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Anti-c-Fos (Ab-5) (4-17) Rabbit pAb antibody

RRID:AB_2106755

Antibody ID

AB_2106755

Target Antigen

c-Fos (Ab-5) (4-17) Rabbit pAb h, m, r

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# PC38, RRID:AB_2106755)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IgG; IgG IH; Immunohistochemistry; Consolidated for RRID:AB_2313765 on 08/03/16; Consolidated with AB_2106752, AB_213663, AB_11213605, AB_565440, and AB_10683044

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Phasic Stimulation of Midbrain Dopamine Neuron Activity Reduces Salt Consumption.

  • Sandhu EC
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice. Strikingly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons decreased salt intake in a rapid and reversible manner, despite a strong salt appetite. Importantly, optogenetic excitation was not aversive, did not induce hyperactivity, and did not alter salt concentration preferences in a need-free state. In addition, we found that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine neurons had no effect on salt intake. Lastly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons reduced consumption of sucrose following an overnight fast, suggesting a more general role of VTA dopamine neuron excitation in organizing motivated behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007501(United States)

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation.

  • Toossi H
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABAARs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABAAR and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 5P01CA013106-38(United States)

Hippocampal calpain is required for the consolidation and reconsolidation but not extinction of contextual fear memory.

  • Nagayoshi T
  • Mol Brain
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the proteolytic cleavage of target proteins. Neuron-specific conditional deletions of calpain 1 and 2 impair long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Moreover, recent studies have suggested distinct roles of calpain 1 and 2 in synaptic plasticity. However, the role of hippocampal calpain in memory processes, especially memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, is still unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated the critical roles of hippocampal calpain in the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of contextual fear memory in mice. We examined the effects of pharmacological inhibition of calpain in the hippocampus on these memory processes, using the N-Acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal (ALLN; calpain 1 and 2 inhibitor). Microinfusion of ALLN into the dorsal hippocampus impaired long-term memory (24 h memory) without affecting short-term memory (2 h memory). Similarly, this pharmacological blockade of calpain in the dorsal hippocampus also disrupted reactivated memory but did not affect memory extinction. Importantly, the systemic administration of ALLN inhibited the induction of c-fos in the hippocampus, which is observed when memory is consolidated. Our observations showed that hippocampal calpain is required for the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Further, the results suggested that calpain contributes to the regulation of new gene expression that is necessary for these memory processes as a regulator of Ca2+-signal transduction pathway.

Funding information:
  • Challenging Exploratory Research - 24650172, 26640014, 17K19464()
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area) - 24116008, 24116001, 23115716, 17H06084, 17H05961, 17H05581()
  • Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (A) - 15H02488()
  • Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (B) - 23300120, 20380078()
  • Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research on Priority Areas - Molecular Brain Science- - 18022038, 22022039()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20RR16477(United States)

16p11.2 deletion syndrome mice perseverate with active coping response to acute stress - rescue by blocking 5-HT2A receptors.

  • Panzini CM
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). As ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin. Del mice perseverated with active coping (swimming) in the forced swim test and failed to adopt passive coping strategies with time as did their wild-type littermates. Analysis of monoamine content by HPLC provided evidence for altered endogenous serotonin neurotransmission in Del mice while there was no effect of genotype on any other monoamine. Moreover, we found that Del mice were highly sensitive to the 5-HT2A antagonists M100907, which at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg normalized their level of active coping and restored the gradual shift to passive coping in the forced swim test. Supporting evidence for altered endogenous serotonin signaling was provided by observations of additional ligand effects including altered forebrain Fos expression. Taken together, these observations indicate notable changes in endogenous serotonin signaling in 16p11.2 deletion mice and support the therapeutic utility of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD036379()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA021801()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS044385(United States)

Neuronal aromatase expression in pain processing regions of the medullary and spinal cord dorsal horn.

  • Tran M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In both acute and chronic pain conditions, women tend to be more sensitive than men. This sex difference may be regulated by estrogens, such as estradiol, that are synthesized in the spinal cord and brainstem and act locally to influence pain processing. To identify a potential cellular source of local estrogen, here we examined the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Our studies focused on primary afferent neurons and on their central targets in the spinal cord and medulla as well as in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the target of nodose ganglion-derived visceral afferents. Immunohistochemical staining in an aromatase reporter mouse revealed that many neurons in laminae I and V of the spinal cord dorsal horn and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and in the nucleus of the solitary tract express aromatase. The great majority of these cells also express inhibitory interneuron markers. We did not find sex differences in aromatase expression and neither the pattern nor the number of neurons changed in a sciatic nerve transection model of neuropathic pain or in the Complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory pain. A few aromatase neurons express Fos after cheek injection of capsaicin, formalin, or chloroquine. In total, given their location, these aromatase neurons are poised to engage nociceptive circuits, whether it is through local estrogen synthesis or inhibitory neurotransmitter release.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097306()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS014627()

Proximodistal Heterogeneity of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neuron Intrinsic Properties, Connectivity, and Reactivation during Memory Recall.

