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GluR2 glutamate receptor Gs protein, alpha subunit antibody

RRID:AB_2232661

Antibody ID

AB_2232661

Target Antigen

GluR2 glutamate receptor Gs protein alpha subunit null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-002, RRID:AB_2232661)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: EM, IB, ICC, IHC, Immuno-gold, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

L21/32

Host Organism

mouse

Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum.

  • Maltese M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a+/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a+/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a+/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers.

Funding information:
  • Dystonia Medical Research Foundation - 2017()
  • Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca - PRIN 2010-2011()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL084498-01A2(United States)

Deprivation-Induced Homeostatic Spine Scaling In Vivo Is Localized to Dendritic Branches that Have Undergone Recent Spine Loss.

  • Barnes SJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic scaling is a key homeostatic plasticity mechanism and is thought to be involved in the regulation of cortical activity levels. Here we investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic changes in spine size following sensory deprivation in a subset of inhibitory (layer 2/3 GAD65-positive) and excitatory (layer 5 Thy1-positive) neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using repeated in vivo two-photon imaging, we find that increases in spine size are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) dependent and thus are likely associated with synaptic scaling. Rather than occurring at all spines, the observed increases in spine size are spatially localized to a subset of dendritic branches and are correlated with the degree of recent local spine loss within that branch. Using simulations, we show that such a compartmentalized form of synaptic scaling has computational benefits over cell-wide scaling for information processing within the cell.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA034195(United States)

Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo.

  • Chenaux G
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104638(United States)

Probabilistic fluorescence-based synapse detection.

  • Simhal AK
  • PLoS Comput. Biol.
  • 2017 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Deeper exploration of the brain's vast synaptic networks will require new tools for high-throughput structural and molecular profiling of the diverse populations of synapses that compose those networks. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) and electron microscopy (EM) offer complementary advantages and disadvantages for single-synapse analysis. FM combines exquisite molecular discrimination capacities with high speed and low cost, but rigorous discrimination between synaptic and non-synaptic fluorescence signals is challenging. In contrast, EM remains the gold standard for reliable identification of a synapse, but offers only limited molecular discrimination and is slow and costly. To develop and test single-synapse image analysis methods, we have used datasets from conjugate array tomography (cAT), which provides voxel-conjugate FM and EM (annotated) images of the same individual synapses. We report a novel unsupervised probabilistic method for detection of synapses from multiplex FM (muxFM) image data, and evaluate this method both by comparison to EM gold standard annotated data and by examining its capacity to reproduce known important features of cortical synapse distributions. The proposed probabilistic model-based synapse detector accepts molecular-morphological synapse models as user queries, and delivers a volumetric map of the probability that each voxel represents part of a synapse. Taking human annotation of cAT EM data as ground truth, we show that our algorithm detects synapses from muxFM data alone as successfully as human annotators seeing only the muxFM data, and accurately reproduces known architectural features of cortical synapse distributions. This approach opens the door to data-driven discovery of new synapse types and their density. We suggest that our probabilistic synapse detector will also be useful for analysis of standard confocal and super-resolution FM images, where EM cross-validation is not practical.

Regulation of Thalamic and Cortical Network Synchrony by Scn8a.

  • Makinson CD
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations cause severe epilepsies marked by intermittent, pathological hypersynchronous brain states. Here we present two mechanisms that help to explain how mutations in one VGSC gene, Scn8a, contribute to two distinct seizure phenotypes: (1) hypoexcitation of cortical circuits leading to convulsive seizure resistance, and (2) hyperexcitation of thalamocortical circuits leading to non-convulsive absence epilepsy. We found that loss of Scn8a leads to altered RT cell intrinsic excitability and a failure in recurrent RT synaptic inhibition. We propose that these deficits cooperate to enhance thalamocortical network synchrony and generate pathological oscillations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first clear demonstration of a pathological state tied to disruption of the RT-RT synapse. Our observation that loss of a single gene in the thalamus of an adult wild-type animal is sufficient to cause spike-wave discharges is striking and represents an example of absence epilepsy of thalamic origin.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS034774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048336()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065187()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072221()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090911()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007280()

Distribution of the SynDIG4/proline-rich transmembrane protein 1 in rat brain.

  • Kirk LM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) content at synapses is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism of memory and learning. AMPAR content at synapses is highly plastic and is regulated by numerous AMPAR accessory transmembrane proteins such as TARPs, cornichons, and CKAMPs. SynDIG (synapse differentiation-induced gene) defines a family of four genes (SynDIG1-4) expressed in distinct and overlapping patterns in the brain. SynDIG1 was previously identified as a novel transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates synaptic strength. The related protein SynDIG4 [also known as Prrt1 (proline-rich transmembrane protein 1)] has recently been identified as a component of AMPAR complexes. In this study, we show that SynDIG1 and SynDIG4 have distinct yet overlapping patterns of expression in the central nervous system, with SynDIG4 having especially prominent expression in the hippocampus and particularly within CA1. In contrast to SynDIG1 and other traditional AMPAR auxiliary subunits, SynDIG4 is de-enriched at the postsynaptic density and colocalizes with extrasynaptic GluA1 puncta in primary dissociated neuron culture. These results indicate that, although SynDIG4 shares sequence similarity with SynDIG1, it might act through a unique mechanism as an auxiliary factor for extrasynaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2266-2280, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum is stimulated by a complex containing Ca2+/calmodulin-activated kinase II (CaMKII) and PICK1 protein and by release of Ca2+ from internal stores.

