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Anti-Tubulin, beta III isoform, C-terminus, clone TU-20 (Similar to TUJ1) antibody

RRID:AB_2210524

Antibody ID

AB_2210524

Target Antigen

Tubulin beta III isoform C-terminus clone TU-20 (Similar to TUJ1) porcine, non-human primate, chicken/bird, av, b, h, m, mk, po, r, sh

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# MAB1637, RRID:AB_2210524)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IgG1; IgG1 Immunocytochemistry; ELISA; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; ELISA, IC, IH, IH(P), IP, WB

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Millipore

Derivation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line (MUSIi004-A) from dermal fibroblasts of a 48-year-old spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient.

  • Ritthaphai A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dermal fibroblasts were obtained from a 48-year-old female patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Fibroblasts were reprogrammed by nucleofection with episomal plasmids, carrying L-MYC, LIN28, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, EBNA-1 and shRNA against p53. The SCA3 patient-specific iPSC line, MUSIi004-A, was characterized by immunofluorescence staining to verify the expression of pluripotent markers. The iPSC line exhibited an ability to differentiate into three germ layers by embryoid body (EB) formation. Karyotypic analysis of the MUSIi004-A line was normal. The mutant allele was still present in the iPSC line. This iPSC line represents a useful tool for studying neurodegeneration in SCA3.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R56 CA098369(United States)

Characterization of the canine rostral ventricular-subventricular zone: Morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and neurosphere assay studies.

  • Fernández-Flores F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ. Age groups of animals were performed. Histological and ultrastructural studies indicated that the cV-SVZ is organized in layers as in humans, but including migratory chains as in rodents. Neural progenitors were organized in niches in the subependymal area and a decline in their number was observed with age. Adult-young dogs contained migratory cells capable to expand and differentiate in vitro according with previous results obtained in rodents, primates, humans, pigs, and dogs. Some adult animals presented perivascular niches outside the V-SVZ. Our observations evidence a great similarity between canine and human V-SVZ indicating that the dog may be better representative of neurogenic events in humans, compared with rodents. Accordingly with our results, we conclude that dogs are a valuable animal model of adult neurogenesis in comparative and preclinical studies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM028630(United States)

Juxtanodin in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Expression and biological activities in regulating cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization.

  • Liang F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Juxtanodin (JN, also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined JN expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology, and cell culture. Prominent JN expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane. Partial co-localization of JN immunoreactivity with F-actin (labeled with phalloidin) was observed at the apices and bases of RPE cells. No JN was detected in other cell types of the retina. In cultured human RPE cell line ARPE-19, expression of extrinsic JN up-regulated formation of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers, caused redistribution of more F-actin fibers to the cell periphery, and promoted spreading/enlargement of transfected cells. These findings suggest possible roles of JN in RPE molecular transport, phagocytosis and formation of outer blood-retinal barrier, or possible involvement of JN expression perturbations in pathogenesis of such retinal disorders as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

Bcl-xL dependency coincides with the onset of neurogenesis in the developing mammalian spinal cord.

  • Fogarty LC
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse. Apoptotic cell death in the BKO embryo was initially detected at embryonic day 11 (E11) in the ventrolateral aspect of the spinal cord corresponding to the location of motor neurons. Apoptosis reached its peak at E13 having spread across the ventral and into the dorsal spinal cord. By E18, the wave of apoptosis had passed and only a few apoptotic cells were observed. The duration and direction of spread of apoptosis across the spinal cord is consistent with the spatial and temporal sequence of neuronal differentiation. Motor neurons, the first neurons to become post mitotic in the spinal cord, were also the first apoptotic cells. As neurogenesis spread across the spinal cord, later born neuronal populations such as Lim2+ interneurons were also affected. The onset of apoptosis occurred in cells that had exited the cell cycle within the previous 24h and initiated neural differentiation as demonstrated by BrdU birthdating and βIII tubulin immunohistochemistry. This data demonstrates that spinal cord neurons become Bcl-xL dependent at an early post mitotic stage in developmental neurogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI074847(United States)

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (MUSIi001-A) from caesarean section scar fibroblasts using Sendai viral vectors.

