatty acid utilization proceeds via its canonical signaling pathway.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099134()

Prenatal High Estradiol Exposure Induces Sex-Specific and Dietarily Reversible Insulin Resistance Through Decreased Hypothalamic INSR.

  • Wang HH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An adverse intrauterine environment may induce adult disease in offspring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported that fresh embryo transfer (ET) in assisted reproductive technology leads to high maternal estradiol (E2), and prenatal high E2 exposure increases the risk of organ disorders in later life. We found that male newborns and children of fresh ET showed elevated fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) scores. Male mice with high prenatal estradiol exposure (HE) grew heavier than control mice and developed insulin resistance; they also showed increased food intake, with increased orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. The hypothalamic insulin receptor (INSR) was decreased in male HE mice, associated with elevated promoter methylation. Chronic food restriction (FR) in HE mice reversed insulin resistance and rescued hypothalamic INSR expression by correcting the elevated Insr promoter methylation. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to high E2 may induce sex-specific metabolic disorders in later life through epigenetic programming of hypothalamic Insr promoter, and dietary intervention may reverse insulin resistance by remodeling its methylation pattern.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008497(United States)

R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

  • Su R
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA178454()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA182528()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211614()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA214965()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211404()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG008935()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - NIH R01 GM087650(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071440()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089815()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS100077()

IL-1β Inhibits Connexin 43 and Disrupts Decidualization of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Through ERK1/2 and p38 MAP Kinase.

  • Yu J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inflammation can interfere with endometrial receptivity. We examined how interleukin 1β (IL-1β) affects expression of the uterine gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), which is known to be critical for embryonic implantation. We used an in vitro model of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), Western blotting, and a combination of validated, selective kinase inhibitors to evaluate five canonical IL-1β signaling pathways. Cx43 and two other markers of ESC differentiation (prolactin and VEGF) were inhibited predominantly via IL-1β-activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase cascades. The findings were corroborated using small interfering RNA to silence critical genes in either pathway. By contrast, upregulation of endogenous pro-IL-1α and pro-IL-1β following recombinant IL-1β treatment was mediated via the Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. The clinicopharmacological significance of our findings is that multiple signaling cascades may need to be neutralized to reverse deleterious effects of IL-1β on human endometrial function.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/J014699/1(United Kingdom)

NF-κB Dynamics Discriminate between TNF Doses in Single Cells.

  • Zhang Q
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Dec 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although cytokine-dependent dynamics of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) are known to encode information that regulates cell fate decisions, it is unclear whether single-cell responses are switch-like or encode more information about cytokine dose. Here, we measure the dynamic subcellular localization of NF-κB in response to a range of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulation conditions to determine the prevailing mechanism of single-cell dose discrimination. Using an information theory formalism that accounts for signaling dynamics and non-responsive cell subpopulations, we find that the information transmission capacity of single cells exceeds that predicted from a switch-like response. Instead, we observe that NF-κB dynamics within single cells contain sufficient information to encode multiple, TNF-dependent cellular states, and have an activation threshold that varies across the population. By comparing single-cell responses to an internal, experimentally observed reference, we demonstrate that cells can grade responses to TNF across several orders of magnitude in concentration. This suggests that cells contain additional control points to fine-tune their cytokine responses beyond the decision to activate.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103712()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM119462()

Brain endothelial cells induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by a Notch-dependent mechanism.