  • Lu W
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2014 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) dominantly blocks AMPAR Ca(2+) permeability, and its trafficking to the synapse regulates AMPAR-dependent synapse Ca(2+) permeability. Here we show that GluA2 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons requires Ca(2+) release from internal stores, the activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin activated kinase II (CaMKII), and GluA2 interaction with the PDZ protein, PICK1. We show that upon Ca(2+) release from the ER via the IP3 and ryanodine receptors, CaMKII that is activated enters a complex that contains PICK1, dependent upon the PICK1 BAR (Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs) domain, and that interacts with the GluA2 C-terminal domain and stimulates GluA2 ER exit and surface trafficking. This study reveals a novel mechanism of regulation of trafficking of GluA2-containing receptors to the surface under the control of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and CaMKII activity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH095972(United States)

Specificity protein 4 (Sp4) regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2).

  • Priya A
  • Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • 2014 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important glutamatergic receptors mediating fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. The regulation of the four subunits of AMPA receptors, GluA1-4, is poorly understood. Excitatory synaptic transmission is highly energy-demanding, and this energy is derived mainly from the oxidative pathway. Recently, we found that specificity factor regulates all subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a critical energy-generating enzyme. COX is also regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which transcriptionally controls the Gria2 (GluA2) gene of AMPA receptors. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that Sp-factors (Sp1, Sp3, and/or Sp4) also regulate AMPA subunit genes. If so, we wish to determine if Sp-factors and NRF-1 function via a complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel mechanism. By means of multiple approaches, including electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, we found that Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the Gria2, but not Gria1, 3, or 4, subunit gene of the AMPA receptor in a concurrent and parallel manner with NRF-1. Thus, Sp4 and NRF-1 both mediate the tight coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism at the transcriptional level.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - F31 AI124563(United States)

AMPA receptor upregulation in the nucleus accumbens shell of cocaine-sensitized rats depends upon S-nitrosylation of stargazin.

  • Selvakumar B
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2014 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Behavioral sensitization to cocaine is associated with increased AMPA receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This upregulation is withdrawal-dependent, as it is not detected on withdrawal day (WD) 1, but is observed on WD7-21. Its underlying mechanisms have not been clearly established. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates AMPAR trafficking in the brain by S-nitrosylation of the AMPAR auxiliary subunit, stargazin, leading to increased AMPAR surface expression. Our goal was to determine if stargazin S-nitrosylation contributes to AMPAR upregulation during sensitization. First, we measured stargazin S-nitrosylation in NAc core and shell subregions on WD14 after 8 daily injections of saline or 15 mg/kg cocaine. Stargazin S-nitrosylation was markedly increased in NAc shell but not core. To determine if this is associated with AMPAR upregulation, rats received 8 cocaine or saline injections followed by twice-daily treatments with vehicle or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME (50 mg/kg) on WD1-6, the time when AMPAR upregulation is developing in cocaine-exposed rats. Cocaine/vehicle rats showed elevated stargazin and GluA1 surface expression on WD7 compared to saline/vehicle rats; the GluA1 increase was more robust in core, while stargazin increased more robustly in shell. These effects of cocaine were attenuated in shell but not core when cocaine injections were followed by l-NAME treatment on WD1-6. Together, these results indicate that elevated S-nitrosylation of stargazin contributes to AMPAR upregulation during sensitization selectively in the NAc shell. It is possible that AMPAR upregulation in core involves a different TARP, γ4, which also upregulates in the NAc of sensitized rats.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA151118(United States)

Downregulation of postsynaptic density-95-interacting regulator of spine morphogenesis reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by differentially regulating glutamate receptors in rat cortical neurons.

  • Luo P
  • FEBS J.
  • 2014 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is involved in many neurological diseases. Preso, a novel postsynaptic scaffold protein, mediates excitatory synaptic transmission and various synaptic functions. In this study, we investigated the role of Preso in the regulation of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Knockdown of Preso with small interfering RNA improved neuronal viability and attenuated the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Preso also inhibited an increase in the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Although the expression and distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1/5, NR1, NR2A and NR2B were not changed by knockdown of Preso, downregulation of Preso protected neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by inhibiting mGluR and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. However, downregulation of Preso neither affected the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 nor influenced the function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor after glutamate treatment. Furthermore, intracellular Ca(2+) was an important downstream effector of Preso in the regulation of excitotoxicity. These results suggest that expression of Preso promotes the induction of excitotoxicity by facilitating different glutamate receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Preso might be a potential pharmacological target for preventing and treating neurological diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - P01 DC 04732(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 100986(United Kingdom)

Early maternal deprivation immunologically primes hippocampal synapses by redistributing interleukin-1 receptor type I in a sex dependent manner.

  • Viviani B
  • Brain Behav. Immun.
  • 2014 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Challenges experienced in early life cause an enduring phenotypical shift of immune cells towards a sensitised state that may lead to an exacerbated reaction later in life and contribute to increased vulnerability to neurological diseases. Peripheral and central inflammation may affect neuronal function through cytokines such as IL-1. The extent to which an early life challenge induces long-term alteration of immune receptors organization in neurons has not been shown. We investigated whether a single episode of maternal deprivation (MD) on post-natal day (PND) 9 affects: (i) the synapse distribution of IL-1RI together with subunits of NMDA and AMPA receptors; and (ii) the interactions between IL-1RI and the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR in the long-term, at PND 45. MD increased IL-1RI levels and IL-1RI interactions with GluN2B at the synapse of male hippocampal neurons, without affecting the total number of IL-1RI or NMDAR subunits. Although GluN2B and GluN2A were slightly but not significantly changed at the synapse, their ratio was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of the male rats who had experienced MD; the levels of the GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of the AMPAR were also decreased. These changes were not observed immediately after the MD episode. None of the observed alterations occurred in the hippocampus of the females or in the prefrontal cortex of either sex. These data reveal a long-term, sex-dependent modification in receptor organisation at the hippocampal post-synapses following MD. We suggest that this effect might contribute to priming hippocampal synapses to the action of IL-1β.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/C507253/1(United Kingdom)

Region-specific restoration of striatal synaptic plasticity by dopamine grafts in experimental parkinsonism.

