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PCNA (PC10) Mouse mAb antibody

RRID:AB_2160343

Antibody ID

AB_2160343

Target Antigen

PCNA See NCBI gene human, mouse, rat, monkey, bovine, pig

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 2586, RRID:AB_2160343)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P, IF-IC, F. Consolidation: AB_10695749.

Clone ID

PC10

Host Organism

mouse

Exogenous H2 S exerts biphasic effects on porcine mammary epithelial cells proliferation through PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

  • Zhang J
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 May 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous H2 S on the proliferation of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells (PMECs) and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that exposure of PMECs to NaHS, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µM, stimulated cell proliferation. However, high concentration of NaHS (600 µM) inhibited PMECs proliferation. Accordingly, 10 µM NaHS significantly increased the percentage of cells undergoing DNA replication, elevated the mRNA and/or protein expression of Cyclin A2, Cyclin D1/3, Cyclin E2 and PCNA, and decreased p21 mRNA expression. In contrast, 600 µM NaHS elicited the opposite effects to that of 10 µM NaHS. In addition, PI3 K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways were activated or inhibited in response to 10 or 600 µM NaHS, respectively. Furthermore, the promotion of PMECs proliferation, the change of proliferative genes expression, and the activation of mTOR signaling pathway induced by 10 µM NaHS were effectively blocked by PI3 K inhibitor Wortmannin. Similarly, inhibition of mTOR with Rapamycin totally abolished the 10 µM NaHS-induced stimulation of PMECs proliferation and alteration of proliferative genes expression, with no influence on PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, constitutive activation of Akt pathway via transfection of Akt-CA completely eliminated the inhibition of PMECs proliferation and mTOR signaling pathway, and the change of proliferative genes expression induced by 600 µM NaHS. In conclusion, our findings provided evidence that exogenous H2 S supplied by NaHS exerted biphasic effects on PMECs proliferation, with stimulation at lower doses and suppression at high dose, through the intracellular PI3 K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 232933(International)

Targeting the Senescence-Overriding Cooperative Activity of Structurally Unrelated H3K9 Demethylases in Melanoma.

  • Yu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oncogene-induced senescence, e.g., in melanocytic nevi, terminates the expansion of pre-malignant cells via transcriptional silencing of proliferation-related genes due to decoration of their promoters with repressive trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) marks. We show here that structurally distinct H3K9-active demethylases-the lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) and several Jumonji C domain-containing moieties (such as JMJD2C)-disable senescence and permit Ras/Braf-evoked transformation. In mouse and zebrafish models, enforced LSD1 or JMJD2C expression promoted Braf-V600E-driven melanomagenesis. A large subset of established melanoma cell lines and primary human melanoma samples presented with a collective upregulation of related and unrelated H3K9 demethylase activities, whose targeted inhibition restored senescence, even in Braf inhibitor-resistant melanomas, evoked secondary immune effects and controlled tumor growth in vivo.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - MC_U120085811()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 CA999999(United States)
  • Medical Research Council - R01 CA103846()

Sonic Hedgehog and WNT Signaling Promote Adrenal Gland Regeneration in Male Mice.

  • Finco I
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The atrophy and hypofunction of the adrenal cortex following long-term pharmacologic glucocorticoid therapy is a major health problem necessitating chronic glucocorticoid replacement that often prolongs the ultimate return of endogenous adrenocortical function. Underlying this functional recovery is anatomic regeneration, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Investigating the lineage contribution of cortical Sonic hedgehog (Shh)+ progenitor cells and the SHH-responsive capsular Gli1+ cells to the regenerating adrenal cortex, we observed a spatially and temporally bimodal contribution of both cell types to adrenocortical regeneration following cessation of glucocorticoid treatment. First, an early repopulation of the cortex is defined by a marked delamination and expansion of capsular Gli1+ cells, recapitulating the establishment of the capsular-cortical homeostatic niche during embryonic development. This rapid repopulation is promptly cleared from the cortical compartment only to be supplanted by repopulating cortical cells derived from the resident long-term-retained zona glomerulosa Shh+ progenitors. Pharmacologic and genetic dissection of SHH signaling further defines an SHH-dependent activation of WNT signaling that supports regeneration of the cortex following long-term glucocorticoid therapy. We define the signaling and lineage relationships that underlie the regeneration process.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK062027()
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Unsupervised Trajectory Analysis of Single-Cell RNA-Seq and Imaging Data Reveals Alternative Tuft Cell Origins in the Gut.