  • Wattanapanitch M
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from caesarean section scar fibroblasts of a 33-year-old healthy woman using transgene-free Sendai viral vectors under feeder-free condition. The established iPSC line, designated as MUSIi001-A, exhibited a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers, differentiated into cells of three embryonic germ layers. Further analyses showed that the Sendai viral genome was absent at passage 25. The MUSIi001-A line can serve as a control for studying developmental biology and phenotypic comparison with disease-specific iPSCs.

Fc gamma receptors are expressed in the developing rat brain and activate downstream signaling molecules upon cross-linking with immune complex.

  • Stamou M
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Exposure of the developing brain to immune mediators, including antibodies, is postulated to increase risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that immunoglobulin G-immune complexes (IgG-IC) activate Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) expressed on neurons to modify signaling events in these cells. However, testing this hypothesis is hindered by a paucity of data regarding neuronal FcγR expression and function. METHODS: FcγR transcript expression in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum of neonatal male and female rats was investigated ex vivo and in mixed cultures of primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and astrocytes using quantitative PCR analyses. Expression at the protein level in mixed cultures of primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and astrocytes was determined by immunocytochemistry, western blotting, proteotype analysis, and flow cytometry. The functionality of these receptors was assessed by measuring changes in intracellular calcium levels, Erk phosphorylation, and IgG internalization following stimulation with IgG-immune complexes. RESULTS: FcgrIa, FcgrIIa, FcgrIIb, FcgrIIIa, and Fcgrt transcripts were detectable in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum at postnatal days 1 and 7. These transcripts were also present in primary hippocampal and cortical cell cultures, where their expression was modulated by IFNγ. Expression of FcγRIa, FcγRIIb, and FcγRIIIa, but not FcγRIIa or FcRn proteins, was confirmed in cultured hippocampal and cortical neurons and astrocytes at the single cell level. A subpopulation of these cells co-expressed the activating FcγRIa and the inhibitory FcγRIIb. Functional analyses demonstrated that exposure of hippocampal and cortical cell cultures to IgG-IC increases intracellular calcium and Erk phosphorylation and triggers FcγR-mediated internalization of IgG. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that developing neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus and the cortex express signaling competent FcγR. These findings suggest that IgG antibodies may influence normal neurodevelopment or function via direct interactions with FcγR on non-immune cells in the brain.

Funding information:
  • Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich - ETH-30 17-1()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_PC_12001(United Kingdom)
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development - HD079125()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - ES011269()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - ES023513()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - ES04699()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD079125()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P01 ES011269()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P30 ES023513()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P42 ES004699()
  • Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung - SNF_160259()
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - 83543201()

Specific rescue by ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin of cortical GABAergic neurons from previous oxygen/glucose deprivation: role of pCREB.

  • Guirao V
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The statin atorvastatin (ATV) given as a post-treatment has been reported beneficial in stroke, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood so far. Here, we investigated in vitro the effect of post-treatment with ATV and its main bioactive metabolite ortho-hydroxy ATV (o-ATV) on neuroprotection after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), and the role of the pro-survival cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Post-OGD treatment of primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with o-ATV, but not ATV, provided neuroprotection to a specific subset of cortical neurons that were large and positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (large-GAD(+) neurons, GABAergic). Significantly, only these GABAergic neurons showed an increase in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) early after neuronal cultures were treated post-OGD with o-ATV. We found that o-ATV, but not ATV, increased the neuronal uptake of glutamate from the medium; this provides a rationale for the specific effect of o-ATV on pCREB in large-GABAergic neurons, which have a higher ratio of synaptic (pCREB-promoting) vs extrasynaptic (pCREB-reducing) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) than that of small-non-GABAergic neurons. When we pharmacologically increased pCREB levels post-OGD in non-GABAergic neurons, through the selective activation of synaptic NMDAR, we observed as well long-lasting neuronal survival. We propose that the statin metabolite o-ATV given post-OGD boosts the intrinsic pro-survival factor pCREB in large-GABAergic cortical neurons in vitro, this contributing to protect them from OGD.

The Intellectual Disability and Schizophrenia Associated Transcription Factor TCF4 Is Regulated by Neuronal Activity and Protein Kinase A.