  • Rylander D
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2013 Nov 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons can restore striatal dopamine levels and improve parkinsonian deficits, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here, we show that transplants of dopamine neurons partially restore activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the host striatal neurons. We evaluated synaptic plasticity in regions distal or proximal to the transplant (i.e., dorsolateral and ventrolateral striatum) and compared the effects of dopamine- and serotonin-enriched grafts using a rat model of Parkinson disease. Naïve rats showed comparable intrinsic membrane properties in the two subregions but distinct patterns of long-term synaptic plasticity. The ventrolateral striatum showed long-term potentiation using the same protocol that elicited long-term depression in the dorsolateral striatum. The long-term potentiation was linked to higher expression of postsynaptic AMPA and N2B NMDA subunits (GluN2B) and was dependent on the activation of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits and the D1 dopamine receptor. In both regions, the synaptic plasticity was abolished after a severe dopamine depletion and could not be restored by grafted serotonergic neurons. Solely, dopamine-enriched grafts could restore the long-term potentiation and partially restore motor deficits in the rats. The restoration could only be seen close to the graft, in the ventrolateral striatum where the graft-derived reinnervation was denser, compared with the distal dorsolateral region. These data provide proof of concept that dopamine-enriched transplants are able to functionally integrate into the host brain and restore deficits in striatal synaptic plasticity after experimental parkinsonism. The region-specific restoration might impose limitations in symptomatic improvement following neural transplantation.

Ontogeny repeats the phylogenetic recruitment of the cargo exporter cornichon into AMPA receptor signaling complexes.

  • Mauric V
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Sep 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Besides mediating most of the fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian CNS, ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs) serve highly diverse functions in brain development controlling neuronal migration, synaptic growth, and synaptic maturation. Pioneering proteomic studies suggest that this functional diversity is met by a great molecular complexity in native AMPAR composition. Here, we have investigated the expression patterns of two recently identified AMPAR constituents, the cornichon homologues CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, and their assembly with the AMPAR core subunits GluA1-4 in developing rat brain. Unlike GluA1-4 expression, which is up-regulated during postnatal brain development, the two cornichon homologues show maximum mRNA and protein expression early after birth, which then decline towards adulthood. Despite rather reciprocal expression profiles, the overall ratio of CNIH-2/3 complexed with GluAs remains constant throughout development. Our data reveal an excess amount of AMPAR-free CNIH-2/3 early in development, which might serve the evolutionarily conserved role of cornichon as a cargo exporter. With progressing development, however, the amount of AMPAR-free CNIH-2/3 subsides, whereas the one being integrated into AMPAR complexes increases. Hence, the cornichon homologues CNIH-2/3 gain importance in their role as auxiliary subunits of native AMPARs during ontogeny, which reflects their functional evolution in phylogeny.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - AG038070(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS075393(United States)

An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.

  • Siddoway BA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) activity is important for many calcium-dependent neuronal functions including Hebbian synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. PP1 activity is necessary for the induction of long-term depression, whereas downregulation of PP1 activity is required for the normal induction of long-term potentiation. However, how PP1 is activated is not clear. Moreover, it is not known whether PP1 plays a role in homeostatic synaptic scaling, another form of synaptic plasticity which functions to reset the neuronal firing rate in response to chronic neuronal activity perturbations. In this study, we found that PP1 inhibitor-2 (I-2) is phosphorylated at serine 43 (S43) in rat and mouse cortical neurons in response to bicuculine application. Expression of I-2 phosphorylation-blocking mutant I-2 (S43A) blocked the dephosphorylation of GluA2 at serine 880, AMPA receptor trafficking, and synaptic downscaling induced by bicuculline application. Our data suggest that the phosphorylation of I-2 at S43 appears to be mediated by L-type calcium channels and calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light-chain kinase. Our work thus reveals a novel calcium-induced PP1 activation pathway critical for homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 260392(International)

Neuron-specific expression of tomosyn1 in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus impairs spatial learning and memory.

  • Barak B
  • Neuromolecular Med.
  • 2013 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tomosyn, a syntaxin-binding protein, is known to inhibit vesicle priming and synaptic transmission via interference with the formation of SNARE complexes. Using a lentiviral vector, we specifically overexpressed tomosyn1 in hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons in adult mice. Mice were then subjected to spatial learning and memory tasks and electrophysiological measurements from hippocampal slices. Tomosyn1-overexpression significantly impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory while tested in the Morris water maze. Further, tomosyn1-overexpressing mice utilize swimming strategies of lesser cognitive ability in the Morris water maze compared with control mice. Electrophysiological measurements at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses revealed impaired paired-pulse facilitation in the mossy fiber of tomosyn1-overexpressing mice. This study provides evidence for novel roles for tomosyn1 in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, potentially via decreased synaptic transmission in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Moreover, it provides new insight regarding the role of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and mossy fiber-CA3 synapses in swimming strategy preference, and in learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004576(United States)

The class 4 semaphorin Sema4D promotes the rapid assembly of GABAergic synapses in rodent hippocampus.

