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Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2, extracellular, clone 6C4 antibody

RRID:AB_2113875

Antibody ID

AB_2113875

Target Antigen

Glutamate Receptor 2 (GluR2), aa175-430 human, rat

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# MAB397, RRID:AB_2113875)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: ELISA; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Radioimmunoassay; Western Blot; Western Blotting,ELISA

Clone ID

Clone 6C4

Host Organism

mouse

Evidence of altered depression and dementia-related proteins in the brains of young rats after ovariectomy.

  • Fang YY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Menopause, a risk factor for brain dysfunction in women, is characterized by neuropsychological symptoms including depression and dementia, which are closely related to alterations in different brain regions after menopause. However, little is known about the variability of pathophysiologic changes associated with menopause in the brain. Here, we observed that menopause in rats induced by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) showed depressive and dementia-related behaviors along with neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), hypothalamus (HYP) and amygdala (AMY) by Nissl staining. Meanwhile, by immunohistochemical staining, increased microglia in the HIP and AMY and increased astrocytes in the PFC, HYP and AMY were shown. By using quantitative proteomics, we identified 146 differentially expressed proteins in the brains of OVX rats, e.g., 20 in the PFC, 41 in the HIP, 17 in the HYP and 79 in the AMY, and performed further detection by Western blotting. A link between neuronal loss and apoptosis was suggested, as evidenced by increases in adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated p53 and decreases in Huntingtin-interacting protein K (HYPK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis might be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress (probed by increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), cleaved caspase-12, phosphorylated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) and mitochondrial dysfunction (probed by increased cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased sideroflexin-1 (SFXN1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 11 (NDUFA11)). Activation of autophagy was also indicated by increased autophagy-related 7 (ATG7), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) and confirmed by increased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3II/I), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and Beclin1 in the HIP and AMY. In the AMY, which is important in emotion, higher GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and lower vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VgluT1) levels indicated an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and the increased calretinin and decreased calbindin levels suggested an adjustment of GABAergic transmission after OVX. In addition, cytoskeletal abnormalities including tau hyperphosphorylation, dysregulated Ca²+ signals and glutamic synaptic impairments were observed in the brains of OVX rats. Collectively, our study showed the changes in different brain regions related to depression and dementia during menopause. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 1K08AI097238-01(United States)

Genetic Ablation of All Cerebellins Reveals Synapse Organizer Functions in Multiple Regions Throughout the Brain.

  • Seigneur E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. They are well studied in the cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here, we generated male and female constitutive single (KO), double KO (dKO), and triple KO (tKO) mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice were viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival. Cbln1/2 dKO mice exhibited salience-induced seizures that were aggravated in Cbln1/2/4 tKO mice, suggesting that all cerebellins contribute to brain function. As described previously, Cbln1 KO mice displayed major motor impairments that were aggravated by additional KO of Cbln2. Strikingly, the Cbln1/2 dKO did not cause alterations in synapse density in the hippocampus of young adult (1- and 2-month-old) mice, but produced a selective ∼50% decrease in hippocampal synapse density in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus of aging, 6-month-old mice. A similar decrease in excitatory synapse density was observed in the striatum and retrosplenial cortex. Behaviorally, the Cbln1 KO produced dramatic changes in motor behaviors that were partly aggravated by additional deletion of Cbln2 and/or Cbln4. Our results show that cerebellins are not essential for survival and do not contribute to initial synapse formation, but perform multiple functions throughout the brain; as a consequence, their ablation results in a delayed loss of synapses and in behavioral impairments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellins (Cbln1-4) are trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules. In the cerebellum, Cbln1 functions as a bidirectional organizer of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses by binding to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic GluRδ2. Little is known about the function of cerebellins outside of the cerebellum; therefore, the present study used single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 to analyze the overall function of cerebellins. We show that cerebellins act as important synaptic organizers in specific subsets of neurons and likely contribute to many different brain functions. We also show that cerebellins are not initially required for synapse formation, but rather for specification and long-term synapse maintenance and demonstrate that all cerebellins, not just Cbln1, contribute to brain function.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD07190(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH052804()

Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.