  • Sepp M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factor 4 (TCF4 also known as ITF2 or E2-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein associated with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we show that TCF4-dependent transcription in cortical neurons cultured from embryonic rats of both sexes is induced by neuronal activity via soluble adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. PKA phosphorylates TCF4 directly and a PKA phosphorylation site in TCF4 is necessary for its transcriptional activity in cultured neurons and in the developing brain in vivo We also demonstrate that Gadd45g (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma) is a direct target of neuronal-activity-induced, TCF4-dependent transcriptional regulation and that TCF4 missense variations identified in SCZ patients alter the transcriptional activity of TCF4 in neurons. This study identifies a new role for TCF4 as a neuronal-activity-regulated transcription factor, offering a novel perspective on the association of TCF4 with cognitive disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The importance of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor transcription factor 4 (TCF4) in the nervous system is underlined by its association with common and rare cognitive disorders. In the current study, we show that TCF4-controlled transcription in primary cortical neurons is induced by neuronal activity and protein kinase A. Our results support the hypotheses that dysregulation of neuronal-activity-dependent signaling plays a significant part in the etiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH110487()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH104593()

Open Chromatin Profiling in hiPSC-Derived Neurons Prioritizes Functional Noncoding Psychiatric Risk Variants and Highlights Neurodevelopmental Loci.

  • Forrest MP
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants. Of the more than 3,500 SZ-associated variants analyzed, we prioritized ∼100 putatively functional ones located in neuronal OCRs, including rs1198588, at a leading risk locus flanking MIR137. Excitatory neurons derived from hiPSCs with CRISPR/Cas9-edited rs1198588 or a rare proximally located SZ risk variant showed altered MIR137 expression, dendrite arborization, and synapse maturation. Our study shows that noncoding disease variants in OCRs can affect neurodevelopment, and that analysis of open chromatin regions can help prioritize functionally relevant noncoding variants identified by GWAS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH097216()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106575()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH102685()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS100785()

ASCL1 Reorganizes Chromatin to Direct Neuronal Fate and Suppress Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

  • Park NI
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30DK34987(United States)

Molecular Memory of Morphologies by Septins during Neuron Generation Allows Early Polarity Inheritance.

  • Boubakar L
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor. Monitoring the dynamics of Septins, which play key roles in yeast polarity, indicates that Septin 7 tags process sites for re-initiation of process growth following mitosis. Interfering with Septins blocks this mechanism. Thus, Septins store polarity features during mitotic rounding so that daughters can reconstitute the initial progenitor polarity.

ASCL1 Reorganizes Chromatin to Direct Neuronal Fate and Suppress Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

  • Park NI
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glioblastomas exhibit a hierarchical cellular organization, suggesting that they are driven by neoplastic stem cells that retain partial yet abnormal differentiation potential. Here, we show that a large subset of patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) express high levels of Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1), a proneural transcription factor involved in normal neurogenesis. ASCL1hi GSCs exhibit a latent capacity for terminal neuronal differentiation in response to inhibition of Notch signaling, whereas ASCL1lo GSCs do not. Increasing ASCL1 levels in ASCL1lo GSCs restores neuronal lineage potential, promotes terminal differentiation, and attenuates tumorigenicity. ASCL1 mediates these effects by functioning as a pioneer factor at closed chromatin, opening new sites to activate a neurogenic gene expression program. Directing GSCs toward terminal differentiation may provide therapeutic applications for a subset of GBM patients and strongly supports efforts to restore differentiation potential in GBM and other cancers.

Genetic specification of left-right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation.

  • Charoy C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs. We further found that phrenic motoneurons receive an early L/R genetic imprint, with L versus R differences both in Slit/Robo signaling and MMP2 activity and in the contribution of both pathways to establish phrenic nerve asymmetry. Our study therefore demonstrates L-R imprinting of spinal motoneurons and describes how L/R modulation of axon guidance signaling helps to match neural circuit formation to organ asymmetry.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC009410()

Complement C5aR1 Signaling Promotes Polarization and Proliferation of Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells through PKCζ.