  • Sun Q
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hippocampal CA3 region is classically viewed as a homogeneous autoassociative network critical for associative memory and pattern completion. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a striking heterogeneity along the transverse, or proximodistal, axis of CA3 in spatial encoding and memory. Here we report the presence of striking proximodistal gradients in intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic connectivity for dorsal CA3. A decreasing gradient of mossy fiber synaptic strength along the proximodistal axis is mirrored by an increasing gradient of direct synaptic excitation from entorhinal cortex. Furthermore, we uncovered a nonuniform pattern of reactivation of fear memory traces, with the most robust reactivation during memory retrieval occurring in mid-CA3 (CA3b), the region showing the strongest net recurrent excitation. Our results suggest that heterogeneity in both intrinsic properties and synaptic connectivity may contribute to the distinct spatial encoding and behavioral role of CA3 subregions along the proximodistal axis.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104602()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106629()

Direct Midbrain Dopamine Input to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Accelerates Circadian Entrainment.

  • Grippo RM
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We demonstrate that D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1) signaling within the SCN is necessary for properly timed resynchronization of activity rhythms to phase-shifted light:dark cycles and that elevation of DA tone through selective activation of VTA DA neurons accelerates photoentrainment. Our findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for direct DA input to the master circadian clock and highlight the importance of an evolutionarily significant relationship between the circadian system and the neuromodulatory circuits that govern motivational behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM121937()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104450()

c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 expression in auditory and visual cortices after hearing loss: Evidence of sensory crossmodal reorganization in adult rats.

  • Pernia M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cross-modal reorganization in the auditory and visual cortices has been reported after hearing and visual deficits mostly during the developmental period, possibly underlying sensory compensation mechanisms. However, there are very few data on the existence or nature and timeline of such reorganization events during sensory deficits in adulthood. In this study, we assessed long-term changes in activity-dependent immediate early genes c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 in auditory and neighboring visual cortical areas after bilateral deafness in young adult rats. Specifically, we analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 immunoreactivity at 15 and 90 days after cochlea removal. We report extensive, global loss of c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 immunoreactive neurons in the auditory cortex 15 days after permanent auditory deprivation in adult rats, which is partly reversed 90 days after deafness. Simultaneously, the number and labeling intensity of c-Fos- and Arc/Arg3.1-immunoreactive neurons progressively increase in neighboring visual cortical areas from 2 weeks after deafness and these changes stabilize three months after inducing the cochlear lesion. These findings support plastic, compensatory, long-term changes in activity in the auditory and visual cortices after auditory deprivation in the adult rats. Further studies may clarify whether those changes result in perceptual potentiation of visual drives on auditory regions of the adult cortex.

Neuronal connections of the central amygdalar nucleus with refeeding-activated brain areas in rats.

  • Zséli G
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2017 Aug 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following fasting, satiety is accompanied by neuronal activation in brain areas including the central amygdalar nucleus (CEA). Since CEA is known to inhibit food intake, we hypothesized that CEA contributes to the termination of meal during refeeding. To better understand the organization of this satiety-related circuit, the interconnections of the CEA with refeeding-activated neuronal groups were elucidated using retrograde (cholera toxin-β subunit, CTB) and anterograde (phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) tracers in male rats. C-Fos-immunoreactivity was used as marker of neuronal activation. The refeeding-activated input of the CEA primarily originated from the paraventricular thalamic, parasubthalamic and parabrachial nuclei. Few CTB-c-Fos double-labeled neurons were detected in the prefrontal cortex, lateral hypothalamic area, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST). Only few refeeding-activated proopiomelanocortin-producing neurons of the arcuate nucleus projected to the CEA. Anterograde tract tracing revealed a high density of PHAL-labeled axons contacted with refeeding-activated neurons in the BNST, lateral hypothalamic area, parasubthalamic, paraventricular thalamic and parabrachial nuclei and NTS; a low density of labeled axons was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Chemogenetic activation of the medial CEA (CEAm) inhibited food intake during the first hour of refeeding, while activation of lateral CEA had no effect. These data demonstrate the existence of reciprocal connections between the CEA and distinct refeeding-activated hypothalamic, thalamic and brainstem nuclei, suggesting the importance of short feedback loops in the regulation of satiety and importance of the CEAm in the regulation of food intake during refeeding.

Social Control of Hypothalamus-Mediated Male Aggression.