  • Bavley CC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

A homozygous nonsense mutation in the cereblon (CRBN) gene results in autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic intellectual disability that is devoid of other phenotypic features, suggesting a critical role of CRBN in mediating learning and memory. In this study, we demonstrate that adult male Crbn knock-out (CrbnKO) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that are recapitulated by focal knock-out of Crbn in the adult dorsal hippocampus, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior. Cellular studies identify deficits in long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral CA1 synapses. We further show that Crbn is robustly expressed in the mouse hippocampus and CrbnKO mice exhibit hyperphosphorylated levels of AMPKα (Thr172). Examination of processes downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) finds that CrbnKO mice have a selective impairment in mediators of the mTORC1 translation initiation pathway in parallel with lower protein levels of postsynaptic density glutamatergic proteins and higher levels of excitatory presynaptic markers in the hippocampus with no change in markers of the unfolded protein response or autophagy pathways. Acute pharmacological inhibition of AMPK activity in adult CrbnKO mice rescues learning and memory deficits and normalizes hippocampal mTORC1 activity and postsynaptic glutamatergic proteins without altering excitatory presynaptic markers. Thus, this study identifies that loss of Crbn results in learning, memory, and synaptic defects as a consequence of exaggerated AMPK activity, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, and decreased glutamatergic synaptic proteins. Thus, CrbnKO mice serve as an ideal model of intellectual disability to further explore molecular mechanisms of learning and memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The cereblon (CRBN) gene has been linked to autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic ID, characterized by an intelligence quotient between 50 and 70 but devoid of other phenotypic features, making cereblon an ideal protein for the study of the fundamental aspects of learning and memory. Here, using the cereblon knock-out mouse model, we show that cereblon deficiency disrupts learning, memory, and synaptic function via AMP-activated protein kinase hyperactivity, downregulation of mTORC1, and dysregulation of excitatory synapses, with no changes in social or repetitive behaviors, consistent with findings in the human population. This establishes the cereblon knock-out mouse as a model of pure ID without the confounding behavioral phenotypes associated with other current models of ID.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U137761446(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA029122()

Early-life seizures alter synaptic calcium-permeable AMPA receptor function and plasticity.

  • Lippman-Bell JJ
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcium (Ca2+)-mediated4 signaling pathways are critical to synaptic plasticity. In adults, the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) represents a major route for activity-dependent synaptic Ca2+ entry. However, during neonatal development, when synaptic plasticity is particularly high, many AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are also permeable to Ca2+ (CP-AMPAR) due to low GluA2 subunit expression, providing an additional route for activity- and glutamate-dependent Ca2+ influx and subsequent signaling. Therefore, altered hippocampal Ca2+ signaling may represent an age-specific pathogenic mechanism. We thus aimed to assess Ca2+ responses 48h after hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures (HS) in postnatal day (P)10 rats, a post-seizure time point at which we previously reported LTP attenuation. We found that Ca2+ responses were higher in brain slices from post-HS rats than in controls and that this increase was CP-AMPAR-dependent. To determine whether synaptic CP-AMPAR expression was also altered post-HS, we assessed the expression of GluA2 at hippocampal synapses and the expression of long-term depression (LTD), which has been linked to the presence of synaptic GluA2. Here we report a decrease 48h after HS in synaptic GluA2 expression at synapses and LTD in hippocampal CA1. Given the potentially critical role of AMPAR trafficking in disease progression, we aimed to establish whether post-seizure in vivo AMPAR antagonist treatment prevented the enhanced Ca2+ responses, changes in GluA2 synaptic expression, and diminished LTD. We found that NBQX treatment prevents all three of these post-seizure consequences, further supporting a critical role for AMPARs as an age-specific therapeutic target.

