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Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody

RRID:AB_2099233

Antibody ID

AB_2099233

Target Antigen

IgG rabbit

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 7074, RRID:AB_2099233)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: WB

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

7074 also 7074S, 7074V, 7074P2

Publications that use this research resource

G9a/GLP Complex Acts as a Bidirectional Switch to Regulate Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Plasticity in Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.

  • Sharma M
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2018 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is conventionally considered to be solely dependent on local protein synthesis. Given the impact of epigenetics on memory, the intriguing question is whether epigenetic regulation influences mGluR-LTD as well. G9a/GLP histone lysine methyltransferase complex is crucial for brain development and goal-directed learning as well as for drug-addiction. In this study, we analyzed whether the epigenetic regulation by G9a/GLP complex affects mGluR-LTD in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 5-7 weeks old male Wistar rats. In hippocampal slices with intact CA1 dendritic regions, inhibition of G9a/GLP activity abolished mGluR-LTD. The inhibition of this complex upregulated the expression of plasticity proteins like PKMζ, which mediated the prevention of mGluR-LTD expression by regulating the NSF-GluA2-mediated trafficking of AMPA receptors towards the postsynaptic site. G9a/GLP inhibition during the induction of mGluR-LTD also downregulated the protein levels of phosphorylated-GluA2 and Arc. Interestingly, G9a/GLP inhibition could not impede the mGluR-LTD when the cell-body was severed. Our study highlights the role of G9a/GLP complex in intact neuronal network as a bidirectional switch; when turned on, it facilitates the expression of mGluR-LTD, and when turned off, it promotes the expression of long-term potentiation.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)

Angiotensin II triggers peripheral macrophage-to-sensory neuron redox crosstalk to elicit pain.

  • Shepherd AJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Injury, inflammation and nerve damage initiate a wide variety of cellular and molecular processes that culminate in hyperexcitation of sensory nerves, which underlies chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Using behavioral readouts of pain hypersensitivity induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) injection into mouse hindpaws, our study shows that activation of the type 2 Ang II receptor (AT2R) and the cell damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1 are required for peripheral mechanical pain sensitization induced by Ang II in male and female mice. However, we show that AT2R is not expressed in mouse and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, expression/activation of AT2R on peripheral/skin macrophages (MΦs) constitutes a critical trigger of mouse and human DRG sensory neuron excitation. Ang II-induced peripheral mechanical pain hypersensitivity can be attenuated by chemogenetic depletion of peripheral MΦs. Furthermore, AT2R activation in MΦs triggers production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which trans-activate TRPA1 on mouse and human DRG sensory neurons, via cysteine-modification of the channel. Our study thus identifies a translatable immune cell-to-sensory neuron signaling crosstalk underlying peripheral nociceptor sensitization. This form of cell-to-cell signaling represents a critical peripheral mechanism for chronic pain, and thus identifies multiple druggable analgesic targets.Significance Statement: Pain is a widespread problem that is under-managed by currently available analgesics. Findings from a recent clinical trial on a type-II angiotensin II receptor (AT2R) antagonist showed effective analgesia for neuropathic pain. AT2R antagonists have been shown to reduce neuropathy-, inflammation- and bone cancer-associated pain in rodents. We report that activation of AT2R in macrophages that infiltrate the site of injury, but not in sensory neurons, triggers an intercellular redox communication with sensory neurons via activation of the cell damage/pain-sensing ion channel TRPA1. This macrophage-to-sensory neuron crosstalk results in peripheral pain sensitization. Our findings provide an evidence-based mechanism underlying the analgesic action of AT2R antagonists, which could accelerate the development of efficacious non-opioid analgesic drugs for multiple pain conditions.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS077521(United States)

Chromatin Binding of c-REL and p65 Is Not Limiting for Macrophage IL12B Transcription During Immediate Suppression by Ovarian Carcinoma Ascites.