  • Yang T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context. By contrast, these neurons cannot elicit aggression in socially housed males that intrude in another male's territory unless their pheromone-sensing is disabled. This modulation of aggression cannot be accounted for by linear integration of environmental and physiological signals. Together, our studies suggest that fundamentally non-linear computations enable social context to exert a dominant influence on developmentally hard-wired hypothalamus-mediated male territorial aggression.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 NS049488()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083872()
  • Wellcome Trust - R01 DA035913()

Causal role for the subthalamic nucleus in interrupting behavior.

  • Fife KH
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stopping or pausing in response to threats, conflicting information, or surprise is fundamental to behavior. Evidence across species has shown that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is activated by scenarios involving stopping or pausing, yet evidence that the STN causally implements stops or pauses is lacking. Here we used optogenetics to activate or inhibit mouse STN to test its putative causal role. We first demonstrated that optogenetic stimulation of the STN excited its major projection targets. Next we showed that brief activation of STN projection neurons was sufficient to interrupt or pause a self-initiated bout of licking. Finally, we developed an assay in which surprise was used to interrupt licking, and showed that STN inhibition reduced the disruptive effect of surprise. Thus STN activation interrupts behavior, and blocking the STN blunts the interruptive effect of surprise. These results provide strong evidence that the STN is both necessary and sufficient for such forms of behavioral response suppression.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA036612()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087496()

Brain networks activated to form object recognition memory.

  • Tanimizu T
  • Brain Res. Bull.
  • 2017 Jun 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Object recognition memory allows discrimination of familiar and novel objects. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for object recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory at the anatomic level remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the brain network for the generation of OR memory in mice by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. We found that c-fos expression was induced in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), insular cortex (IC), perirhinal cortex (PRh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when OR memory was generated, suggesting that gene expression in these brain regions contributes to the formation of OR memory. Consistently, inhibition of protein synthesis in the mPFC blocked the formation of long-term OR memory. Importantly, network analyses suggested that the hippocampus, IC, PRh and mPFC show increased connectivity with other brain regions when OR memory is formed. Thus, we suggest that a brain network composed of the hippocampus, IC, PRh, and mPFC is required for the generation of OR memory by connecting with other brain regions.

GABAergic Neurons of the Central Amygdala Promote Cataplexy.

  • Mahoney CE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy-sudden muscle paralysis triggered by strong, positive emotions. This condition is caused by a lack of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate cataplexy. The amygdala regulates responses to rewarding stimuli and contains neurons active during cataplexy. In addition, lesions of the amygdala reduce cataplexy. Because GABAergic neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) target brainstem regions known to regulate muscle tone, we hypothesized that these cells promote emotion-triggered cataplexy. We injected adeno-associated viral vectors coding for Cre-dependent DREADDs or a control vector into the CeA of orexin knock-out mice crossed with vGAT-Cre mice, resulting in selective expression of the excitatory hM3 receptor or the inhibitory hM4 receptor in GABAergic neurons of the CeA. We measured sleep/wake behavior and cataplexy after injection of saline or the hM3/hM4 ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) under baseline conditions and under conditions that should elicit positive emotions. In mice expressing hM3, CNO approximately doubled the amount of cataplexy in the first 3 h after dosing under baseline conditions. Rewarding stimuli (chocolate or running wheels) also increased cataplexy, but CNO produced no further increase. In mice expressing hM4, CNO reduced cataplexy in the presence of chocolate or running wheels. These results demonstrate that GABAergic neurons of the CeA are sufficient and necessary for the production of cataplexy in mice, and they likely are a key part of the mechanism through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cataplexy is one of the major symptoms of narcolepsy, but little is known about how strong, positive emotions trigger these episodes of muscle paralysis. Prior research shows that amygdala neurons are active during cataplexy and cataplexy is reduced by lesions of the amygdala. We found that cataplexy is substantially increased by selective activation of GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We also demonstrate that inhibition of these neurons reduces reward-promoted cataplexy. These results build upon prior work to establish the CeA as a crucial element in the neural mechanisms of cataplexy. These results demonstrate the importance of the CeA in regulating responses to rewarding stimuli, shedding light on the broader neurobiology of emotions and motor control.

Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Glutamate Receptors on Excitatory Cortical Neurons during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

  • Del Cid-Pellitero E
  • Front Syst Neurosci
  • 2017 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation. In parallel with changes in c-Fos reflecting changes in activity, (β2-3 subunits of) GABAA Rs were increased on the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons with enforced waking and returned to baseline levels with SR in barrel cortex on sides both contra- and ipsilateral to the whisker stimulation. The GABAAR increase was correlated with increased gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity across conditions. On the other hand, (GluA1 subunits of) AMPA Rs were progressively removed from the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons by (Rab5+) early endosomes during enforced waking and returned to the membrane by (Rab11+) recycling endosomes during SR. The internalization of the GluA1Rs paralleled the expression of Arc, which mediates homeostatic regulation of AMPA receptors through an endocytic pathway. The reciprocal changes in GluA1Rs relative to GABAARs suggest homeostatic down-scaling during enforced waking and sensory stimulation and restorative up-scaling during recovery sleep. Such homeostatic changes with sleep-wake states and their associated cortical activities could stabilize excitability and activity in excitatory cortical neurons.

Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

  • Tanimizu T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We found that social recognition memory is consolidated through CREB-meditated gene expression in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala. Importantly, network analyses based on c-fos expression suggest that functional connectivity of these four brain regions with other brain regions is increased with time spent in social investigation toward the generation of brain networks to consolidate social recognition memory. Furthermore, our findings suggest that hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions.

Assembly of Excitatory Synapses in the Absence of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.

  • Sando R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic excitation mediates a broad spectrum of structural changes in neural circuits across the brain. Here, we examine the morphologies, wiring, and architectures of single synapses of projection neurons in the murine hippocampus that developed in virtually complete absence of vesicular glutamate release. While these neurons had smaller dendritic trees and/or formed fewer contacts in specific hippocampal subfields, their stereotyped connectivity was largely preserved. Furthermore, loss of release did not disrupt the morphogenesis of presynaptic terminals and dendritic spines, suggesting that glutamatergic neurotransmission is unnecessary for synapse assembly and maintenance. These results underscore the instructive role of intrinsic mechanisms in synapse formation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM117049()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085776()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087026()

Deficiency in Neuronal TGF-β Signaling Leads to Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Activation of TGF-β Signaling Protects against MPTP Neurotoxicity in Mice.

  • Tesseur I
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. To study the function of TGF-β signaling in the adult nigrostriatal system, we generated transgenic mice with reduced TGF-β signaling in mature neurons. These mice display age-related motor deficits and degeneration of the nigrostriatal system. Increasing TGF-β signaling in the substantia nigra through adeno-associated virus expressing a constitutively active type I receptor significantly reduces 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits. These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is critical for adult DA neuron survival and that modulating this signaling pathway has therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that reducing Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling promotes Parkinson disease-related pathologies and motor deficits, and increasing TGF-β signaling reduces neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a parkinsonism-inducing agent. Our results provide a rationale to pursue a means of increasing TGF-β signaling as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG020603()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG023708()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092868()

Organization of the Claustrum-to-Entorhinal Cortical Connection in Mice.

  • Kitanishi T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored. Here, we investigated the organization and function of identified claustro-cortical pathways in mice using multiple anatomical and optogenetic techniques. Retrograde and anterograde tracing demonstrated that the density of anterior claustrum-to-cortical projection differs substantially depending on the target cortical areas. One of the major targets was the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the MEC-projecting claustral neurons were largely segregated from the neurons projecting to primary cortices M1, S1, or V1. Exposure to a novel environment induced c-Fos expression in a substantial number of MEC-projecting claustral neurons and some M1/S1/V1-projecting claustral neurons. Optogenetic silencing of the MEC-projecting claustral neurons during contextual fear conditioning impaired later memory retrieval without affecting basal locomotor activity or anxiety-related behavior. These results suggest that the dense, anterior claustro-MEC pathway that is largely separated from other claustro-cortical pathways is activated by novel context and modulates the MEC function in contextual memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The claustrum is a poorly understood subcortical structure reciprocally connected with widespread neocortical regions. We investigated the organization and function of identified claustro-cortical projections in mice using pathway-specific approaches. Anatomical tracing showed that the density of anterior claustrum-to-cortical projection is dependent on the target cortical areas and that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is one of the major projection targets. Novel context exposure activated multiple claustro-cortical pathways and a large fraction of the activated neurons projected to the MEC. Optogenetic silencing of the claustro-MEC pathway during contextual fear learning suppressed subsequent memory retrieval. These results suggest that the dense claustro-MEC pathway is activated by novel context and modulates MEC function in contextual memory.

Estradiol shifts interactions between the infralimbic cortex and central amygdala to enhance fear extinction memory in female rats.

  • Maeng LY
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training. Extinction memory recall was then tested 24 hr later (day 3). We measured immediate early gene c-fos expression within the extinction network during fear extinction learning and extinction recall. During extinction learning, E2 treatment increased centrolateral amygdala c-fos activity and reduced lateral amygdala activity relative to vehicle. During extinction recall, E2-treated rats exhibited reduced c-fos expression in the centromedial amygdala. There were no group differences in c-fos expression within the medial prefrontal cortex or dorsal hippocampus. Examining c-fos ratios with the infralimbic cortex (IL) revealed that, despite the lack of group differences within the IL, E2 treatment induced greater IL activity relative to both prelimbic cortex and central amygdala (CeA) activity during extinction memory recall. Only the relationship between IL and CeA activity positively correlated with extinction retention. In conclusion, E2 appears to modify interactions between the IL and the CeA in females, shifting from stronger amygdalar modulation of fear during extinction learning to stronger IL control during extinction recall. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC012931(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065053(United States)

Integrated Control of Predatory Hunting by the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala.