  • Herring CA
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modern single-cell technologies allow multiplexed sampling of cellular states within a tissue. However, computational tools that can infer developmental cell-state transitions reproducibly from such single-cell data are lacking. Here, we introduce p-Creode, an unsupervised algorithm that produces multi-branching graphs from single-cell data, compares graphs with differing topologies, and infers a statistically robust hierarchy of cell-state transitions that define developmental trajectories. We have applied p-Creode to mass cytometry, multiplex immunofluorescence, and single-cell RNA-seq data. As a test case, we validate cell-state-transition trajectories predicted by p-Creode for intestinal tuft cells, a rare, chemosensory cell type. We clarify that tuft cells are specified outside of the Atoh1-dependent secretory lineage in the small intestine. However, p-Creode also predicts, and we confirm, that tuft cells arise from an alternative, Atoh1-driven developmental program in the colon. These studies introduce p-Creode as a reliable method for analyzing large datasets that depict branching transition trajectories.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA095103()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174377()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R25 CA092043()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA215798()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007502()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103831()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F31 GM120940()

Fiber-Mediated Nourishment of Gut Microbiota Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity by Restoring IL-22-Mediated Colonic Health.

  • Zou J
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary supplementation with fermentable fiber suppresses adiposity and the associated parameters of metabolic syndrome. Microbiota-generated fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and free fatty acid receptors including GPR43 are thought to mediate these effects. We find that while fermentable (inulin), but not insoluble (cellulose), fiber markedly protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, the effect was not significantly impaired by either inhibiting SCFA production or genetic ablation of GPR43. Rather, HFD decimates gut microbiota, resulting in loss of enterocyte proliferation, leading to microbiota encroachment, low-grade inflammation (LGI), and metabolic syndrome. Enriching HFD with inulin restored microbiota loads, interleukin-22 (IL-22) production, enterocyte proliferation, and antimicrobial gene expression in a microbiota-dependent manner, as assessed by antibiotic and germ-free approaches. Inulin-induced IL-22 expression, which required innate lymphoid cells, prevented microbiota encroachment and protected against LGI and metabolic syndrome. Thus, fermentable fiber protects against metabolic syndrome by nourishing microbiota to restore IL-22-mediated enterocyte function.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA111922(United States)

Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

  • Suzuki D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development.

A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

  • Boege Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107220()

Ywhaz/14-3-3ζ Deletion Improves Glucose Tolerance Through a GLP-1-Dependent Mechanism.

  • Lim GE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple signaling pathways mediate the actions of metabolic hormones to control glucose homeostasis, but the proteins that coordinate such networks are poorly understood. We previously identified the molecular scaffold protein, 14-3-3ζ, as a critical regulator of in vitro β-cell survival and adipogenesis, but its metabolic roles in glucose homeostasis have not been studied in depth. Herein, we report that Ywhaz gene knockout mice (14-3-3ζKO) exhibited elevated fasting insulin levels while maintaining normal β-cell responsiveness to glucose when compared with wild-type littermate controls. In contrast with our observations after an ip glucose bolus, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in 14-3-3ζKO mice after an oral glucose gavage. This improvement in glucose tolerance was associated with significantly elevated fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. 14-3-3ζ knockdown in GLUTag L cells elevated GLP-1 synthesis and increased GLP-1 release. Systemic inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor attenuated the improvement in oral glucose tolerance that was seen in 14-3-3ζKO mice. When taken together these findings demonstrate novel roles of 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and suggest that modulating 14-3-3ζ levels in intestinal L cells may have beneficial metabolic effects through GLP-1-dependent mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI118985(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK43140(United States)

CD40 Signaling in Graves Disease Is Mediated Through Canonical and Noncanonical Thyroidal Nuclear Factor κB Activation.