Impaired AMPA receptor trafficking by a double knockout of zebrafish olfactomedin1a/b.

  • Nakaya N
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The olfm1a and olfm1b genes in zebrafish encode conserved secreted glycoproteins. These genes are preferentially expressed in the brain and retina starting from 16 h post-fertilization until adulthood. Functions of the Olfm1 gene is still unclear. Here, we produced and analyzed a null zebrafish mutant of both olfm1a and olfm1b genes (olfm1 null). olfm1 null fish were born at a normal Mendelian ratio and showed normal body shape and fertility as well as no visible defects from larval stages to adult. Olfm1 proteins were preferentially localized in the synaptosomes of the adult brain. Olfm1 co-immunoprecipitated with GluR2 and soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complexes indicating participation of Olfm1 in both pre- and post-synaptic events. Phosphorylation of GluR2 was not changed while palmitoylation of GluR2 was decreased in the brain synaptosomal membrane fraction of olfm1 null compared with wt fish. The levels of GluR2, SNAP25, flotillin1, and VAMP2 were markedly reduced in the synaptic microdomain of olfm1 null brain compared with wt. The internalization of GluR2 in retinal cells and the localization of VAMP2 in brain synaptosome were modified by olfm1 null mutation. This indicates that Olfm1 may regulate receptor trafficking from the intracellular compartments to the synaptic membrane microdomain, partly through the alteration of post-translational GluR2 modifications such as palmitoylation. Olfm1 may be considered a novel regulator of the composition and function of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor complex.

Hippocampal AMPARs involve the central sensitization of rats with irritable bowel syndrome.

  • Chen A
  • Brain Behav
  • 2017 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The roles of hippocampal AMPARs were investigated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like rats to clarify the central sensitization mechanisms. METHODS: IBS model was induced by neonatal maternal separation. The effects of AMPARs on visceral hypersensitivity were examined by the responses of abdominal muscle to colorectal distension after the bilateral intrahippocampal injections of CNQX (an AMPAR inhibitor). The expressions of hippocampal AMPARs (GluR1 and GluR2) were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: The IBS-like rats showed visceral hypersensitivity when compared with controls. Bilateral intrahippocampal injections of CNQX alleviated the visceral pain in IBS-like rats. The maximal effect appeared at the time point of 30 min, and the duration lasted for 90 min after CNQX application, under 40 and 60 mmHg CRD. The expressions of hippocampal GluR2 significantly increased in IBS-like rats when compared with controls (p < .05). However, the levels of hippocampal GluR1 had no significant differences in rats. Hippocampal LTP induced by HFS was significantly enhanced when compared with controls (p < .05). The expressions of GluR2 significantly increased in the control and IBS-like rats after 60 min LTP of recordings (p < .05), but not GluR1. CONCLUSION: Neonatal maternal separation enhances the expression of GluR2 and facilitates the LTP in the hippocampus, which could lead to the formation of visceral hypersensitivity when grown up.

Histone Hypervariants H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 Play Independent and Context-Specific Roles in Neuronal Activity-Induced Transcription of Arc/Arg3.1 and Other Immediate Early Genes.

  • Dunn CJ
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Aug 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The histone variant H2A.Z is an essential and conserved regulator of eukaryotic gene transcription. However, the exact role of this histone in the transcriptional process remains perplexing. In vertebrates, H2A.Z has two hypervariants, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, that have almost identical sequences except for three amino acid residues. Due to such similarity, functional specificity of these hypervariants in neurobiological processes, if any, remain largely unknown. In this study with dissociated rat cortical neurons, we asked if H2A.Z hypervariants have distinct functions in regulating basal and activity-induced gene transcription. Hypervariant-specific RNAi and microarray analyses revealed that H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 regulate basal expression of largely nonoverlapping gene sets, including genes that code for several synaptic proteins. In response to neuronal activity, rapid transcription of our model gene Arc is impaired by depletion of H2A.Z.2, but not H2A.Z.1. This impairment is partially rescued by codepletion of the H2A.Z chaperone, ANP32E. In contrast, under a different context (after 48 h of tetrodotoxin, TTX), rapid transcription of Arc is impaired by depletion of either hypervariant. Such context-dependent roles of H2A.Z hypervariants, as revealed by our multiplexed gene expression assays, are also evident with several other immediate early genes, where regulatory roles of these hypervariants vary from gene to gene under different conditions. Together, our data suggest that H2A.Z hypervariants have context-specific roles that complement each other to mediate activity-induced neuronal gene transcription.