  • Han W
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Superior predatory skills led to the evolutionary triumph of jawed vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which the vertebrate brain controls predation remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal a critical role for the central nucleus of the amygdala in predatory hunting. Both optogenetic and chemogenetic stimulation of central amygdala of mice elicited predatory-like attacks upon both insect and artificial prey. Coordinated control of cervical and mandibular musculatures, which is necessary for accurately positioning lethal bites on prey, was mediated by a central amygdala projection to the reticular formation in the brainstem. In contrast, prey pursuit was mediated by projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter. Targeted lesions to these two pathways separately disrupted biting attacks upon prey versus the initiation of prey pursuit. Our findings delineate a neural network that integrates distinct behavioral modules and suggest that central amygdala neurons instruct predatory hunting across jawed vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA180030()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014859()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK084052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103176()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048476()

A Sexually Dimorphic Area of the Dorsal Hypothalamus in Mice and Common Marmosets.

  • Moe Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

We found a novel sexually dimorphic area (SDA) in the dorsal hypothalamus (DH) of mice. The SDA-DH was sandwiched between 2 known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth. These findings indicate that the SDA-DH is defeminized under the influence of testicular testosterone, which acts via both directly by binding to the androgen receptor, and indirectly by binding to the estrogen receptor after aromatization. We measured the activity of SDA-DH neurons with c-Fos, a neuronal activity marker, in female mice during maternal and sexual behaviors. The number of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the SDA-DH of female mice was negatively correlated with maternal behavior performance. However, the number of c-Fos-expressing neurons did not change during female sexual behavior. These findings suggest that the SDA-DH contains a neuronal cell population, the activity of which decreases in females exhibiting higher performance of maternal behavior, but it may contribute less to female sexual behavior. Additionally, we examined the brain of common marmosets and found an area that appears to be homologous with the mouse SDA-DH. The sexually dimorphic structure identified in this study is not specific to mice and may be found in other species.

Chemogenetic inhibition of the medial prefrontal cortex reverses the effects of REM sleep loss on sucrose consumption.

  • McEown K
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep loss is associated with increased consumption of weight-promoting foods. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to mediate reward anticipation. However, the precise role of the PFC in mediating reward responses to highly palatable foods (HPF) after REM sleep deprivation is unclear. We selectively reduced REM sleep in mice over a 25-48 hr period and chemogenetically inhibited the medial PFC (mPFC) by using an altered glutamate-gated and ivermectin-gated chloride channel that facilitated neuronal inhibition through hyperpolarizing infected neurons. HPF consumption was measured while the mPFC was inactivated and REM sleep loss was induced. We found that REM sleep loss increased HPF consumption compared to control animals. However, mPFC inactivation reversed the effect of REM sleep loss on sucrose consumption without affecting fat consumption. Our findings provide, for the first time, a causal link between REM sleep, mPFC function and HPF consumption.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01-NS 07312401(United States)

Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

  • Zséli G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A2 noradrenergic neurons regulate forced swim test immobility.

  • Nam H
  • Physiol. Behav.
  • 2016 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a widely used animal model of depression, which is characterized by dysregulation of noradrenergic signaling. We previously demonstrated that WKY rats show a unique behavioral profile on the forced swim test (FST), characterized by high levels of immobility upon initial exposure and a greater learning-like response by further increasing immobility upon re-exposure than the genetically related Wistar rats. In the current study we aimed to determine whether altered activation of brainstem noradrenergic cell groups contributes to this behavioral profile. We exposed WKY and Wistar rats, to either 5min of forced swim or to the standard two-day FST (i.e. 15min forced swim on Day 1, followed by 5min on Day 2). We then stained their brains for FOS/tyrosine hydroxylase double-immunocytochemistry to determine potential differences in the activation of the brainstem noradrenergic cell groups. We detected a relative hyperactivation in the locus coeruleus of WKY rats when compared to Wistars in response to both one- and two-day forced swim. In contrast, within the A2 noradrenergic cell group, WKY rats exhibited diminished levels of FOS across both days of the FST, suggesting their lesser activation. We followed up these observations by selectively lesioning the A2 neurons, using anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-conjugated saporin, in Wistar rats, which resulted in increased FST immobility on both days of the test. Together these data indicate that the A2 noradrenergic cell group regulates FST behavior, and that its hypoactivation may contribute to the unique behavioral phenotype of WKY rats.