  • Lee ML
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuron-secreted factors induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2). In addition to their elaborate anatomic relationships with neurons, astrocytes also have processes that extend to and envelop the vasculature. Although previous studies have demonstrated that brain endothelia contribute to astrocyte differentiation and maturation, the effects of brain endothelia on astrocytic expression of GLT-1 have not been examined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endothelia induce expression of GLT-1 by co-culturing astrocytes from mice that utilize non-coding elements of the GLT-1 gene to control expression of reporter proteins with the mouse endothelial cell line, bEND.3. We found that endothelia increased steady state levels of reporter and GLT-1 mRNA/protein. Co-culturing with primary rat brain endothelia also increases reporter protein, GLT-1 protein, and GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor β, and nitric oxide pathways have been implicated in endothelia-to-astrocyte signaling; we provide multiple lines of evidence that none of these pathways mediate the effects of endothelia on astrocytic GLT-1 expression. Using transwells with a semi-permeable membrane, we demonstrate that the effects of the bEND.3 cell line are dependent upon contact. Notch has also been implicated in endothelia-astrocyte signaling in vitro and in vivo. The first step of Notch signaling requires cleavage of Notch intracellular domain by γ-secretase. We demonstrate that the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester blocks endothelia-induced increases in GLT-1. We show that the levels of Notch intracellular domain are higher in nuclei of astrocytes co-cultured with endothelia, an effect also blocked by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester. Finally, infection of co-cultures with shRNA directed against recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J, a Notch effector, also reduces endothelia-dependent increases in enhanced green fluorescent protein and GLT-1. Together, these studies support a novel role for Notch in endothelia-dependent induction of GLT-1 expression. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13825.

Lack of Lrp5 Signaling in Osteoblasts Sensitizes Male Mice to Diet-Induced Disturbances in Glucose Metabolism.

  • Kim SP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt signaling through the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 5 (Lrp5) coreceptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Mice rendered deficient for this coreceptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we challenged Lrp5-mutant mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to determine whether they were more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. The HFD-fed Lrp5 mutant mice maintained a low bone mass phenotype with an increase in adipose tissue mass and hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Examination of glucose metabolism revealed that Lrp5 deficiency in the osteoblast also resulted in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, with reductions in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The results from in vivo genetic epistasis and in vitro studies suggest that this phenotype proceeds via the accumulation of diacylglycerol species and impaired insulin signaling in Lrp5-deficient osteoblasts. In turn, glucose uptake and osteocalcin production are diminished in mutant osteoblasts. Taken together, these data identify a link between Wnt-Lrp5 signaling and insulin signaling in the osteoblast that has the potential to influence energy balance and compound the detrimental effects of a HFD on whole-body metabolism.

Regulation and effects of neurotrophic factors after neural stem cell transplantation in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

  • Li B
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

According to much research, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) are correlated with alternations of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor. The experimental illumination of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation to eliminate AD symptoms is being explored frequently, and we have acknowledged that neurotrophic factors may play a pivotal role in cognitive improvement. However, the relation between the reversal of cognitive deficits after NSC transplantation and directed alternations of neurotrophic factors is not clearly expounded. Meanwhile, reduced inflammatory response, promoted vessel density, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can be reflections of improvement in cerebrovascular function. Three weeks after NSC transplantation, spatial learning and memory function in NSC-injected (Tg-NSC) mice were significantly improved compared with vehicle-injected (Tg-Veh) mice. Meanwhile, results obtained by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the levels of neurotrophic factors, VEGF, and vessel density in the cortex of Tg-NSC mice were significantly enhanced compared with Tg-Veh mice, while the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6 were significantly decreased. Our results suggest that elevated concentrations of neurotrophic factors probably play a critical role in rescuing cognitive dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice after NSC transplantation, and neurotrophic factors may improve cerebrovascular function by means such as reducing inflammatory response and promoting angiogenesis.

Age-Dependent Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration and Impairment of the Autophagy-Lysosomal Pathway in LRRK-Deficient Mice.

  • Giaime E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

LRRK2 mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2's normal physiological role in the brain is unclear. Here, we show that inactivation of LRRK2 and its functional homolog LRRK1 results in earlier mortality and age-dependent, selective neurodegeneration. Loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus is accompanied with increases in apoptosis, whereas the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are unaffected. Furthermore, selective age-dependent neurodegeneration is only present in LRRK-/-, not LRRK1-/- or LRRK2-/- brains, and it is accompanied by increases in α-synuclein and impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Quantitative electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed age-dependent increases of autophagic vacuoles in the SNpc of LRRK-/- mice before the onset of DA neuron loss. These findings revealed an essential role of LRRK in the survival of DA neurons and in the regulation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the aging brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P50 NS094733()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS071251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS071251()

Renal Metabolic Programming Is Linked to the Dynamic Regulation of a Leptin-Klf15 Axis and Akt/AMPKα Signaling in Male Offspring of Obese Dams.