  • Unger A
  • Front Immunol
  • 2018 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumors frequently exploit homeostatic mechanisms that suppress expression of IL-12, a central mediator of inflammatory and anti-tumor responses. The p40 subunit of the IL-12 heterodimer, encoded by IL12B, is limiting for these functions. Ovarian carcinoma patients frequently produce ascites which exerts immunosuppression by means of soluble factors. The NFκB pathway is necessary for transcription of IL12B, which is not expressed in macrophages freshly isolated from ascites. This raises the possibility that ascites prevents IL12B expression by perturbing NFκB binding to chromatin. Here, we show that ascites-mediated suppression of IL12B induction by LPS plus IFNγ in primary human macrophages is rapid, and that suppression can be reversible after ascites withdrawal. Nuclear translocation of the NFκB transcription factors c-REL and p65 was strongly reduced by ascites. Surprisingly, however, their binding to the IL12B locus and to CXCL10, a second NFκB target gene, was unaltered, and the induction of CXCL10 transcription was not suppressed by ascites. These findings indicate that, despite its reduced nuclear translocation, NFκB function is not generally impaired by ascites, suggesting that ascites-borne signals target additional pathways to suppress IL12B induction. Consistent with these data, IL-10, a clinically relevant constituent of ascites and negative regulator of NFκB translocation, only partially recapitulated IL12B suppression by ascites. Finally, restoration of a defective IL-12 response by appropriate culture conditions was observed only in macrophages from a subset of donors, which may have important implications for the understanding of patient-specific immune responses.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM71801(United States)

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

Activity-Dependent Degradation of the Nascentome by the Neuronal Membrane Proteasome.

  • Ramachandran KV
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent changes in neuronal function require coordinated regulation of the protein synthesis and protein degradation machinery to maintain protein homeostasis, critical for proper neuronal function. However, the biochemical evidence for this balance and coordination is largely lacking. Leveraging our recent discovery of a neuronal-specific 20S membrane proteasome complex (NMP), we began exploring how neuronal activity regulates its function. Here, we found that the NMP degrades exclusively a large fraction of ribosome-associated nascent polypeptides that are being newly synthesized during neuronal stimulation. Using deep-coverage and global mass spectrometry, we identified the nascent protein substrates of the NMP, which included products encoding immediate-early genes, such as c-Fos and Npas4. Intriguingly, we found that turnover of nascent polypeptides and not full-length proteins through the NMP occurred independent of canonical ubiquitylation pathways. We propose that these findings generally define a neuronal activity-induced protein homeostasis program of coordinated protein synthesis and degradation through the NMP.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - 1R01-HL092842(United States)

Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cell State Equilibrium through Modulation of Redox Signaling.

  • Luo M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) display plasticity transitioning between quiescent mesenchymal-like (M) and proliferative epithelial-like (E) states, how this plasticity is regulated by metabolic or oxidative stress remains poorly understood. Here, we show that M- and E-BCSCs rely on distinct metabolic pathways and display markedly different sensitivities to inhibitors of glycolysis and redox metabolism. Metabolic or oxidative stress generated by 2DG, H2O2, or hypoxia promotes the transition of ROSlo M-BCSCs to a ROShi E-state. This transition is reversed by N-acetylcysteine and mediated by activation of the AMPK-HIF1α axis. Moreover, E-BCSCs exhibit robust NRF2-mediated antioxidant responses, rendering them vulnerable to ROS-induced differentiation and cytotoxicity following suppression of NRF2 or downstream thioredoxin (TXN) and glutathione (GSH) antioxidant pathways. Co-inhibition of glycolysis and TXN and GSH pathways suppresses tumor growth, tumor-initiating potential, and metastasis by eliminating both M- and E-BCSCs. Exploiting metabolic vulnerabilities of distinct BCSC states provides a novel therapeutic approach targeting this critical tumor cell population.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA086862()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA101860()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA182804()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA196018()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197585()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA141455(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA210152()

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Dynamic FLNA Interactions Governing SSTR2 Clustering and Internalization.