  • Lee HJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

CD40, a tumor necrosis factor receptor, is a major immune-modulating susceptibility gene for Graves disease (GD) as well as for a variety of other autoimmune diseases. Its broad association with autoimmunity underscores its paramount role in the development of a normal adaptive immune response, primarily in coordinating effective antigen presentation. The molecular pathways by which CD40 activation in the thyroid induces GD are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether NF-κB, a ubiquitious family of transcription factors, mediates the downstream effects of thyroid-specific CD40 activation. Cultured primary human thyrocytes, from patients with and without GD, underwent CD40 stimulation. Once stimulated, cytokines and transcription factors specific for either the canonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)1 pathway [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α], which primarily recruits cells for innate immunity, or the noncanonical NF-κB2 pathway [B cell-activating factor of the TNF family, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)21], which directs B cell viability, were analyzed. Significant upregulation in the messenger RNA and protein levels of both canonical and noncanonical pathway cytokines was observed. Western blot analyses of the specific transcription factors for the NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 pathways (p65 and p100/p52, respectively) demonstrated that p65 is constitutively expressed. In contrast, CD40 stimulation robustly increased the expression of the NF-κB2 p52 transcription factor, and the upregulation was significantly more profound in the GD tissue than in the normal thyroid tissue. Our data show that CD40 activity in thyrocytes is prominently mediated via NF-κB and furthermore suggest that the NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 pathways both contribute to the triggering and the progression of GD.

GSK-3β function in bone regulates skeletal development, whole-body metabolism, and male life span.

  • Gillespie JR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) is an essential negative regulator or "brake" on many anabolic-signaling pathways including Wnt and insulin. Global deletion of GSK-3β results in perinatal lethality and various skeletal defects. The goal of our research was to determine GSK-3β cell-autonomous effects and postnatal roles in the skeleton. We used the 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter to inactivate the Gsk3b gene (Col1a1-Gsk3b knockout) in skeletal cells. Mutant mice exhibit decreased body fat and postnatal bone growth, as well as delayed development of several skeletal elements. Surprisingly, the mutant mice display decreased circulating glucose and insulin levels despite normal expression of GSK-3β in metabolic tissues. We showed that these effects are due to an increase in global insulin sensitivity. Most of the male mutant mice died after weaning. Prior to death, blood glucose changed from low to high, suggesting a possible switch from insulin sensitivity to resistance. These male mice die with extremely large bladders that are preceded by damage to the urogenital tract, defects that are also seen type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that skeletal-specific deletion of GSK-3β affects global metabolism and sensitizes male mice to developing type 2 diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS087359(United States)

Exogenous glucocorticoids and a high-fat diet cause severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and limit islet glucose responsiveness in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  • Beaudry JL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticosterone (CORT) and other glucocorticoids cause peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory increases in β-cell mass. A prolonged high-fat diet (HFD) induces insulin resistance and impairs β-cell insulin secretion. This study examined islet adaptive capacity in rats treated with CORT and a HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (age ∼6 weeks) were given exogenous CORT (400 mg/rat) or wax (placebo) implants and placed on a HFD (60% calories from fat) or standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks (N = 10 per group). CORT-HFD rats developed fasting hyperglycemia (>11 mM) and hyperinsulinemia (∼5-fold higher than controls) and were 15-fold more insulin resistant than placebo-SD rats by the end of ∼2 weeks (Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR] levels, 15.08 ± 1.64 vs 1.0 ± 0.12, P < .05). Pancreatic β-cell function, as measured by HOMA-β, was lower in the CORT-HFD group as compared to the CORT-SD group (1.64 ± 0.22 vs 3.72 ± 0.64, P < .001) as well as acute insulin response (0.25 ± 0.22 vs 1.68 ± 0.41, P < .05). Moreover, β- and α-cell mass were 2.6- and 1.6-fold higher, respectively, in CORT-HFD animals compared to controls (both P < .05). CORT treatment increased p-protein kinase C-α content in SD but not HFD-fed rats, suggesting that a HFD may lower insulin secretory capacity via impaired glucose sensing. Isolated islets from CORT-HFD animals secreted more insulin in both low and high glucose conditions; however, total insulin content was relatively depleted after glucose challenge. Thus, CORT and HFD, synergistically not independently, act to promote severe insulin resistance, which overwhelms islet adaptive capacity, thereby resulting in overt hyperglycemia.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI074847(United States)