  • Kasper P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac). After weaning at postnatal day (P)21, offspring of all groups received SD. Clinically, HFD offspring were overweight and insulin resistant at P21. Although no metabolic changes were detected at P70, renal sodium excretion was reduced by 40%, and renal matrix deposition increased in the HFD group. Mechanistically, two stages were differentiated. In the early stage (P21), compared with the control group, HFD showed threefold increased white adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Renal leptin/Stat3-signaling was activated. In contrast, the Akt/ AMPKα cascade and Krüppel-like factor 15 expression were decreased. In the late stage (P70), although no metabolic differences were detected in HFD when compared with the control group, leptin/Stat3-signaling was reduced, and Akt/AMPKα was activated in the kidneys. This effect was linked to an increase of proliferative (cyclinD1/D2) and profibrotic (ctgf/collagen IIIα1) markers, similar to leptin-deficient mice. HFD-Lac mice exhibited metabolic changes at P21 similar to HFD, but no other persistent changes. This study shows a link between maternal obesity and metabolic programming of renal structure and function and intrinsic-renal Stat3/Akt/AMPKα signaling in the offspring.

Chemical Proteomics Identifies Druggable Vulnerabilities in a Genetically Defined Cancer.

  • Bar-Peled L
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activation rewires biochemical networks in cancer cells that may create special vulnerabilities. Here, we use chemical proteomics to map druggable proteins that are selectively expressed in KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. Principal among these is NR0B1, an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that we show engages in a multimeric protein complex to regulate the transcriptional output of KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. We further identify small molecules that covalently target a conserved cysteine within the NR0B1 protein interaction domain, and we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt NR0B1 complexes and impair the anchorage-independent growth of KEAP1-mutant cancer cells. Our findings designate NR0B1 as a druggable transcriptional regulator that supports NRF2-dependent lung cancers.

Mitophagy Controls the Activities of Tumor Suppressor p53 to Regulate Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells.

  • Liu K
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy is required for benign hepatic tumors to progress into malignant hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy, the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy, positively regulates hepatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) by suppressing the tumor suppressor p53. When mitophagy is enhanced, p53 co-localizes with mitochondria and is removed by a mitophagy-dependent manner. However, when mitophagy is inhibited, p53 is phosphorylated at serine-392 by PINK1, a kinase associated with mitophagy, on mitochondria and translocated into the nucleus, where it binds to the NANOG promoter to prevent OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors from activating the expression of NANOG, a transcription factor critical for maintaining the stemness and the self-renewal ability of CSCs, resulting in the reduction of hepatic CSC populations. These results demonstrate that mitophagy controls the activities of p53 to maintain hepatic CSCs and provide an explanation as to why autophagy is required to promote hepatocarcinogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA177337()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI129540()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK094652()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK100257()

A Brucella Type IV Effector Targets the COG Tethering Complex to Remodel Host Secretory Traffic and Promote Intracellular Replication.

  • Miller CN
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many intracellular pathogens exploit host secretory trafficking to support their intracellular cycle, but knowledge of these pathogenic processes is limited. The bacterium Brucella abortus uses a type IV secretion system (VirB T4SS) to generate a replication-permissive Brucella-containing vacuole (rBCV) derived from the host ER, a process that requires host early secretory trafficking. Here we show that the VirB T4SS effector BspB contributes to rBCV biogenesis and Brucella replication by interacting with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex, a major coordinator of Golgi vesicular trafficking, thus remodeling Golgi membrane traffic and redirecting Golgi-derived vesicles to the BCV. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates COG-dependent trafficking via delivery of a T4SS effector to promote rBCV biogenesis and intracellular proliferation, providing mechanistic insight into how bacterial exploitation of host secretory functions promotes pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI129992()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI112649()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007025()

Global Analysis of Plasma Lipids Identifies Liver-Derived Acylcarnitines as a Fuel Source for Brown Fat Thermogenesis.