  • Treppiedi D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cytoskeletal protein filamin A (FLNA) has been suggested to play an important role in the responsiveness of GH-secreting pituitary tumors to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) agonists, by regulating SSTR2 expression and signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we use fast multi-color single-molecule microscopy to image individual SSTR2 and FLNA molecules at the surface of living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. We find that SSTR2 and FLNA undergo transient interactions, which occur preferentially along actin fibers and contribute to restraining SSTR2 diffusion. Agonist stimulation increases the localization of SSTR2 along actin fibers and, subsequently, SSTR2 clustering and recruitment to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Interfering with FLNA-SSTR2 binding with a dominant-negative FLNA fragment increases SSTR2 mobility, hampers the formation and alignment of SSTR2 clusters along actin fibers, and impairs both SSTR2 recruitment to CCPs and SSTR2 internalization. These findings indicate that dynamic SSTR2-FLNA interactions critically control the nanoscale localization of SSTR2 at the plasma membrane and are required for coupling SST2R clustering to internalization. These mechanisms explain the critical role of FLNA in the control of SST2R expression and signaling and suggest the possibility of targeting SSTR2-FLNA interactions for the therapy of pharmacologically resistant GH-secreting pituitary tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI063523-03(United States)

Lysine-14 acetylation of histone H3 in chromatin confers resistance to the deacetylase and demethylase activities of an epigenetic silencing complex.

  • Wu M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The core CoREST complex (LHC) contains histone deacetylase HDAC1 and histone demethylase LSD1 held together by the scaffold protein CoREST. Here, we analyze the purified LHC with modified peptide and reconstituted semisynthetic mononucleosome substrates. LHC demethylase activity toward methyl-Lys4 in histone H3 is strongly inhibited by H3 Lys14 acetylation, and this appears to be an intrinsic property of the LSD1 subunit. Moreover, the deacetylase selectivity of LHC unexpectedly shows a marked preference for H3 acetyl-Lys9 versus acetyl-Lys14 in nucleosome substrates but this selectivity is lost with isolated acetyl-Lys H3 protein. This diminished activity of LHC to Lys-14 deacetylation in nucleosomes is not merely due to steric accessibility based on the pattern of sensitivity of the LHC enzymatic complex to hydroxamic acid-mediated inhibition. Overall, these studies have revealed how a single Lys modification can confer a composite of resistance in chromatin to a key epigenetic enzyme complex involved in gene silencing.

Funding information:
  • Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute - Center of Excellence()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U117588498(United Kingdom)
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - R01 GM062437()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM062437()
  • V Foundation for Cancer Research - Program Grant()
  • Wellcome Trust - GM62437()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT100237()

Epidermal growth factor receptor and ligand family expression and activity in glioblastoma.

  • von Achenbach C
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

ERBB family cell surface receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB1), are phosphorylated upon binding by various EGF family ligands and signal via multiple kinase pathways. EGFR signaling is enhanced due to mutational activation of EGFR in almost half of glioblastomas, the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Therapeutic targeting of EGFR in glioblastoma has remained largely unsuccessful. Here we profiled 9 long-term (LTC) and 5 glioma-initiating (GIC) cell lines for expression and activation of ERBB family receptors and expression of their ligands. Receptors and ligands were abundantly expressed, with patterns overall similar to glioblastoma expression profiles in vivo as deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. No differences between LTC and GIC emerged. Irrespective of ligand or receptor expression, neither an EGFR antibody, erbitux, nor an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), gefitinib, were particularly active against LTC or GIC at clinically relevant concentrations. Self-renewal capacity of GIC was severely compromised by EGF withdrawal, but rescued by transforming growth factor alpha (TGF- α), although not by neuregulin-1 (NRG-1). Subcellular fractionation indicated high levels of nuclear phosphorylated EGFR in all LTC and GIC. In LN-229 cells, pERBB2 and pERBB3 were also detected in the nucleus. Nuclear pERBB2 was less sensitive, whereas pERBB3 was induced, in response to gefitinib. This study provides an extensive characterization of human glioma cell models, including stem-like models, with regard to ERBB receptor/ligand expression and signaling. Redundant signaling involving multiple ERBB family ligands and receptors may contribute to the challenges of developing more effective EGFR-targeted therapies for glioblastoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK080706(United States)

FGF23 Regulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling-Mediated Osteoarthritis in Mice Overexpressing High-Molecular-Weight FGF2.