Differing intrinsic biological properties between forebrain and spinal oligodendroglial lineage cells.

  • Horiuchi M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions. We found that although FB and SC OLCs responded differently to the same external factors; they were distinct in proliferation response to mitogens, oligodendrocyte phenotype after differentiation, and cytotoxic responses to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate-type glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity at immature stages of differentiation in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, transcriptome analysis identified genes differentially expressed between these OPC populations, including those encoding transcription factors (TFs), cell surface molecules, and signaling molecules. Particularly, FB and SC OPCs retained the expression of FB- or SC-specific TFs, such as Foxg1 and Hoxc8, respectively, even after serial passaging in vitro. Given the essential role of these TFs in the regional identities of CNS cells along the rostrocaudal axis, our results suggest that CNS region-specific gene regulation by these TFs may cause cell-intrinsic differences in cellular responses between FB and SC OLCs to extracellular molecules. Further understanding of the regional differences among OPC populations will help to improve treatments for demyelination in different CNS regions and to facilitate the development of stem cell-derived OPCs for cell transplantation therapies for demyelination. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13809.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15 GM/072622(United States)

Unique versus Redundant Functions of Neuroligin Genes in Shaping Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapse Properties.

  • Chanda S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroligins are evolutionarily conserved postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that interact with presynaptic neurexins. Neurons express multiple neuroligin isoforms that are targeted to specific synapses, but their synaptic functions and mechanistic redundancy are not completely understood. Overexpression or RNAi-mediated knockdown of neuroligins, respectively, causes a dramatic increase or decrease in synapse density, whereas genetic deletions of neuroligins impair synapse function with only minor effects on synapse numbers, raising fundamental questions about the overall physiological role of neuroligins. Here, we have systematically analyzed the effects of conditional genetic deletions of all major neuroligin isoforms (i.e., NL1, NL2, and NL3), either individually or in combinations, in cultured mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons. We found that conditional genetic deletions of neuroligins caused no change or only a small change in synapses numbers, but strongly impaired synapse function. This impairment was isoform specific, suggesting that neuroligins are not functionally redundant. Sparse neuroligin deletions produced phenotypes comparable to those of global deletions, indicating that neuroligins function in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, neuroligin deletions decreased the synaptic levels of neurotransmitter receptors and had no effect on presynaptic release probabilities. Overexpression of neuroligin-1 in control or neuroligin-deficient neurons increased synaptic transmission and synapse density but not spine numbers, suggesting that these effects reflect a gain-of-function mechanism; whereas overexpression of neuroligin-3, which, like neuroligin-1 is also targeted to excitatory synapses, had no comparable effect. Our data demonstrate that neuroligins are required for the physiological organization of neurotransmitter receptors in postsynaptic specializations and suggest that they do not play a major role in synapse formation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human neuroligin genes have been associated with autism, but the cellular functions of different neuroligins and their molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we performed comparative analyses in cultured mouse neurons of all major neuroligin isoforms, either individually or in combinations, using conditional knockouts. We found that neuroligin deletions did not affect synapse numbers but differentially impaired excitatory or inhibitory synaptic functions in an isoform-specific manner. These impairments were due, at least in part, to a decrease in synaptic distribution of neurotransmitter receptors upon deletion of neuroligins. Conversely, the overexpression of neuroligin-1 increased synapse numbers but not spine numbers. Our results suggest that various neuroligin isoforms perform unique postsynaptic functions in organizing synapses but are not essential for synapse formation or maintenance.