  • Simcox J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cold-induced thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that protects endotherms against a reduction in ambient temperature. Using non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, we identified elevated levels of plasma acylcarnitines in response to the cold. We found that the liver undergoes a metabolic switch to provide fuel for brown fat thermogenesis by producing acylcarnitines. Cold stimulates white adipocytes to release free fatty acids that activate the nuclear receptor HNF4α, which is required for acylcarnitine production in the liver and adaptive thermogenesis. Once in circulation, acylcarnitines are transported to brown adipose tissue, while uptake into white adipose tissue and liver is blocked. Finally, a bolus of L-carnitine or palmitoylcarnitine rescues the cold sensitivity seen with aging. Our data highlight an elegant mechanism whereby white adipose tissue provides long-chain fatty acids for hepatic carnitilation to generate plasma acylcarnitines as a fuel source for peripheral tissues in mice.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK097285()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103930()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK103089()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK091317()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016232()

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Effect of Maternal Obesity on Placental Lipid Metabolism.

  • Calabuig-Navarro V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher and FA β-oxidation (FAO) is lower in placentas from obese, compared with lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery. In isolated trophoblasts, we measured [3H]-palmitate metabolism. Placentas of obese women had 17.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.1, 28.7%) more lipid than placentas of lean women, and higher mRNA and protein expression of FA esterification regulators (e.g., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, steroyl-CoA desaturase 1, and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1). [3H]-palmitate esterification rates were increased in trophoblasts from obese compared with lean women. Placentas of obese women had fewer mitochondria and a lower concentration of acylcarnitines, suggesting a decrease in mitochondrial FAO capacity. Conversely, peroxisomal FAO was greater in placentas of obese women. Altogether, these changes in placental lipid metabolism may serve to limit the amount of maternal lipid transferred to the fetus, restraining excess fetal adiposity in this population of glucose-tolerant women.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024989()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R00 HD062841()

Differing intrinsic biological properties between forebrain and spinal oligodendroglial lineage cells.

  • Horiuchi M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions. We found that although FB and SC OLCs responded differently to the same external factors; they were distinct in proliferation response to mitogens, oligodendrocyte phenotype after differentiation, and cytotoxic responses to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate-type glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity at immature stages of differentiation in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, transcriptome analysis identified genes differentially expressed between these OPC populations, including those encoding transcription factors (TFs), cell surface molecules, and signaling molecules. Particularly, FB and SC OPCs retained the expression of FB- or SC-specific TFs, such as Foxg1 and Hoxc8, respectively, even after serial passaging in vitro. Given the essential role of these TFs in the regional identities of CNS cells along the rostrocaudal axis, our results suggest that CNS region-specific gene regulation by these TFs may cause cell-intrinsic differences in cellular responses between FB and SC OLCs to extracellular molecules. Further understanding of the regional differences among OPC populations will help to improve treatments for demyelination in different CNS regions and to facilitate the development of stem cell-derived OPCs for cell transplantation therapies for demyelination. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13809.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15 GM/072622(United States)

Endometrial Stromal Decidualization Responds Reversibly to Hormone Stimulation and Withdrawal.

  • Yu J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human endometrial stromal decidualization is required for embryo receptivity, angiogenesis, and placentation. Previous studies from our laboratories established that connexin (Cx)-43 critically regulates endometrial stromal cell (ESC) differentiation, whereas gap junction blockade prevents it. The current study evaluated the plasticity of ESC morphology and Cx43 expression, as well as other biochemical markers of cell differentiation, in response to decidualizing hormones. Primary human ESC cultures were exposed to 10 nM estradiol, 100 nM progesterone, and 0.5 mM cAMP for up to 14 days, followed by hormone withdrawal for 14 days, mimicking a biphasic ovulatory cycle. Reversible differentiation was documented by characteristic changes in cell shape. Cx43 was reversibly up- and down-regulated after the estradiol, progesterone, and cAMP treatment and withdrawal, respectively, paralleled by fluctuations in prolactin, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-11, and glycodelin secretion. Markers of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), and its counterpart epithelial-mesenchymal transition, followed reciprocal patterns corresponding to the morphological changes. Incubation in the presence of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, an inhibitor of gap junctions, partially reversed the expression of decidualization and MET markers. In the absence of hormones, Cx43 overexpression promoted increases in vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-11 secretion, up-regulated MET markers, and reduced N-cadherin, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker. The combined results support the hypothesis that Cx43-containing gap junctions and endocrine factors cooperate to regulate selected biomarkers of stromal decidualization and MET and suggest roles for both phenomena in endometrial preparation for embryonic receptivity.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R37 EB003320(United States)

