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Goat Anti-Mouse Trkc Polyclonal antibody, Unconjugated


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse TrkC mouse

Proper Citation

(R and D Systems Cat# AF1404, RRID:AB_2155412)


polyclonal antibody


vendor recommendations: Blocking/Neutralize; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry; Western Blot; Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot

Host Organism



R and D Systems

Membrane-bound glucocorticoid receptors on distinct nociceptive neurons as potential targets for pain control through rapid non-genomic effects.

  • Shaqura M
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2017 Jul 11

Literature context:


Glucocorticoids were long believed to primarily function through cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and subsequent classical genomic pathways. Recently, however, evidence has emerged that suggests the presence of rapid non-genomic GR-dependent signaling pathways within the brain, though their existence in spinal and peripheral nociceptive neurons remains elusive. In this paper, we aim to systemically identify GR within the spinal cord and periphery, to verify their putative membrane location and to characterize possible G protein coupling and pain modulating properties. Double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that GR predominantly localized in peripheral peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptive C- and Aδ-neurons and existed only marginally in myelinated mechanoreceptive and proprioreceptive neurons. Within the spinal cord, GR predominantly localized in incoming presynaptic nociceptive neurons, in pre- and postsynaptic structures of the dorsal horn, as well as in microglia. GR saturation binding revealed that these receptors are linked to the cell membrane of sensory neurons and, upon activation, they trigger membrane targeted [35S]GTPγS binding, indicating G protein coupling to a putative receptor. Importantly, subcutaneous dexamethasone immediately and dose-dependently attenuated acute nociceptive behavior elicited in an animal model of formalin-induced pain hypersensitivity compared to naive rats. Overall, this study provides firm evidence for a novel neuronal mechanism of GR agonists that is rapid, non-genomic, dependent on membrane binding and G protein coupling, and acutely modulates nociceptive behavior, thus unraveling a yet unconsidered mechanism of pain relief.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS061764(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090595(United States)

A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins.

  • François A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds. Unexpectedly, we found that RVM GABAergic neurons facilitate mechanical pain by inhibiting dorsal horn enkephalinergic/GABAergic interneurons. We further demonstrate that these interneurons gate sensory inputs and control pain through temporally coordinated enkephalin- and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory neurons. Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development.

  • Sajgo S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Apr 1

Literature context:


During development, transcription factor combinatorial codes define a large variety of morphologically and physiologically distinct neurons. Such a combinatorial code has been proposed for the differentiation of projection neurons of the somatic and visceral components of cranial nerves. It is possible that individual neuronal cell types are not specified by unique transcription factors but rather emerge through the intersection of their expression domains. Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c, in combination with each other and/or transcription factors of other families, can define subgroups of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), spiral and vestibular ganglia, inner ear and vestibular hair cell neurons in the vestibuloacoustic system, and groups of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The present study investigates the expression and potential role of the Brn3b transcription factor in cranial nerves and associated nuclei of the brainstem. We report the dynamic expression of Brn3b in the somatosensory component of cranial nerves II, V, VII, and VIII and visceromotor nuclei of nerves VII, IX, and X as well as other brainstem nuclei during different stages of development into adult stage. We find that genetically identified Brn3b(KO) RGC axons show correct but delayed pathfinding during the early stages of embryonic development. However, loss of Brn3b does not affect the anatomy of the other cranial nerves normally expressing this transcription factor.

Visualizing corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 expression and neuronal connectivities in the mouse using a novel multifunctional allele.