  • Meo Burt P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although humans with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the Hyp mouse, a murine homolog of XLH, are known to develop degenerative joint disease, the exact mechanism that drives the osteoarthritis (OA) phenotype remains unclear. Mice that overexpress high-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 isoforms (HMWTg mice) phenocopy both XLH and Hyp, including OA with increased FGF23 production in bone and serum. Because HMWTg cartilage also has increased FGF23 and there is cross-talk between FGF23-Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the purpose of this study was to determine if OA observed in HMWTg mice is due to FGF23-mediated canonical Wnt signaling in chondrocytes, given that both pathways are implicated in OA pathogenesis. HMWTg OA joints had decreased Dkk1, Sost, and Lrp6 expression with increased Wnt5a, Wnt7b, Lrp5, Axin2, phospho-GSK3β, Lef1, and nuclear β-catenin, as indicated by immunohistochemistry or quantitative PCR analysis. Chondrocytes from HMWTg mice had enhanced alcian blue and alkaline phosphatase staining as well as increased FGF23, Adamts5, Il-1β, Wnt7b, Wnt16, and Wisp1 gene expression and phospho-GSK3β protein expression as indicated by Western blot, compared with chondrocytes of vector control and chondrocytes from mice overexpressing the low-molecular-weight isoform, which were protected from OA. Canonical Wnt inhibitor treatment rescued some of those parameters in HMWTg chondrocytes, seemingly delaying the initially accelerated chondrogenic differentiation. FGF23 neutralizing antibody treatment was able to partly ameliorate OA abnormalities in subchondral bone and reduce degradative/hypertrophic chondrogenic marker expression in HMWTg joints in vivo. These results demonstrate that osteoarthropathy of HMWTg is at least partially due to FGF23-modulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK087960(United States)

The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.

  • Wall MJ
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal activity regulates the transcription and translation of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity. Proteasome-dependent degradation of Arc tightly limits its temporal expression, yet the significance of this regulation remains unknown. We disrupted the temporal control of Arc degradation by creating an Arc knockin mouse (ArcKR) where the predominant Arc ubiquitination sites were mutated. ArcKR mice had intact spatial learning but showed specific deficits in selecting an optimal strategy during reversal learning. This cognitive inflexibility was coupled to changes in Arc mRNA and protein expression resulting in a reduced threshold to induce mGluR-LTD and enhanced mGluR-LTD amplitude. These findings show that the abnormal persistence of Arc protein limits the dynamic range of Arc signaling pathways specifically during reversal learning. Our work illuminates how the precise temporal control of activity-dependent molecules, such as Arc, regulates synaptic plasticity and is crucial for cognition.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD065269(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM109442()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R00 NS076364()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085093()

ACC2 Deletion Enhances IMCL Reduction along with Acetyl-CoA Metabolism and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Male Mice.

  • Takagi H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle greatly contributes to lipid-induced insulin resistance. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) negatively modulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle, ACC2 inhibition is expected to reduce IMCL via elevation of FAO and to attenuate insulin resistance. However, the concept of substrate competition suggests that enhanced FAO results in reduced glucose utilization because of an excessive acetyl-CoA pool in mitochondria. To identify how ACC2-regulated FAO affects IMCL accumulation and glucose metabolism, we generated ACC2 knockout (ACC2-/-) mice and investigated skeletal muscle metabolites associated with fatty acid and glucose metabolism, as well as whole-body glucose metabolism. ACC2-/- mice displayed higher capacity of glucose disposal at the whole-body levels. In skeletal muscle, ACC2-/- mice exhibited enhanced acylcarnitine formation and reduced IMCL levels without alteration in glycolytic intermediate levels. Notably, these changes were accompanied by decreased acetyl-CoA content and enhanced mitochondrial pathways related to acetyl-CoA metabolism, such as the acetylcarnitine production and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Furthermore, ACC2-/- mice exhibited lower levels of IMCL and acetyl-CoA even under HFD conditions and showed protection against HFD-induced insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that ACC2 deletion leads to IMCL reduction without suppressing glucose utilization via an elevation in acetyl-CoA metabolism even under HFD conditions and offer new mechanistic insight into the therapeutic potential of ACC2 inhibition on insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - KG081694(United States)

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Sulfation Regulates Uterine Differentiation and Signaling During Embryo Implantation.