Genome Editing in hPSCs Reveals GATA6 Haploinsufficiency and a Genetic Interaction with GATA4 in Human Pancreatic Development.

  • Shi ZD
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human disease phenotypes associated with haploinsufficient gene requirements are often not recapitulated well in animal models. Here, we have investigated the association between human GATA6 haploinsufficiency and a wide range of clinical phenotypes that include neonatal and adult-onset diabetes using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9-mediated genome editing coupled with human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) directed differentiation. We found that loss of one GATA6 allele specifically affects the differentiation of human pancreatic progenitors from the early PDX1+ stage to the more mature PDX1+NKX6.1+ stage, leading to impaired formation of glucose-responsive β-like cells. In addition to this GATA6 haploinsufficiency, we also identified dosage-sensitive requirements for GATA6 and GATA4 in the formation of both definitive endoderm and pancreatic progenitor cells. Our work expands the application of hPSCs from studying the impact of individual gene loci to investigation of multigenic human traits, and it establishes an approach for identifying genetic modifiers of human disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DP2 DK098093()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DP3 DK111907()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK096239()

The RNA Exosome Syncs IAV-RNAPII Transcription to Promote Viral Ribogenesis and Infectivity.

  • Rialdi A
  • Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear RNA exosome is an essential multi-subunit complex that controls RNA homeostasis. Congenital mutations in RNA exosome genes are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the role of the RNA exosome in the cellular response to pathogens. Here, using NGS and human and mouse genetics, we show that influenza A virus (IAV) ribogenesis and growth are suppressed by impaired RNA exosome activity. Mechanistically, the nuclear RNA exosome coordinates the initial steps of viral transcription with RNAPII at host promoters. The viral polymerase complex co-opts the nuclear RNA exosome complex and cellular RNAs en route to 3' end degradation. Exosome deficiency uncouples chromatin targeting of the viral polymerase complex and the formation of cellular:viral RNA hybrids, which are essential RNA intermediates that license transcription of antisense genomic viral RNAs. Our results suggest that evolutionary arms races have shaped the cellular RNA quality control machinery.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI099195()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI106754()
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD008651()

Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates obesity and glucose homeostasis by promoting thermogenesis and endocrine function of classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese mice.

  • Kodo K
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks. At 8 weeks, EPO-injected mice showed significantly reduced body weight with reduced epididymal and subcutaneous white fat mass and unchanged caloric intake and locomotor activity. HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and glucose levels during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were significantly lower in HFD-EPO mice than in HFD-Con mice. EPO-injected mice also showed increased oxygen consumption, indicative of metabolic rate, and skin temperature around iBAT tissue masses. EPO significantly upregulated the PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a transcriptional factor with a crucial role in brown adipocyte differentiation. EPO significantly increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is downstream of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and known to stabilize PRDM16. EPO's suppression of myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) and microRNA-133a (miR-133a) via β3-adrenergic receptor caused PRDM16 upregulation. EPO-mediated enhancement of EpoR/STAT3 and β-adrenergic receptor/Mef2c/miR-133 pathways dramatically increases total uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an essential enzyme for BAT thermogenesis. Furthermore, EPO activated BAT's endocrine functions. EPO facilitated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and excretion in iBAT, associated with reduction of liver gluconeogenesis-related genes. Thus, EPO's improvement of obesity and glucose homeostasis can be attributed to increased iBAT thermogenic capacity and activation of BAT's endocrine functions.