Alleviation of Neuropathology by Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase in APP Transgenic Mice Lacking CB2 Receptors.

  • Zhang J
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Jul 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, produces profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and improves synaptic and cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are still not clear. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) has been thought to be a therapeutic target for AD. Here, we provide evidence, however, that CB2R does not play a role in ameliorating AD neuropathology produced by inactivation of MAGL in 5XFAD APP transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. We observed that expression of APP and β-secretase as well as production of total Aβ and Aβ42 were significantly reduced in APP transgenic mice lacking CB2R (TG-CB2-KO) treated with JZL184, a selective and potent inhibitor for MAGL. Inactivation of MAGL also alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in TG-CB2-KO mice. Importantly, TG-CB2-KO mice treated with JZL184 still exhibited improvements in spatial learning and memory. In addition, MAGL inhibition prevented deterioration in expression of important synaptic proteins in TG-CB2-KO mice. Our results suggest that CB2R is not required in ameliorating neuropathology and preventing cognitive decline by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism in AD model animals.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076815()

A Critical Role of Presynaptic Cadherin/Catenin/p140Cap Complexes in Stabilizing Spines and Functional Synapses in the Neocortex.

  • Li MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation of functional synapses requires coordinated assembly of presynaptic transmitter release machinery and postsynaptic trafficking of functional receptors and scaffolds. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of presynaptic cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complexes in stabilizing functional synapses and spines in the developing neocortex. Importantly, presynaptic expression of stabilized β-catenin in either layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons or L2/3 pyramidal neurons significantly upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine density in L2/3 pyramidal neurons, while its sparse postsynaptic expression in L2/3 neurons had no such effects. In addition, presynaptic β-catenin expression enhanced release probability of glutamatergic synapses. Newly identified β-catenin-interacting protein p140Cap is required in the presynaptic locus for mediating these effects. Together, our results demonstrate that cadherin/catenin complexes stabilize functional synapses and spines through anterograde signaling in the neocortex and provide important molecular evidence for a driving role of presynaptic components in spinogenesis in the neocortex.

Severe hearing loss and outer hair cell death in homozygous Foxo3 knockout mice after moderate noise exposure.

  • Gilels F
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies. SEM reveals persistent damage to some surviving outer hair cell stereocilia. However, DPOAE analysis reveals that some function is preserved in low frequency outer hair cells, despite concomitant profound hearing loss. Inner hair cells, auditory synapses and spiral ganglion neurons are all present after noise exposure in the Foxo3KO/KO fourteen days post noise (DPN). We also report anti-Foxo3 immunofluorescence in adult human outer hair cells. Taken together, these data implicate Foxo3 and its transcriptional targets in outer hair cell survival after noise damage. An additional role for Foxo3 in preserving hearing is likely, as low frequency auditory function is absent in noise exposed Foxo3KO/KOs even though all cells and structures are present.

Optogenetic Control of Synaptic Composition and Function.

  • Sinnen BL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane is sculpted by synaptic activity. During synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses, numerous structural, signaling, and receptor molecules concentrate at the postsynaptic density (PSD) to regulate synaptic strength. We developed an approach that uses light to tune the abundance of specific molecules in the PSD. We used this approach to investigate the relationship between the number of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the PSD and synaptic strength. Surprisingly, adding more AMPA receptors to excitatory contacts had little effect on synaptic strength. Instead, we observed increased excitatory input through the apparent addition of new functional sites. Our data support a model where adding AMPA receptors is sufficient to activate synapses that had few receptors to begin with, but that additional remodeling events are required to strengthen established synapses. More broadly, this approach introduces the precise spatiotemporal control of optogenetics to the molecular control of synaptic function.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001082()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - T32 AA007464()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD041697()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007635()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F30 NS092421()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040701()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS082271()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS040701()

The Cellular and Synaptic Architecture of the Mechanosensory Dorsal Horn.