Des-Acyl Ghrelin and Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase Regulate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activation and Anxiety in Response to Acute Stress.

  • Stark R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Oct 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ghrelin exists in two forms in circulation, acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin, both of which have distinct and fundamental roles in a variety of physiological functions. Despite this fact, a large proportion of papers simply measure and refer to plasma ghrelin without specifying the acylation status. It is therefore critical to assess and state the acylation status of plasma ghrelin in all studies. In this study we tested the effect of des-acyl ghrelin administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and on anxiety-like behavior of mice lacking endogenous ghrelin and in ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) knockout (KO) mice that have no endogenous acyl ghrelin and high endogenous des-acyl ghrelin. Our results show des-acyl ghrelin produces an anxiogenic effect under nonstressed conditions, but this switches to an anxiolytic effect under stress. Des-acyl ghrelin influences plasma corticosterone under both nonstressed and stressed conditions, although c-fos activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is not different. By contrast, GOAT KO are anxious under both nonstressed and stressed conditions, although this is not due to corticosterone release from the adrenals but rather from impaired feedback actions in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, as assessed by c-fos activation. These results reveal des-acyl ghrelin treatment and GOAT deletion have differential effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and anxiety-like behavior, suggesting that anxiety-like behavior in GOAT KO mice is not due to high plasma des-acyl ghrelin.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P51RR000165(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - 5R03HD055423-02(United States)

Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval.

  • Ishikawa R
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment.

Importance of Adult Dmbx1 in Long-Lasting Orexigenic Effect of Agouti-Related Peptide.

  • Hirono S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dmbx1 is a brain-specific homeodomain transcription factor expressed primarily during embryogenesis, and its systemic disruption (Dmbx1(-/-)) in the ICR mouse strain resulted in leanness associated with impaired long-lasting orexigenic effect of agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Because spatial and temporal expression patterns of Dmbx1 change dramatically during embryogenesis, it remains unknown when and where Dmbx1 plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. In the present study, the physiological roles of Dmbx1 were examined by its conditional disruption (Dmbx1(loxP/loxP)) in the C57BL/6 mouse strain. Although Dmbx1 disruption in fetal brain resulted in neonatal lethality, its disruption by synapsin promoter-driven Cre recombinase, which eliminated Dmbx1 expression postnatally, exempted the mice (Syn-Cre;Dmbx1(loxP/loxP) mice) from lethality. Syn-Cre;Dmbx1(loxP/loxP) mice show mild leanness and impaired long-lasting orexigenic action of AgRP, demonstrating the physiological relevance of Dmbx1 in the adult. Visualization of Dmbx1-expressing neurons in adult brain using the mice harboring tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in the Dmbx1 locus (Dmbx1(CreERT2/+) mice) revealed Dmbx1 expression in small numbers of neurons in restricted regions, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB). Notably, c-Fos expression in LPB was increased at 48 hours after AgRP administration in Dmbx1(loxP/loxP) mice but not in Syn-Cre;Dmbx1(loxP/loxP) mice. These c-Fos-positive neurons in LPB did not coincide with neurons expressing Dmbx1 or melanocortin 4 receptor but did coincide with those expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide. Accordingly, Dmbx1 in the adult LPB is required for the long-lasting orexigenic effect of AgRP via the neural circuitry involving calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL083810(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH043396(United States)

Intraperitoneal CCK and fourth-intraventricular Apo AIV require both peripheral and NTS CCK1R to reduce food intake in male rats.

  • Lo CC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are secreted in response to fat consumption, and both cause satiation via CCK 1 receptor (CCK-1R)-containing vagal afferent nerves to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), where Apo AIV is also synthesized. Fasted male Long-Evans rats received ip CCK-8 or fourth-ventricular (i4vt) Apo AIV alone or in combination. Food intake and c-Fos proteins (a product of the c-Fos immediate-early gene) were assessed. i4vt Apo AIV and/or ip CCK at effective doses reduced food intake and activated c-Fos proteins in the NTS and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. Blockade of the CCK-1R by i4vt lorglumide adjacent to the NTS attenuated the satiating and c-Fos-stimulating effects of CCK and Apo AIV, alone or in combination. Maintenance on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks resulted in weight gain and attenuation of both the behavioral and c-Fos responses to a greater extent than occurred in low-fat diet-fed and pair-fed HFD animals. These observations suggest that NTS Apo AIV or/and peripheral CCK requires vagal CCK-1R signaling to elicit satiation and that maintenance on a HFD reduces the satiating capacity of these 2 signals.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - P30 8P30-GM-103507(United States)

Expression of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 2 protects against diet-induced obesity in male mice.