  • Kühne C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Oct 1

Literature context:


The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its type 1 receptor (CRHR1) play a central role in coordinating the endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. A prerequisite to functionally dissect the complexity of the CRH/CRHR1 system is to unravel the identity of CRHR1-expressing neurons and their connectivities. Therefore, we used a knockin approach to genetically label CRHR1-expressing cells with a tau-lacZ (tZ) reporter gene. The distribution of neurons expressing β-galactosidase in the brain and the relative intensity of labeling is in full accordance with previously described Crhr1 mRNA expression. Combining the microtubule-binding properties of TAU with the Cre-loxP system allowed to direct the β-galactosidase to proximal dendrites, and in particular to axons. Thereby, we were able to visualize projections of CRHR1 neurons such as glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferent connections of the striatum and GABAergic CRHR1-expressing neurons located within its patch compartment. In addition, the tZ reporter gene revealed novel details of CRHR1 expression in the spinal cord, skin, and eye. CRHR1 expression in the retina prompted the identification of a new physiological role of CRHR1 related to the visual system. Besides its reporter properties, this novel CRHR1 allele comprises the possibility to conditionally restore or delete CRHR1 via Flp and Cre recombinase, respectively. Finally, the allele is suitable for further manipulations of the CRHR1 locus by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange. Taken together, this novel mouse allele will significantly facilitate the neuroanatomical analysis of CRHR1 circuits and opens up new avenues to address CRHR1 function in more detail.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT085949MA(United Kingdom)

Expression analysis of the regenerating gene (Reg) family members Reg-IIIβ and Reg-IIIγ in the mouse during development.

  • Matsumoto S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Feb 15

Literature context:


The regenerating gene/regenerating islet-derived (Reg) family is a group of small secretory proteins. Within this family, Reg type-III (Reg-III) consists of: Reg-IIIα, -β, -γ, and -δ. To elucidate the physiological relevance of Reg-III, we examined the localization and ontogeny of Reg-IIIβ and Reg-IIIγ in mice at different time points spanning from embryonic day 13.5 to 7 weeks old, using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that Reg-IIIβ was expressed in specific subsets of primary sensory neurons and motor neurons, and that expression was transient during the embryonic and perinatal periods. Reg-IIIβ expression was also observed in absorptive epithelial cells of the intestine. In contrast, Reg-IIIγ expression was mainly observed in epithelial cells of the airways and intestine, but not in the nervous system, and expression levels showed a gradually increasing pattern along with development. In the airways Reg-IIIγ was expressed in goblet and Clara-like cells, whereas in the intestine Reg-IIIγ was expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells and Paneth cells, and was found to be expressed in development before these organs had been exposed to the outside world. The present findings imply that Reg-IIIβ and Reg-IIIγ expression is regulated along divergent pathways. Furthermore, we also suggest that expression of Reg-IIIγ in the airway and intestinal epithelia may occur to protect these organs from exposure to antigens or other factors (e.g., microbes) in the outer world, whereas the transient expression of Reg-IIIβ in the nervous system may be associated with the development of the peripheral nervous system including such processes as myelination.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U117570528(United Kingdom)

Expression of kin of irregular chiasm-like 3/mKirre in proprioceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and its interaction with nephrin in muscle spindles.

  • Komori T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 1

Literature context:


Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a mammalian homolog of the kirre gene of Drosophila melanogaster, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Previously, we have reported that Kirrel3 is expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the expression of Kirrel3 in the mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and their projection targets. In the adult DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was detected in 21.5 +/- 2.3% of total DRG neurons and the expression was mainly prevalent in the medium- and large-sized neurons. In addition, Kirrel3 mRNA predominantly colocalized with tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) C-immunoreactivity. In the developing DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was first detected in a few cells at embryonic day (E) 11.5, gradually increased, and reached the adult level at E17.5. During the development, Kirrel3 was expressed in most TrkC-positive DRG neurons. The expression of Kirrel3 was observed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers around neurotrophin 3 (NT3)-positive intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles at E17.5. However, Kirrel3 was not expressed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers projecting to the spinal cord throughout development. Furthermore, nephrin was expressed in the NT3-positive intrafusal muscle fibers and was in close apposition with Kirrel3-immunoreactivity. Coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that nephrin interacted with Kirrel3 in the developing muscles. These results suggest that Kirrel3 might play a role in the axonal pathfinding, cell recognition, and synapse formation of DRG neurons on appropriate target cells, including the targeting of proprioceptive neurons on muscle spindles through the interaction with nephrin.