  • Abraira VE
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The deep dorsal horn is a poorly characterized spinal cord region implicated in processing low-threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR) information. We report an array of mouse genetic tools for defining neuronal components and functions of the dorsal horn LTMR-recipient zone (LTMR-RZ), a role for LTMR-RZ processing in tactile perception, and the basic logic of LTMR-RZ organization. We found an unexpectedly high degree of neuronal diversity in the LTMR-RZ: seven excitatory and four inhibitory subtypes of interneurons exhibiting unique morphological, physiological, and synaptic properties. Remarkably, LTMRs form synapses on between four and 11 LTMR-RZ interneuron subtypes, while each LTMR-RZ interneuron subtype samples inputs from at least one to three LTMR classes, as well as spinal cord interneurons and corticospinal neurons. Thus, the LTMR-RZ is a somatosensory processing region endowed with a neuronal complexity that rivals the retina and functions to pattern the activity of ascending touch pathways that underlie tactile perception.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR028832()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA035756()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA034022()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA023643()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE022750()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS077836()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS079419()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS072030()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097344()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007292()

Congenital Anophthalmia and Binocular Neonatal Enucleation Differently Affect the Proteome of Primary and Secondary Visual Cortices in Mice.

  • Laramée ME
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2016 Jul 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

In blind individuals, visually deprived occipital areas are activated by non-visual stimuli. The extent of this cross-modal activation depends on the age at onset of blindness. Cross-modal inputs have access to several anatomical pathways to reactivate deprived visual areas. Ectopic cross-modal subcortical connections have been shown in anophthalmic animals but not in animals deprived of sight at a later age. Direct and indirect cross-modal cortical connections toward visual areas could also be involved, yet the number of neurons implicated is similar between blind mice and sighted controls. Changes at the axon terminal, dendritic spine or synaptic level are therefore expected upon loss of visual inputs. Here, the proteome of V1, V2M and V2L from P0-enucleated, anophthalmic and sighted mice, sharing a common genetic background (C57BL/6J x ZRDCT/An), was investigated by 2-D DIGE and Western analyses to identify molecular adaptations to enucleation and/or anophthalmia. Few proteins were differentially expressed in enucleated or anophthalmic mice in comparison to sighted mice. The loss of sight affected three pathways: metabolism, synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. Most changes were detected in V1, followed by V2M. Overall, cross-modal adaptations could be promoted in both models of early blindness but not through the exact same molecular strategy. A lower metabolic activity observed in visual areas of blind mice suggests that even if cross-modal inputs reactivate visual areas, they could remain suboptimally processed.

Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression.

  • Umeda K
  • J Toxicol Sci
  • 2016 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with 1 or 10 µM methoxychlor and fenvalerate for 9 days selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions. Importantly, the decreases in GluR2 protein expression were also observed on the cell surface membrane where AMPA receptors typically function. In addition, both chemicals decreased neuronal viability, which was blocked by pretreatment with 1-naphtylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors, and MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that long-term exposure to methoxychlor and fenvalerate decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal death via overactivation of GluR2-lacking AMPA and NMDA receptors.

Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

  • Walkup WG
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2015 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons.

Synaptic and cognitive improvements by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are through upregulation of microRNA-188-3p in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Zhang J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Abnormal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant Aβ formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for Aβ formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, Aβ, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists and suppressed by PPARγ antagonism or NF-κB activation. Reducing Aβ and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPARγ antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPARγ activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-κB. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and Aβ formation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA193419(United States)

Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells are novel processing units in mammalian vestibular organs.

  • Pujol R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells vary in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending three to four hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Furthermore, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network among type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3-6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells and suggest that type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates.