  • Kuzirian MS
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper circuit function in the mammalian nervous system depends on the precise assembly and development of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections between neurons. Through a loss-of-function genetic screen in cultured hippocampal neurons, we previously identified the class 4 Semaphorin Sema4D as being required for proper GABAergic synapse development. Here we demonstrate that Sema4D is sufficient to promote GABAergic synapse formation in rodent hippocampus and investigate the kinetics of this activity. We find that Sema4D treatment of rat hippocampal neurons increases the density of GABAergic synapses as detected by immunocytochemistry within 30 min, much more rapidly than has been previously described for a prosynaptogenic molecule, and show that this effect is dependent on the Sema4D receptor PlexinB1 using PlxnB1(-/-) mice. Live imaging studies reveal that Sema4D elicits a rapid enhancement (within 10 min) in the rate of addition of synaptic proteins. Therefore, we demonstrate that Sema4D, via PlexinB1, acts to initiate synapse formation by recruiting molecules to both the presynaptic and the postsynaptic terminals; these nascent synapses subsequently become fully functional by 2 h after Sema4D treatment. In addition, acute treatment of an organotypic hippocampal slice epilepsy model with Sema4D reveals that Sema4D rapidly and dramatically alters epileptiform activity, which is consistent with a Sema4D-mediated shift in the balance of excitation and inhibition within the circuit. These data demonstrate an ability to quickly assemble GABAergic synapses in response to an appropriate signal and suggest a potential area of exploration for the development of novel antiepileptic drugs.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD003958(United States)

Peroxisome proliferators reduce spatial memory impairment, synaptic failure, and neurodegeneration in brains of a double transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Inestrosa NC
  • J. Alzheimers Dis.
  • 2013 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities, accumulation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), increase of oxidative stress, and synaptic alterations. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species through their matrix enzyme catalase is one of the most recognized functions of peroxisomes. The induction of peroxisome proliferation is attained through different mechanisms by a set of structurally diverse molecules called peroxisome proliferators. In the present work, a double transgenic mouse model of AD that co-expresses a mutant human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPPswe) and presenilin 1 without exon 9 (PS1dE9) was utilized in order to assess the effect of peroxisomal proliferation on Aβ neurotoxicity in vivo. Mice were tested for spatial memory and their brains analyzed by cytochemical, electrophysiological, and biochemical methods. We report here that peroxisomal proliferation significantly reduces (i) memory impairment, found in this model of AD; (ii) Aβ burden and plaque-associated acetylcholinesterase activity; (iii) neuroinflammation, measured by the extent of astrogliosis and microgliosis; and (iv) the decrease in postsynaptic proteins, while promoting synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation. We concluded that peroxisomal proliferation reduces various AD neuropathological markers and peroxisome proliferators may be considered as potential therapeutic agents against the disease.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - JNM-90959(Canada)

Different roles of BDNF in nucleus accumbens core versus shell during the incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving and its long-term maintenance.

  • Li X
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to diverse types of plasticity, including cocaine addiction. We investigated the role of BDNF in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the incubation of cocaine craving over 3 months of withdrawal from extended access cocaine self-administration. First, we confirmed by immunoblotting that BDNF levels are elevated after this cocaine regimen on withdrawal day 45 (WD45) and showed that BDNF mRNA levels are not altered. Next, we explored the time course of elevated BDNF expression using immunohistochemistry. Elevation of BDNF in the NAc core was detected on WD45 and further increased on WD90, whereas elevation in shell was not detected until WD90. Surface expression of activated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) was also enhanced on WD90. Next, we used viral vectors to attenuate BDNF-TrkB signaling. Virus injection into the NAc core enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD1 compared with controls, whereas no effect was observed on WD30 or WD90. Attenuating BDNF-TrkB signaling in shell did not affect cocaine seeking on WD1 or WD45 but significantly decreased cocaine seeking on WD90. These results suggest that basal levels of BDNF transmission in the NAc core exert a suppressive effect on cocaine seeking in early withdrawal (WD1), whereas the late elevation of BDNF protein in NAc shell contributes to incubation in late withdrawal (WD90). Finally, BDNF protein levels in the NAc were significantly increased after ampakine treatment, supporting the novel hypothesis that the gradual increase of BDNF levels in NAc accompanying incubation could be caused by increased AMPAR transmission during withdrawal.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB006494-04S1(United States)

Rebalance of striatal NMDA/AMPA receptor ratio underlies the reduced emergence of dyskinesia during D2-like dopamine agonist treatment in experimental Parkinson's disease.

  • Bagetta V
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine replacement with levodopa (L-DOPA) represents the mainstay of Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. Nevertheless, this well established therapeutic intervention loses efficacy with the progression of the disease and patients develop invalidating side effects, known in their complex as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Unfortunately, existing therapies fail to prevent LID and very few drugs are available to lessen its severity, thus representing a major clinical problem inPDtreatment. D2-like receptor (D2R) agonists are a powerful clinical option as an alternative to L-DOPA, especially in the early stages of the disease, being associated to a reduced risk of dyskinesia development. D2R agonists also find considerable application in the advanced stages of PD, in conjunction with L-DOPA, which is used in this context at lower dosages, to delay the appearance and the extent of the motor complications. In advanced stages of PD, D2R agonists are often effective in delaying the appearance and the extent of motor complications. Despite the great attention paid to the family of D2R agonists, the main reasons underlying the reduced risk of dyskinesia have not yet been fully characterized. Here we show that the striatal NMDA/AMPAreceptor ratio and theAMPAreceptor subunit composition are altered in experimental parkinsonism in rats. Surprisingly, while L-DOPA fails to restore these critical synaptic alterations, chronic treatment with pramipexole is associated not only with a reduced risk of dyskinesia development but is also able to rebalance, in a dose-dependent fashion, the physiological synaptic parameters, thus providing new insights into the mechanisms of dyskinesia.