Glucose Transporter-4 Facilitates Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake in Osteoblasts.

  • Li Z
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have identified the osteoblast as an insulin responsive cell that participates in global energy homeostasis. Here, we show that glucose transporter-4 (Glut4) is required for insulin-dependent uptake and oxidation of glucose in mature osteoblasts. In primary cultures of mouse osteoblasts, insulin increased uptake and oxidation of 14C-glucose in a dose-dependent fashion but did not significantly affect uptake or oxidation of 14C-oleate. In vitro, undifferentiated osteoblasts expressed 3 high-affinity Gluts: Glut1, Glut4, and Glut3. However, although levels of Glut1 and Glut3 remained constant during the course of osteoblast differentiation, Glut4 expression increased by 5-fold in association with enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Glut4 ablation in osteoblasts in vitro eliminated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, reduced proliferation and diminished measures of osteoblast maturation. In vivo, Glut4 expression was observed in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes at a level approaching that observed in adjacent skeletal muscle. To determine the importance of Glut4 in bone in vivo, we generated mice lacking Glut4 in osteoblasts and osteocytes (ΔGlut4). ΔGlut4 mice exhibited normal bone architecture but exhibited an increase in peripheral fat in association with hyperinsulinemia, β-cell islet hypertrophy, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, the expression of insulin target genes in liver, muscle, and adipose from ΔGlut4 mice were unchanged or increased, indicating that alterations in glucose homeostasis were the result of reduced clearance by bone. These findings suggest that Glut4 mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by mature osteoblasts/osteocytes and that the magnitude of glucose use by bone cells is sufficient to impact global glucose disposal in the mouse.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012345(United States)

Loss of Cathepsin B and L Leads to Lysosomal Dysfunction, NPC-Like Cholesterol Sequestration and Accumulation of the Key Alzheimer's Proteins.

  • Cermak S
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper function of lysosomes is particularly important in neurons, as they cannot dilute accumulated toxic molecules and aggregates by cell division. Thus, impairment of lysosomal function plays an important role in neuronal degeneration and in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work we analyzed how inhibition and/or loss of the major lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins B and L (CtsB/L), affects lysosomal function, cholesterol metabolism and degradation of the key Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins. Here, we show that cysteine CtsB/L, and not the aspartyl cathepsin D (CtsD), represent a major lysosomal protease(s) that control lysosomal function, intracellular cholesterol trafficking and AD-like amyloidogenic features. Intriguingly, accumulation of free cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes upon CtsB/L inhibition resembled a phenotype characteristic for the rare neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). CtsB/L inhibition and not the inhibition of CtsD led to lysosomal impairment assessed by decreased degradation of EGF receptor, enhanced LysoTracker staining and accumulation of several lysosomal proteins LC3II, NPC1 and NPC2. By measuring the levels of NPC1 and ABCA1, the two major cholesterol efflux proteins, we showed that CtsB/L inhibition or genetic depletion caused accumulation of the NPC1 in lysosomes and downregulation of ABCA1 protein levels and its expression. Furthermore, we revealed that CtsB/L are involved in degradation of the key Alzheimer's proteins: amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and C-terminal fragments of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and in degradation of β-secretase (BACE1). Our results imply CtsB/L as major regulators of lysosomal function and demonstrate that CtsB/L may play an important role in intracellular cholesterol trafficking and in degradation of the key AD proteins. Our findings implicate that enhancing the activity or levels of CtsB/L could provide a promising and a common strategy for maintaining lysosomal function and for preventing and/or treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC008981(United States)

Targeting the Ca(2+) Sensor STIM1 by Exosomal Transfer of Ebv-miR-BART13-3p is Associated with Sjögren's Syndrome.