  • Coulthard LG
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of nonimmune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a, which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis; however, no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development. Here we demonstrate polarized expression of C5aR1 on the apical surface of mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells in vivo and on human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors. We also show that signaling of endogenous C5a during mouse embryogenesis drives proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the ventricular zone and is required for normal brain histogenesis. C5aR1 signaling in neural progenitors was dependent on atypical protein kinase C ζ, a mediator of stem cell polarity, with C5aR1 inhibition reducing proliferation and symmetric division of apical neural progenitors in human and mouse models. C5aR1 signaling was shown to promote the maintenance of cell polarity, with exogenous C5a increasing the retention of polarized rosette architecture in human neural progenitors after physical or chemical disruption. Transient inhibition of C5aR1 during neurogenesis in developing mice led to behavioral abnormalities in both sexes and MRI-detected brain microstructural alterations, in studied males, demonstrating a requirement of C5aR1 signaling for appropriate brain development. This study thus identifies a functional role for C5a-C5aR1 signaling in mammalian neurogenesis and provides mechanistic insight into recently identified complement gene mutations and brain disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The complement system, traditionally known as a controller of innate immunity, now stands as a multifaceted signaling family with a broad range of physiological actions. These include roles in the brain, where complement activation is associated with diseases, including epilepsy and schizophrenia. This study has explored complement regulation of neurogenesis, identifying a novel relationship between the complement activation peptide C5a and the neural progenitor proliferation underpinning formation of the mammalian brain. C5a was identified as a regulator of cell polarity, with inhibition of C5a receptors during embryogenesis leading to abnormal brain development and behavioral deficits. This work demonstrates mechanisms through which dysregulation of complement causes developmental disease and highlights the potential risk of complement inhibition for therapeutic purposes in pregnancy.

Releasing Syntaphilin Removes Stressed Mitochondria from Axons Independent of Mitophagy under Pathophysiological Conditions.

  • Lin MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy. Immuno-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging show the budding of syntaphilin cargos, which then share a ride on late endosomes for transport toward the soma. Releasing syntaphilin is also activated in the early pathological stages of ALS- and AD-linked mutant neurons. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial quality through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility before activation of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002946-12()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946-20()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029-10()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089737()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029()

Severe hearing loss and outer hair cell death in homozygous Foxo3 knockout mice after moderate noise exposure.

  • Gilels F
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies. SEM reveals persistent damage to some surviving outer hair cell stereocilia. However, DPOAE analysis reveals that some function is preserved in low frequency outer hair cells, despite concomitant profound hearing loss. Inner hair cells, auditory synapses and spiral ganglion neurons are all present after noise exposure in the Foxo3KO/KO fourteen days post noise (DPN). We also report anti-Foxo3 immunofluorescence in adult human outer hair cells. Taken together, these data implicate Foxo3 and its transcriptional targets in outer hair cell survival after noise damage. An additional role for Foxo3 in preserving hearing is likely, as low frequency auditory function is absent in noise exposed Foxo3KO/KOs even though all cells and structures are present.

Impact of High-Fat Diet and Early Stress on Depressive-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Male Rats.

  • Arcego DM
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Apr 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, the brain goes through fundamental processes, including organization of neural networks and plasticity. Environmental interventions may change initial brain programming, leading to long-lasting effects and altering the susceptibility to psychopathologies, including depression disorder. It is known that depression is a psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence worldwide, including high rates among adolescents. In this study, we evaluated whether social isolation in the prepubertal period and chronic use of high-fat diet (HFD) may induce depressive-like behavior in male adult rats. We also investigated hippocampal plasticity markers and neurotransmitter systems. We found both social isolation and HFD induced a depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming task. Moreover, chronic HFD reduced synaptic markers in hippocampus, demonstrated by reductions in βIII-tubulin (neuronal marker), PSD-95, SNAP-25, and neurotrophin-3. The HFD group also presented decreased glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors subunits. On the other hand, stress affected hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways, and increased expression of subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR2A). Both factors (stress and diet) decreased GR in the hippocampus without affecting plasma corticosterone at basal levels. Interactions between early stress and HFD access were observed only in the BNDF receptor (tropomyosin receptor kinase B; TrkB) and synaptophysin. In summary, these findings showed that a brief social isolation and chronic HFD, during a sensitive developmental period, cause depressive-like behavior in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral effects may involve changes in the levels of synaptic proteins in hippocampus: HFD consumption appears to affect synaptic markers, while social isolation affected BDNF signaling more significantly.