MicroRNA-223 is neuroprotective by targeting glutamate receptors.

  • Harraz MM
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2012 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Extracellular glutamate accumulation leading to overstimulation of the ionotropic glutamate receptors mediates neuronal injury in stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that miR-223 controls the response to neuronal injury by regulating the functional expression of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and NR2B in brain. Overexpression of miR-223 lowers the levels of GluR2 and NR2B by targeting 3'-UTR target sites (TSs) in GluR2 and NR2B, inhibits NMDA-induced calcium influx in hippocampal neurons, and protects the brain from neuronal cell death following transient global ischemia and excitotoxic injury. MiR-223 deficiency results in higher levels of NR2B and GluR2, enhanced NMDA-induced calcium influx, and increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in hippocampal neurons. In addition, the absence of MiR-223 leads to contextual, but not cued memory deficits and increased neuronal cell death following transient global ischemia and excitotoxicity. These data identify miR-223 as a major regulator of the expression of GluR2 and NR2B, and suggest a therapeutic role for miR-223 in stroke and other excitotoxic neuronal disorders.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 69153(Canada)

High frequency stimulation alters motor maps, impairs skilled reaching performance and is accompanied by an upregulation of specific GABA, glutamate and NMDA receptor subunits.

  • Henderson AK
  • Neuroscience
  • 2012 Jul 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

High frequency stimulation (HFS) has the potential to interfere with learning and memory. HFS and motor skill training both lead to potentiation of the stimulated network and alter motor map expression. However, the extent to which HFS can interfere with the learning and performance of a skilled motor task and the resulting effect on the representation of movement has not been examined. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms associated with HFS and skilled motor training on the motor cortex are not known. We hypothesized that HFS would impair performance on a skilled reaching task, and would be associated with alterations in motor map expression and protein levels compared to non-stimulated and untrained controls. Long Evans Hooded rats were chronically implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in the corpus callosum and frontal neocortex, respectively. High frequency theta burst stimulation or sham stimulation was applied once daily for 20 sessions. The rats were divided into five groups: control, HFS and assessed at 1 week post stimulation, HFS and assessed 3 weeks post stimulation, reach trained, and HFS and reach trained. A subset of rats from each group was assessed with either intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to examine motor map expression or Western blot techniques to determine protein expression of several excitatory and inhibitory receptor subunits. Firstly, we found that HFS resulted in larger and reorganized motor maps, and lower movement thresholds compared to controls. This was associated with an up-regulation of the GABA(A)α1 and NR1 receptor subunits 3 weeks after the last stimulation session only. Stimulation affected skilled reaching performance in a subset of all stimulated rats. Rats that were poor performers had larger rostral forelimb areas, higher proximal and lower distal movement thresholds compared to rats that were good performers after stimulation. Reach training alone was associated with an up-regulation of GABA(A)α1, α2, GluR2, NR1 and NR2A compared to controls. HFS and reach-trained rats showed an up-regulation of GABA(A)α2 compared to stimulated rats that were not reach-trained. Therefore, we have shown that HFS induces significant plasticity in the motor cortex, and has the potential to disrupt performance on a skilled motor task.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - 1R21EY023796-01(United States)

High-resolution proteomics unravel architecture and molecular diversity of native AMPA receptor complexes.

  • Schwenk J
  • Neuron
  • 2012 May 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are responsible for a variety of processes in the mammalian brain including fast excitatory neurotransmission, postsynaptic plasticity, or synapse development. Here, with comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses, we demonstrate that native AMPARs are macromolecular complexes with a large molecular diversity. This diversity results from coassembly of the known AMPAR subunits, pore-forming GluA and three types of auxiliary proteins, with 21 additional constituents, mostly secreted proteins or transmembrane proteins of different classes. Their integration at distinct abundance and stability establishes the heteromultimeric architecture of native AMPAR complexes: a defined core with a variable periphery resulting in an apparent molecular mass between 0.6 and 1 MDa. The additional constituents change the gating properties of AMPARs and provide links to the protein dynamics fundamental for the complex role of AMPARs in formation and operation of glutamatergic synapses.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS044916(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077198(United Kingdom)

A prolonged experimental febrile seizure results in motor map reorganization in adulthood.

  • Reid AY
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2012 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies have suggested that children experiencing a febrile seizure (FS) before the age of 1year have persistent deficits, but it is unknown whether these seizures lead to permanent cortical reorganization and alterations in function. A FS on the background of increased genetic seizure susceptibility may also lead to negative long-term consequences. Alterations in neocortical motor map expression provide a measure of neocortical reorganization and have been reported in both adults with frontal lobe epilepsy and following seizure induction in experimental models. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether (1) an infantile FS leads to changes to motor map expression in adulthood; (2) long-term cortical reorganization is a function of the age at FS or genetic seizure susceptibility; and (3) different levels of GABA(A) or glutamate receptor subunits or cation-chloride-co-transporters (CCCs) at the time of FS correlate with alterations to motor map expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FSs were induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) or P14 Long-Evans (LE) rats or in P14 seizure-prone FAST rats by the administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a subconvulsant dose of kainic acid. Ten weeks later intracortical microstimulation was performed to generate motor maps of forelimb movement representations. Sensorimotor neocortex samples were also dissected from naïve P10 FAST and P10 and P14 LE pups for western blotting with antibodies against various GABA(A), NMDA, and AMPA receptor subunits and for CCCs. RESULTS: Adult FAST rats had larger motor maps with lower stimulation thresholds after a FS at P14, while adult LE rats had significantly lower map stimulation thresholds but similar sized maps after a FS at P10 compared to controls. There were no differences in neocortical motor map size or stimulation thresholds in adult LE rats after a FS at P14. Both P10 LE and P14 FAST rats had significantly lower levels of the GABA(A) receptor α1 subunit, higher levels of the α2 subunit, and a higher NKCC1/KCC2 ratio in the sensorimotor cortex compared with the P14 LE rat. In addition, the P14 FAST rats had lower levels of the GluR2 and NR2A receptor subunits in the sensorimotor cortex compared with the P14 LE rats. CONCLUSIONS: A single infantile FS can have long-term effects on neocortical reorganization in younger individuals and those with underlying seizure susceptibility. These changes may be related to an increased level of excitability in the neocortex of younger or genetically seizure-prone rats, as suggested by immaturity of their GABAergic and CCC systems. Given the high incidence of FSs in children, it will be important to gain a better understanding of how age and genetic seizure predisposition may contribute to the long-term sequelae of these events.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - (United States)