Hippocampal injury, atrophy, synaptic reorganization, and epileptogenesis after perforant pathway stimulation-induced status epilepticus in the mouse.

  • Kienzler F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prolonged dentate granule cell discharges produce hippocampal injury and chronic epilepsy in rats. In preparing to study this epileptogenic process in genetically altered mice, we determined whether the background strain used to generate most genetically altered mice, the C57BL/6 mouse, is vulnerable to stimulation-induced seizure-induced injury. This was necessary because C57BL/6 mice are reportedly resistant to the neurotoxic effects of kainate-induced seizures, which we hypothesized to be related to strain differences in kainate's effects, rather than genetic differences in intrinsic neuronal vulnerability. Bilateral perforant pathway stimulation-induced granule cell discharge for 4 hours under urethane anesthesia produced degeneration of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2)-positive hilar mossy cells and peptide-containing interneurons in both FVB/N (kainate-vulnerable) and C57BL/6 (kainate-resistant) mice, indicating no strain differences in neuronal vulnerability to seizure activity. Granule cell discharge for 2 hours in C57BL/6 mice destroyed most GluR2-positive dentate hilar mossy cells, but not peptide-containing hilar interneurons, indicating that mossy cells are the neurons most vulnerable to this insult. Stimulation for 24 hours caused extensive hippocampal neuron loss and injury to the septum and entorhinal cortex, but no other detectable damage. Mice stimulated for 24 hours developed hippocampal sclerosis, granule cell mossy fiber sprouting, and chronic epilepsy, but not the granule cell layer hypertrophy (granule cell dispersion) produced by intrahippocampal kainate. These results demonstrate that perforant pathway stimulation in mice reliably reproduces the defining features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Experimental studies in transgenic or knockout mice are feasible if electrical stimulation is used to produce controlled epileptogenic insults.

Excitatory-inhibitory relationship in the fascia dentata in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

  • Belichenko PV
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Down syndrome (DS) is a neurological disorder causing impaired learning and memory. Partial trisomy 16 mice (Ts65Dn) are a genetic model for DS. Previously, we demonstrated widespread alterations of pre- and postsynaptic elements and physiological abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice. The average diameter of presynaptic boutons and spines in the neocortex and hippocampus was enlarged. Failed induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) due to excessive inhibition was observed. In this paper we investigate the morphological substrate for excessive inhibition in Ts65Dn. We used electron microscopy (EM) to characterize synapses, confocal microscopy to analyze colocalization of the general marker for synaptic vesicle protein with specific protein markers for inhibitory and excitatory synapses, and densitometry to characterize the distribution of the receptor and several proteins essential for synaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors. EM analysis of synapses in the Ts65Dn vs. 2N showed that synaptic opposition lengths were significantly greater for symmetric synapses (approximately 18%), but not for asymmetric ones. Overall, a significant increase in colocalization coefficients of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/p38 immunoreactivity (IR) (approximately 27%) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)/p38 IR (approximately 41%) was found, but not in vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1)/p38 IR. A significant overall decrease of IR in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice for glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2; approximately 13%) and anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor beta2/3 subunit (approximately 20%) was also found. The study of proteins essential for synaptic clustering of receptors revealed a significant increase in puncta size for neuroligin 2 (approximately 13%) and GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP; approximately 13%), but not for neuroligin 1 and gephyrin. The results demonstrate a significant alteration of inhibitory synapses in the fascia dentata of Ts65Dn mice.

Retinal horizontal cell-specific promoter activity and protein expression of zebrafish connexin 52.6 and connexin 55.5.