Identification of novel candidate regulators of retinotectal map formation through transcriptional profiling of the chick optic tectum.

  • Kukreja S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Information from the retina is carried along the visual pathway with accuracy and spatial conservation as a result of topographically mapped axonal connections. The optic tectum in the midbrain is the primary region to which retinal ganglion cells project their axons in the chick. The two primary axes of the retina project independently onto the tectum using different sets of guidance cues to give rise to the retinotectal map. Specificity of the map is determined by attractive or repulsive interactions between molecular tags that are distributed in gradients in the retina and the tectum. Despite several studies, knowledge of the retinotectal guidance molecules is far from being complete. We screened for all molecules that are expressed differentially along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes of the chick tectum using microarray based transcriptional profiling and identified several novel candidate retinotectal guidance molecules. Two such genes, encoding Wnt5a and Raldh2, the synthesizing enzymes for retinoic acid, were further analyzed for their function as putative regulators of retinotectal map formation. Wnt5a and retinoic acid were found to exhibit differential effects on the growth of axons from retinal explants derived from different quadrants of the retina. This screen also yielded a large number of genes expressed in a lamina-specific manner in the tectum, which may have other roles in tectal development. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:459-477, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272200900047C(United States)

Age-related changes of the regeneration mode in the mouse peripheral olfactory system following olfactotoxic drug methimazole-induced damage.

  • Suzukawa K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated age-related changes in the mode of regeneration in the mouse peripheral olfactory system after olfactotoxic drug-induced damage. Mice at postnatal ages of 10 days, 3 months, and 16 months were given an intraperitoneal injection of methimazole to produce damage in the olfactory neuroepithelium. The olfactory neuroepithelia were harvested and analyzed immunohistochemically at various postlesion timepoints, from 1 day through to 94 days, to investigate neuroepithelial cell proliferation, the time course of neuronal differentiation, the reconstitution of neuroepithelium, and the innervation of the olfactory bulb. Functional recovery was assessed using the vanillin avoidance behavioral test. The chronological pattern in the expression of Ki67, beta III tubulin, and olfactory marker protein, molecular markers for neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation, changed similarly among the different age groups. In contrast, the extent of neuroepithelial cell proliferation after injury decreased with age, and the final histological recovery of the olfactory neuroepithelium and the innervation of the olfactory bulb were significantly smaller in the 16-month-old group compared to the younger age groups. These results suggest that the age-related decline in the capacity of olfactory neuroepithelium to reconstitute neuroepithelium is associated with its age-related decrease in proliferative activity after the neuroepithelial injury rather than changes in the process of neuronal differentiation. In spite of these incomplete anatomical recoveries, 16-month-old mice regained the ability to avoid vanillin solution by 1 month postlesion, suggesting that the extent of anatomical epithelial damage is not necessarily proportional to the threshold of olfactory perception.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIB HG200319-07(United States)

Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) gene expression in the normal mouse visual system.

  • Kawano J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wolfram syndrome (OMIM 222300) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. This syndrome has been attributed to mutations in the WFS1 gene, which codes for a putative multi-spanning membrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of WFS1 (wolframin), the distribution of this protein in the mammalian visual system, and the pathogenesis of optic atrophy in Wolfram syndrome are unclear. In this study we made a detailed analysis of the distribution of Wfs1 mRNA and protein in the normal mouse visual system by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein were observed in the retina, optic nerve, and brain. In the retina, Wfs1 expression was strong in amacrine and Müller cells, and moderate in photoreceptors and horizontal cells. In addition, it was detectable in bipolar and retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, moderate Wfs1 expression was seen in the optic nerve, particularly in astrocytes, while little Wfs1 was expressed in the optic chiasm or optic tract. In the brain, moderate Wfs1 expression was observed in the zonal, superficial gray, and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, in the dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and in layer II of the primary and secondary visual cortices. Thus, Wfs1 mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the normal mouse visual system. This evidence may provide clues as to the physiological role of Wfs1 protein in the biology of vision, and help to explain the selective vulnerability of the optic nerve to WFS1 loss-of-function.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH049428(United States)