  • Gallo A
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is associated with inflammation and dysfunction of salivary and lacrimal glands. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying this exocrinopathy is not known, although the syndrome has been associated with viruses, such as the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). We report herein that an EBV-specific microRNA (ebv-miR-BART13-3p) is significantly elevated in salivary glands (SGs) of pSS patients and we show that it targets stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), a primary regulator of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway that is essential for SG function, leading to loss of SOCE and Ca(2+)-dependent activation of NFAT. Although EBV typically infects B cells and not salivary epithelial cells, ebv-miR-BART13-3p is present in both cell types in pSS SGs. Importantly, we further demonstrate that ebv-miR-BART13-3p can be transferred from B cells to salivary epithelial cells through exosomes and it recapitulates its functional effects on calcium signaling in a model system.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194547(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - U01-AG06786(United States)

ZPK/DLK and MKK4 form the critical gateway to axotomy-induced motoneuron death in neonates.

  • Itoh T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Aug 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motoneuron death after transection of the axons (axotomy) in neonates is believed to share the same mechanistic bases as naturally occurring programmed cell death during development. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway is activated in both forms of motoneuron death, but it remains unknown to what extent these two forms of motoneuron death depend on this pathway and which upstream kinases are involved. We found that numbers of facial motoneurons are doubled in neonatal mice deficient in either ZPK/DLK (zipper protein kinase, also known as dual leucine zipper kinase), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, or in MKK4/MAP2K4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase directly downstream of ZPK/DLK, and that the facial motoneurons in those mutant mice are completely resistant to axotomy-induced death. Conditional deletion of MKK4/MAP2K4 in neurons further suggested that ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent mechanisms underlying axotomy-induced death are motoneuron autonomous. Nevertheless, quantitative analysis of facial motoneurons during embryogenesis revealed that both ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent and -independent mechanisms contribute to developmental elimination of excess motoneurons. In contrast to MKK4/MAP2K4, mice lacking MKK7/MAP2K7, another mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase directly downstream of ZPK/DLK, conditionally in neurons did not have excess facial motoneurons. However, some MKK7/MAP2K7-deficient facial motoneurons were resistant to axotomy-induced death, indicating a synergistic effect of MKK7/MAP2K7 on axotomy-induced death of these facial motoneurons. Together, our study provides compelling evidence for the pivotal roles of the ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent mechanism in axotomy-induced motoneuron death in neonates and also demonstrates that axotomy-induced motoneuron death is not identical to developmental motoneuron death with respect to the involvement of ZPK/DLK, MKK4/MAP2K4 and MKK7/MAP2K7.

Liver mTOR controls IGF-I bioavailability by regulation of protein kinase CK2 and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in fetal growth restriction.

  • Abu Shehab M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes the infant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. No treatment for FGR is available, and the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation has been implicated as an important mechanism by which fetal growth is reduced. However, to what extent circulating IGFBP-1 is phosphorylated in FGR is unknown, and the molecular mechanisms linking FGR to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation have not been established. We used umbilical cord plasma of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and growth-restricted human fetuses and determined IGFBP-1 and IGF-I concentrations (ELISA) and site-specific IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (Western blotting using IGFBP-1 phospho-site specific antibodies). In addition, we used a baboon model of FGR produced by 30% maternal nutrient restriction and determined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1 activity, CK2 expression/activity, IGFBP-1 expression and phosphorylation, and IGF-I levels in baboon fetal liver by Western blot, enzymatic assay, and ELISA. HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes were used to explore mechanistic links between mTORC1 signaling and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation. IGFBP-1 was hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in umbilical plasma of human FGR fetuses. IGFBP-1 was also hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in the liver of growth-restricted baboon fetus. mTOR signaling was markedly inhibited, whereas expression and activity of CK2 was increased in growth-restricted baboon fetal liver in vivo. Using HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes, we established a mechanistic link between mTOR inhibition, CK2 activation, IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, and decreased IGF-I-induced IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation. We provide clear evidence for IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in FGR and identified an mTOR and CK2-mediated mechanism for regulation of IGF-I bioavailability. Our findings are consistent with the model that inhibition of mTOR in the fetal liver, resulting in increased CK2 activity and IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, constitutes a novel mechanistic link between nutrient deprivation and restricted fetal growth.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)