Importance of Shank3 protein in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression and signaling at synapses.

  • Verpelli C
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Oct 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Shank3/PROSAP2 gene mutations are associated with cognitive impairment ranging from mental retardation to autism. Shank3 is a large scaffold postsynaptic density protein implicated in dendritic spines and synapse formation; however, its specific functions have not been clearly demonstrated. We have used RNAi to knockdown Shank3 expression in neuronal cultures and showed that this treatment specifically reduced the synaptic expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), but did not affect the expression of other major synaptic proteins. The functional consequence of Shank3 RNAi knockdown was impaired signaling via mGluR5, as shown by reduction in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation induced by stimulation with (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) as the agonist of mGluR5 receptors, impaired mGluR5-dependent synaptic plasticity (DHPG-induced long-term depression), and impaired mGluR5-dependent modulation of neural network activity. We also found morphological abnormalities in the structure of synapses (spine number, width, and length) and impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, as shown by reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC). Notably, pharmacological augmentation of mGluR5 activity using 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-benzamide as the positive allosteric modulator of these receptors restored mGluR5-dependent signaling (DHPG-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2) and normalized the frequency of mEPSCs in Shank3-knocked down neurons. These data demonstrate that a deficit in mGluR5-mediated intracellular signaling in Shank3 knockdown neurons can be compensated by 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-benzamide; this raises the possibility that pharmacological augmentation of mGluR5 activity represents a possible new therapeutic approach for patients with Shank3 mutations.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01-HG004885(United States)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rapidly increases AMPA receptor surface expression in rat nucleus accumbens.

  • Li X
  • Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the rodent nucleus accumbens (NAc), cocaine elevates levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Conversely, BDNF can augment cocaine-related behavioral responses. The latter could reflect enhancement of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) transmission, because AMPARs in the NAc mediate some cocaine-induced behaviors. Furthermore, in vitro studies in other cell types show that BDNF can promote AMPAR synaptic delivery. In this study, we investigated whether BDNF similarly promotes AMPAR trafficking in the adult rat NAc. After unilateral intracranial injection of BDNF into NAc core or shell, rats were killed at post-injection times ranging from 30 min to 3 days. NAc core or shell tissue from both injected and non-injected hemispheres was analysed by Western blotting. A protein cross-linking assay was used to measure AMPAR surface expression. Assessment of tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling demonstrated that injected BDNF was biologically active. BDNF injection into NAc core, but not NAc shell, led to a protein synthesis- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent increase in cell surface GluA1 and a trend towards increased total GluA1. This was detected 30 min post-injection but not at longer time-points. GluA2 and GluA3 were unaffected, suggesting an effect of BDNF on homomeric GluA1 Ca(2+) -permeable AMPARs. These results demonstrate that exogenous BDNF rapidly increases AMPAR surface expression in the rat NAc core, raising the possibility of a relationship between increases in endogenous BDNF levels and alterations in AMPAR transmission observed in the NAc of cocaine-experienced rats.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004555(United States)

Ephrin-B3 regulates glutamate receptor signaling at hippocampal synapses.

  • Antion MD
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

B-ephrin-EphB receptor signaling modulates NMDA receptors by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2 subunits. Ephrins and EphB RTKs are localized to postsynaptic compartments in the CA1, and therefore potentially interact in a non-canonical cis- configuration. However, it is not known whether cis- configured receptor-ligand signaling is utilized by this class of RTKs, and whether this might influence excitatory synapses. We found that ablation of ephrin-B3 results in an enhancement of the NMDA receptor component of synaptic transmission relative to the AMPA receptor component in CA1 synapses. Synaptic AMPA receptor expression is reduced in ephrin-B3 knockout mice, and there is a marked enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B receptor subunit. In a reduced system co-expression of ephrin-B3 attenuated EphB2-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, phosphorylation of EphB2 was elevated in the hippocampus of ephrin-B3 knockout mice, suggesting that regulation of EphB2 activity is lost in these mice. Direct activation of EphB RTKs resulted in phosphorylation of NR2B and a potential signaling partner, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2. Our data suggests that ephrin-B3 limits EphB RTK-mediated phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit through an inhibitory cis- interaction which is required for the correct function of glutamatergic CA1 synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB008400(United States)

Behavioral and cerebellar transmission deficits in mice lacking the autism-linked gene islet brain-2.

  • Giza J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Deletion of the human SHANK3 gene near the terminus of chromosome 22q is associated with Phelan-McDermid syndrome and autism spectrum disorders. Nearly all such deletions also span the tightly linked IB2 gene. We show here that IB2 protein is broadly expressed in the brain and is highly enriched within postsynaptic densities. Experimental disruption of the IB2 gene in mice reduces AMPA and enhances NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in cerebellum, changes the morphology of Purkinje cell dendritic arbors, and induces motor and cognitive deficits suggesting an autism phenotype. These findings support a role for human IB2 mutation as a contributing genetic factor in Chr22qter-associated cognitive disorders.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01-HG004603(United States)

Profiling of mouse synaptosome proteome and phosphoproteome by IEF.