  • Shields CR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Connexins in retinal horizontal cells (HC) function in the processing of visual information. For example, gap junction-forming connexins may contribute to the spatial integration of visual stimuli. Additionally, connexin hemichannels have been hypothesized to participate in the feedback pathway from HCs to cones. To verify the identities of the zebrafish HC connexins, we performed promoter expression and immunohistochemical studies of connexin 52.6 (Cx52.6) and Cx55.5. Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with Cx52.6 or Cx55.5 promoter sequences and a green fluorescent protein reporter construct. Light and electron microscopic (EM) analysis showed green fluorescent protein expression exclusively in retinal HCs. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that HCs express Cx52.6 and Cx55.5 proteins. Light microscopy revealed Cx52.6 and Cx55.5 in the retinal inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers. Double labeling for Cx55.5 or Cx52.6 and cell-specific markers (tyrosine hydroxylase, protein kinase C-alpha, or GluR2) demonstrated that these connexins do not localize to interplexiform or ON bipolar cells, but most likely are present in HCs. Preembedding immuno-EM confirmed the HC-specific expression of Cx52.6 and Cx55.5 and illustrated the presence of these two connexins in gap junctions between HCs. The EM data also revealed robust labeling for Cx55.5 in hemichannels on HC dendrites in photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Voltage-clamp experiments in cultured cells demonstrated that Cx55.5-containing hemichannels can open at physiological membrane potentials. These results offer the first in vivo demonstration of the HC-specific activities of the Cx52.6 and Cx55.5 promoters. Furthermore, these data provide the first proof at the protein level for retinal HC-specific connexins in the zebrafish.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS053527(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094781(United States)

Synaptic and nonsynaptic localization of GABAA receptors containing the alpha5 subunit in the rat brain.

  • Serwanski DR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The alpha5 subunit of the GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) has a restricted expression in the brain. Maximum expression of this subunit occurs in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and olfactory bulb. Hippocampal pyramidal cells show high expression of alpha5 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs (alpha5-GABA(A)Rs) both in culture and in the intact brain. A large pool of alpha5-GABA(A)Rs is extrasynaptic and it has been proposed to be involved in the tonic GABAergic inhibition of the hippocampus. Nevertheless, there are no studies on the localization of the alpha5-GABA(A)Rs at the electron microscope (EM) level. By using both immunofluorescence of cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells and EM postembedding immunogold of the intact hippocampus we show that, in addition to the extrasynaptic pool, there is a pool of alpha5-GABA(A)Rs that concentrates at the GABAergic synapses in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells. The results suggest that the synaptic alpha5-GABA(A)Rs might play a role in the phasic GABAergic inhibition of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS063494(United States)

Localization of glutamate receptors in developing cortical neurons in culture and relationship to susceptibility to excitotoxicity.

  • King AE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Overactivation of glutamate receptors leading to excitotoxicity has been implicated in the neurodegenerative alterations of a range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We have investigated the cell-type-specific changes in glutamate receptor localization in developing cortical neurons in culture, as well as the relationship between glutamate receptor subunit distribution with synapse formation and susceptibility to excitotoxicity. Glutamate receptor subunit clustering was present prior to the formation of synapses. However, different receptor types showed distinctive temporal patterns of subunit clustering, localization to spines, and apposition to presynaptic terminals. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit immunolabelling was present in puncta along dendrites prior to the formation of synapses, with relatively little localization to spines. Vulnerability to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurred before receptor subunits became localized in apposition to presynaptic terminals. Clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors occurred concurrently with development of vulnerability to excitotoxicity and was related to localization of AMPA receptors at synapses and in spines. Different AMPA receptor subunits demonstrated cell-type-specific localization as well as distribution to spines, dendrites, and extrasynaptic subunit clusters. A subclass of neurons demonstrated substantial perineuronal synaptic innervation, and these neurons expressed relatively high levels of GluR1 and/or GluR4 at receptor puncta, indicating the presence of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors and suggesting alternative synaptic signalling mechanisms and vulnerability to excitotoxicity. These data demonstrate the relationship between glutamate receptor subunit expression and localization with synaptogenesis and development of neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxicity. These data also suggest that excitotoxicity can be mediated through extrasynaptic receptor subunit complexes along dendrites.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - N01-AI40041(United States)