  • Chee MJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that is a ligand for two subtypes of MCH receptors, MCHR1 and MCHR2. MCHR1 is universally expressed in mammals ranging from rodents to humans, but the expression of MCHR2 is substantially restricted. In mammals, MCHR2 has been defined in primates as well as other species such as cats and dogs but is not seen in rodents. Although the role of MCHR1 in mediating the actions of MCH on energy balance is clearly defined using mouse models, the role of MCHR2 is harder to characterize because of its limited expression. To determine any potential role of MCHR2 in energy balance, we generated a transgenic MCHR1R2 mouse model, where human MCHR2 is coexpressed in MCHR1-expressing neurons. As shown previously, control wild-type mice expressing only native MCHR1 developed diet-induced obesity when fed a high-fat diet. In contrast, MCHR1R2 mice had lower food intake, leading to their resistance to diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, we showed that MCH action is altered in MCHR1R2 mice. MCH treatment in wild-type mice inhibited the activation of the immediate-early gene c-fos, and coexpression of MCHR2 reduced the inhibitory actions of MCHR1 on this pathway. In conclusion, we developed an experimental animal model that can provide insight into the action of MCHR2 in the central nervous system and suggest that some actions of MCHR2 oppose the endogenous actions of MCHR1.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039444(United States)

Amylin acts in the central nervous system to increase sympathetic nerve activity.

  • Fernandes-Santos C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pancreatic hormone amylin acts in the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease food intake and body weight. We hypothesized that amylin action in the CNS promotes energy expenditure by increasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. In mice, ip administration of amylin significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. In addition, mice treated with intracerebroventricular (icv) amylin (0.1 and 0.2 nmol) exhibited a dose-related decrease in food intake and body weight, measured 4 and 24 hours after treatment. The icv injection of amylin also increased body temperature in mice. Using direct multifiber sympathetic nerve recording, we found that icv amylin elicited a significant and dose-dependent increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) subserving thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT). Of note, icv injection of amylin also evoked a significant and dose-related increase in lumbar and renal SNA. Importantly, icv pretreatment with the amylin receptor antagonist AC187 (20 nmol) abolished the BAT SNA response induced by icv amylin, indicating that the sympathetic effects of amylin are receptor-mediated. Conversely, icv amylin-induced BAT SNA response was enhanced in mice overexpressing the amylin receptor subunit, RAMP1 (receptor-activity modifying protein 1), in the CNS. Our data demonstrate that CNS action of amylin regulates sympathetic nerve outflow to peripheral tissues involved in energy balance and cardiovascular function.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012931(United States)

Dynamics of olfactory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult sheep.

  • Brus M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although adult neurogenesis has been conserved in higher vertebrates such as primates and humans, timing of generation, migration, and differentiation of new neurons appears to differ from that in rodents. Sheep could represent an alternative model to studying neurogenesis in primates because they possess a brain as large as a macaque monkey and have a similar life span. By using a marker of cell division, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), in combination with several markers, the maturation time of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB) was determined in sheep. In addition, to establish the origin of adult-born neurons in the MOB, an adeno-associated virus that infects neural cells in the ovine brain was injected into the subventricular zone (SVZ). A migratory stream was indicated from the SVZ up to the MOB, consisting of neuroblasts that formed chain-like structures. Results also showed a long neuronal maturation time in both the DG and the MOB, similar to that in primates. The first new neurons were observed at 1 month in the DG and at 3 months in the MOB after BrdU injections. Thus, maturation of adult-born cells in both the DG and the MOB is much longer than that in rodents and resembles that in nonhuman primates. This study points out the importance of studying the features of adult neurogenesis in models other than rodents, especially for translational research for human cellular therapy.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH083614(United States)

Neuroanatomy of melanocortin-4 receptor pathway in the lateral hypothalamic area.

  • Cui H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The central melanocortin system regulates body energy homeostasis including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) receives dense melanocortinergic inputs from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and regulates multiple processes including food intake, reward behaviors, and autonomic function. By using a mouse line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under control of the MC4R gene promoter, we systemically investigated MC4R signaling in the LHA by combining double immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and retrograde tracing techniques. We found that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons coexpress neurotensin as well as the leptin receptor but do not coexpress other peptide neurotransmitters found in the LHA including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and nesfatin-1. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording demonstrated that leptin, but not the MC4R agonist melanotan II, hyperpolarizes the majority of LHA MC4R-GFP neurons in an ATP- sensitive potassium channel-dependent manner. Retrograde tracing revealed that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons do not project to the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and spinal cord, and only limited number of neurons project to the nucleus of the solitary tract and parabrachial nucleus. Our findings provide new insights into MC4R signaling in the LHA and its potential implications in homeostatic regulation of body energy balance.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM052585(United States)

Nitric oxidergic cells related to ejaculation in gerbil forebrain contain androgen receptor and respond to testosterone.