  • Filiou MD
  • Electrophoresis
  • 2010 Apr 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synapses play important roles in neurotransmission and neuroplasticity. For an in-depth analysis of the synaptic proteome and phosphoproteome, synaptosomal proteins from whole mouse brain were analyzed by IEF and MS resulting in the largest synaptosome proteome described to date, with 2980 unique proteins identified with two or more peptides. At the same time, 118 synaptosomal phosphoproteins were identified, eight of which are reported for the first time as phosphorylated. Expression of selected proteins in synaptosomes was investigated by Western blot. We demonstrate that IEF is a powerful method to interrogate complex samples such as brain tissue both at the proteome and the phosphoproteome level without the need of additional enrichment for phosphoproteins. The detailed synaptoproteome data set reported here will help to elucidate the molecular complexity of the synapse and contribute to our understanding of synaptic systems biology in health and disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS039050(United States)

Local translation of dendritic RhoA revealed by an improved synaptoneurosome preparation.

  • Troca-Marín JA
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Changes in dendritic spine morphology, a hallmark of synaptic plasticity, involve remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, a process that is regulated by Rho GTPases. RhoA, a member of this GTPase family, segregates to dendrites in differentiated neurons. Given the emerging role of dendritic mRNA local translation in synaptic plasticity, we have assessed the possible localization and translation of RhoA mRNA at dendrites. At this end, we have developed and describe here in detail an improved method for isolating hippocampal and neocortical mouse synaptoneurosomes. This synaptoneurosomal preparation is much more enriched in synaptic proteins than those obtained in former methods, exhibits bona fide electron microscopy pre- and postsynaptic morphologies, contains abundant dendritic mRNAs, and is competent for activity-regulated protein synthesis. Using this preparation, we have found that RhoA mRNA is dendritically localized and its local translation is enhanced by BDNF stimulation. These findings suggest that some of the known functions of RhoA on spine morphology may be mediated by regulating its local translation.

Altered AMPA receptor expression with treadmill exercise in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury.

  • VanLeeuwen JE
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2010 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine depletion leads to impaired motor performance and increased glutamatergic-mediated hyperexcitability of medium spiny neurons in the basal ganglia. Intensive treadmill exercise improves motor performance in both saline treatment and the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-intensity treadmill exercise on changes in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit expression, because these receptor channels confer the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, and their subunit composition provides a key mechanism for regulating synaptic strength and synaptic neuroplasticity and is important in modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Within the dorsolateral striatum of MPTP mice, treadmill exercise increased GluR2 subunit expression, with no significant effect on GluR1. Furthermore, neurophysiological studies demonstrated a reduction in the size of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in striatal medium spiny neurons (as determined by the input-output relationship), reduced amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs, and a loss of polyamine-sensitive inward rectification, all supportive of an increase in heteromeric AMPAR channels containing the GluR2 subunit. Phosphorylation of GluR2 at serine 880 in both saline-treated and MPTP mice suggests that exercise may also influence AMPAR trafficking and thus synaptic strength within the striatum. Finally, treadmill exercise also altered flip isoforms of GluR2 and GluR1 mRNA transcripts. These findings suggest a role for AMPARs in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and support the idea that adaptive changes in GluR2 subunit expression may be important in modulating experience-dependent neuroplasticity of the injured basal ganglia.

Locomotor sensitization to cocaine is associated with distinct pattern of glutamate receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic density in prefrontal cortex: early versus late withdrawal effects.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
  • 2009 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the behavioral and molecular plasticity observed in cocaine mediated locomotor sensitization. Recent studies show that glutamatergic signaling is regulated by receptor trafficking, synaptic localization, and association with scaffolding proteins. The trafficking of the glutamate receptors was investigated in the dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex at 1 and 21 days after repeated cocaine administration which produced robust locomotor sensitization. A subcellular fractionation technique was used to isolate the cellular synaptosomal fraction containing the postsynaptic density. At early withdrawal, the prefrontal cortex displayed a reduction in the synaptosomal content of the AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. In contrast, after extended withdrawal, there was a significant increase in the trafficking of the receptors into the synaptosomal compartment. These changes were accompanied by corresponding trafficking of the postsynaptic glutamatergic scaffolding proteins. Thus, enhanced trafficking of glutamate receptors from cytosolic to synaptosomal compartment is associated with prolonged withdrawal from repeated exposure to cocaine and may have functional consequences for the synaptic and behavioral plasticity.

Behavioral sensitization to cocaine is associated with increased glutamate receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic density after extended withdrawal period.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Neuroscience
  • 2009 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in the behavioral and molecular plasticity observed in behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Redistribution of the glutamate receptors in the synaptosomal membrane fraction was investigated in the nucleus accumbens, dorsolateral striatum, and ventral tegmental area at 1 or 21 days of withdrawal in behaviorally sensitized rats. At 1 day of withdrawal, there were no changes in either tissue level or redistribution of glutamate receptors in nucleus accumbens core and shell and ventral tegmental area. At 21 days of withdrawal, there was a decrease in the expression of mGluR2/3 protein in core and shell, an increase in GluR1 and a decrease in Homer1b/c proteins in the nucleus accumbens core tissue. In dorsolateral striatum, the tissue level of NMDAR2B protein was increased. Moreover, there was an augmented presence of AMPA (GluR1, GluR2), NMDA (NMDAR1, 2A, 2B), and group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) proteins in the synaptosomal fraction in core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. There was also an increase in synaptosomal mGluR2/3 protein in nucleus accumbens core. The redistribution of glutamate receptors was selective for nucleus accumbens since no changes were observed in the dorsolateral striatum and ventral tegmental area. While the tissue level of the Homer1b/c protein was selectively reduced in nucleus accumbens core, that of PSD95, PICK1, and actin was not changed in any of the brain regions examined. However, the synaptosomal membrane fraction level of Homer1b/c and PSD95 was increased in nucleus accumbens core and shell, with no changes in PICK1, and a decrease in actin protein. These observations suggest that significant redistribution of glutamate receptors and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins into synaptosomal membrane fraction is associated with withdrawal from behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

AMPA receptors in the medial amygdala are critical for establishing a neuroendocrine memory in the female rat.

  • Oberlander JG
  • Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Jan 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

We sought to examine AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function in the medial posterodorsal amygdala (MePD), as glutamate neurotransmission is critical for the neural response to vaginal-cervical stimulation that initiates pregnancy or pseudopregnancy. Female rats were infused with the AMPAR antagonist CNQX or vehicle directly into the MePD via bilaterally implanted cannulae, then either returned to their homecage (HC), or received 15 mounts-without-intromissions (MO) or 15 intromissions (15I) from a male. Expression of the activity marker EGR-1 was used to determine the CNQX concentration which would prevent mating-induced activation of MePD neurons. Separate cannulated females received CNQX infusions into the MePD prior to receiving 15I, and the oestrous cycle length was monitored by daily vaginal lavages. Infusion of CNQX (500 nm) blocked mating-induced neural activation and lengthened the oestrous cycle, demonstrating AMPAR involvement in the formation of pseudopregnancy. To further explore this involvement, separate groups of 15I, MO and HC females were killed 90 min or 3 h after testing treatment. Brain sections were immunolabeled for AMPAR-subunit GluR1 phosphorylated at one of two sites (Serine-831 or Serine-845), or total GluR1 and GluR2, and immunofluorescence intensity was measured in the MePD, hippocampus and hypothalamus. A mating-induced increase in Serine-831 phosphorylation after 3 h was observed only in the MePD, whereas there was no effect on Serine-845 phosphorylation. Additionally, we observed a time-dependent increase in total GluR1 staining intensity. These results suggest an increased AMPAR function in the MePD after receipt of VCS, and a role for AMPAR in the neural response to VCS resulting in pseudopregnancy.

Decreased NR2B subunit synaptic levels cause impaired long-term potentiation but not long-term depression.

  • Gardoni F
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Jan 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The discovery of the molecular mechanisms regulating the abundance of synaptic NMDA receptors is essential for understanding how synaptic plasticity, as well as excitotoxic events, are regulated. However, a complete understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms regulating the composition of the NMDA receptor complex at hippocampal synapse is still missing. Here, we show that 2 h of CaMKII inhibition leads to a specific reduction of synaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors without affecting localization of the NR2A subunit; this molecular event is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), while long-term depression induction is unaffected. The same molecular and functional results were obtained by disrupting NR2B/PSD-95 complex with NR2B C-tail cell permeable peptide (TAT-2B). These data indicate that NR2B redistribution between synaptic and extrasynaptic membranes represents an important molecular disturbance of the glutamatergic synapse and affects the correct induction of LTP.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY 03592(United States)

Distribution of voltage-gated potassium and hyperpolarization-activated channels in sensory afferent fibers in the rat carotid body.

  • Buniel M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chemosensory glomus cells of the carotid body (CB) detect changes in O2 tension. Carotid sinus nerve fibers, which originate from peripheral sensory neurons located within the petrosal ganglion, innervate the CB. Release of transmitter from glomus cells activates the sensory afferent fibers to transmit information to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the brainstem. The ion channels expressed within the sensory nerve terminals play an essential role in the ability of the terminal to initiate action potentials in response to transmitter-evoked depolarization. However, with a few exceptions, the identity of ion channels expressed in these peripheral nerve fibers is unknown. This study addresses the expression of voltage-gated channels in the sensory fibers with a focus on channels that set the resting membrane potential and regulate discharge patterns. By using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence confocal microscopy, potassium channel subunits and HCN (hyperpolarization-activated) family members were localized both in petrosal neurons that expressed tyrosine hydroxylase and in the CSN axons within the carotid body. Channels contributing to resting membrane potential, including HCN2 responsible in part for I(h) current and the KCNQ2 and KCNQ5 subunits thought to underlie the neuronal "M current," were identified in the sensory neurons and their axons innervating the carotid body. In addition, the results presented here demonstrate expression of several potassium channels that shape the action potential and the frequency of discharge, including Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and K(Ca) (BK). The role of these channels should be considered in interpretation of the fiber discharge in response to perturbation of the carotid body environment.

Rapid synthesis and synaptic insertion of GluR2 for mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area.

  • Mameli M
  • Science
  • 2007 Jul 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) leads to long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) at many synapses of the brain. The induction of mGluR-LTD is well characterized, whereas the mechanisms underlying its expression remain largely elusive. mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) efficiently reverses cocaine-induced strengthening of excitatory inputs onto dopamine neurons. We show that mGluR-LTD is expressed by an exchange of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors for GluR2-containing receptors with a lower single-channel conductance. The synaptic insertion of GluR2 depends on de novo protein synthesis via rapid messenger RNA translation of GluR2. Regulated synthesis of GluR2 in the VTA is therefore required to reverse cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 260602(International)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5T32NS07303(United States)