  • Simmons DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two clusters of forebrain neurons-one in the posterodorsal preoptic nucleus (PdPN) and one in the lateral part of the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd)-are activated at ejaculation in male rats and gerbils as seen with Fos immunocytochemistry. To understand the functions of these cells and how they respond synchronously, it may be useful to identify their neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide (NO) was of interest because its levels in the preoptic area affect ejaculation, and it could synchronize clustered neurons through paracrine/volume transmission. Thus, we determined whether the ejaculation-related cells produce NO by assessing Fos co-localization with NO synthase (NOS) in recently mated male gerbils. We also studied NOS-Fos co-localization in the medial part of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNm), where half of the neurons that express Fos after mating reflect ejaculation. We also quantified NOS co-localization with androgen receptor (AR) and NOS sensitivity to androgens at these sites. Without quantification, we extended these analyses throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Many mating-activated PdPN, lateral MeApd, and MPNm cells contained NOS (32-54%), and many NOS neurons at these sites expressed Fos (34-51%) or AR (25-69%). PdPN and MPNm NOS cells were sensitive to testosterone but not its androgenic metabolite dihydrotestosterone. The overall distribution of NOS and NOS-AR cells was similar to that in rats. These data suggest that NO may help to synchronize the activation of PdPN and lateral MeApd neurons at ejaculation and that NOS in PdPN and MPNm cells is regulated by testosterone acting via estradiol or without undergoing metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - M01RR00083(United States)

The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus: A structure targeted by the lateral habenula that projects to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and substantia nigra compacta.

  • Jhou TC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prior studies revealed that aversive stimuli and psychostimulant drugs elicit Fos expression in neurons clustered above and behind the interpeduncular nucleus that project strongly to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) compacta (C). Other reports suggest that these neurons modulate responses to aversive stimuli. We now designate the region containing them as the "mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus" (RMTg) and report herein on its neuroanatomy. Dense micro-opioid receptor and somatostatin immunoreactivity characterize the RMTg, as do neurons projecting to the VTA/SNC that are enriched in GAD67 mRNA. Strong inputs to the RMTg arise in the lateral habenula (LHb) and, to a lesser extent, the SN. Other inputs come from the frontal cortex, ventral striatopallidum, extended amygdala, septum, preoptic region, lateral, paraventricular and posterior hypothalamus, zona incerta, periaqueductal gray, intermediate layers of the contralateral superior colliculus, dorsal raphe, mesencephalic, pontine and medullary reticular formation, and the following nuclei: parafascicular, supramammillary, mammillary, ventral lateral geniculate, deep mesencephalic, red, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental, cuneiform, parabrachial, and deep cerebellar. The RMTg has meager outputs to the forebrain, mainly to the ventral pallidum, preoptic-lateral hypothalamic continuum, and midline-intralaminar thalamus, but much heavier outputs to the brainstem, including, most prominently, the VTA/SNC, as noted above, and to medial tegmentum, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and locus ceruleus and subceruleus. The RMTg may integrate multiple forebrain and brainstem inputs in relation to a dominant LHb input. Its outputs to neuromodulatory projection systems likely converge with direct LHb projections to those structures.

Organization of pERK-immunoreactive cells in trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and upper cervical cord following capsaicin injection into oral and craniofacial regions in rats.

  • Noma N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

To define the somatotopic arrangement of neurons in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical cord activated by acute noxious stimulation of various orofacial sites, pERK expression was analyzed in these neurons. After capsaicin injection into the tongue, lower gum, upper and lower lips, or mental region, pERK-like immunoreactive (pERK-LI) cells were distributed mainly in the dorsal half of the trigeminal spinal nucleus interporalis (Vi) and caudalis (Vc) transition zone (Vi/Vc zone), middle Vc, and Vc and upper cervical cord transition zone (Vc/C2 zone). pERK-LI cells were distributed throughout the dorsal to ventral portion of the Vi/Vc zone, middle Vc, and Vc/C2 zone following capsaicin injection into the anterior hard palate, upper gum, buccal mucosa, or vibrissal pad and in the ventral portion of the Vi/Vc zone, middle Vc, and Vc/C2 zone following snout, ophthalmic, or ocular injection of capsaicin. The rostrocaudal distribution area of pERK-LI cells was more extensive from the Vi/Vc zone to the Vc/C2 zone after intraoral injection than that after facial injection, and the rostrocaudal distribution of pERK-LI cells from the Vi/Vc zone to the Vc/C2 zone had a somatotopic arrangement, with the snout being represented most rostrally and ophthalmic, ocular, or mental regions represented most caudally. These findings suggest that the pERK-LI cells expressed from the Vi/Vc zone to the Vc/C2 zone following injection of capsaicin in facial and intraoral structures may be differentially involved in pain perception in facial and intraoral sites.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 283871(International)