  • Yin Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To prepare for embryo implantation, the uterus must undergo a series of reciprocal interactions between the uterine epithelium and the underlying stroma, which are orchestrated by ovarian hormones. During this process, multiple signaling pathways are activated to direct cell proliferation and differentiation, which render the uterus receptive to the implanting blastocysts. One important modulator of these signaling pathways is the cell surface and extracellular matrix macromolecules, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs play crucial roles in signal transduction by regulating morphogen transport and ligand binding. In this study, we examine the role of HSPG sulfation in regulating uterine receptivity by conditionally deleting the N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) 1 gene (Ndst1) in the mouse uterus using the Pgr-Cre driver, on an Ndst2- and Ndst3-null genetic background. Although development of the female reproductive tract and subsequent ovarian function appear normal in Ndst triple-knockout females, they are infertile due to implantation defects. Embryo attachment appears to occur but the uterine epithelium at the site of implantation persists rather than disintegrates in the mutant. Uterine epithelial cells continued to proliferate past day 4 of pregnancy, accompanied by elevated Fgf2 and Fgf9 expression, whereas uterine stroma failed to undergo decidualization, as evidenced by lack of Bmp2 induction. Despite normal Indian hedgehog expression, transcripts of Ptch1 and Gli1, both components as well as targets of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, were detected only in the subepithelial stroma, indicating altered Hh signaling in the mutant uterus. Taken together, these data implicate an essential role for HSPGs in modulating signal transduction during mouse implantation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA031760(United States)

The Drosophila Immune Deficiency Pathway Modulates Enteroendocrine Function and Host Metabolism.

  • Kamareddine L
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are interspersed between enterocytes and stem cells in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium. Like enterocytes, EEs express components of the immune deficiency (IMD) innate immune pathway, which activates transcription of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides. The discovery of large lipid droplets in intestines of IMD pathway mutants prompted us to investigate the role of the IMD pathway in the host metabolic response to its intestinal microbiota. Here we provide evidence that the short-chain fatty acid acetate is a microbial metabolic signal that activates signaling through the enteroendocrine IMD pathway in a PGRP-LC-dependent manner. This, in turn, increases transcription of the gene encoding the endocrine peptide Tachykinin (Tk), which is essential for timely larval development and optimal lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. Our findings suggest innate immune pathways not only provide the first line of defense against infection but also afford the intestinal microbiota control over host development and metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI019018(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI071147()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI109436()

Phase I Trial: Cirmtuzumab Inhibits ROR1 Signaling and Stemness Signatures in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

  • Choi MY
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cirmtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets ROR1, an oncoembryonic orphan receptor for Wnt5a found on cancer stem cells (CSCs). Aberrant expression of ROR1 is seen in many malignancies and has been linked to Rho-GTPase activation and cancer stem cell self-renewal. For patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), self-renewing, neoplastic B cells express ROR1 in 95% of cases. High-level leukemia cell expression of ROR1 is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. We conducted a phase 1 study involving 26 patients with progressive, relapsed, or refractory CLL. Patients received four biweekly infusions, with doses ranging from 0.015 to 20 mg/kg. Cirmtuzumab had a long plasma half-life and did not have dose-limiting toxicity. Inhibition of ROR1 signaling was observed, including decreased activation of RhoA and HS1. Transcriptome analyses showed that therapy inhibited CLL stemness gene expression signatures in vivo. Cirmtuzumab is safe and effective at inhibiting tumor cell ROR1 signaling in patients with CLL.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01-AI47928(United States)

Cyclin A-cdk1-Dependent Phosphorylation of Bora Is the Triggering Factor Promoting Mitotic Entry.

  • Vigneron S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitosis is induced by the activation of the cyclin B/cdk1 feedback loop that creates a bistable state. The triggering factor promoting active cyclin B/cdk1 switch has been assigned to cyclin B/cdk1 accumulation during G2. However, this complex is rapidly inactivated by Wee1/Myt1-dependent phosphorylation of cdk1 making unlikely a triggering role of this kinase in mitotic commitment. Here we show that cyclin A/cdk1 kinase is the factor triggering mitosis. Cyclin A/cdk1 phosphorylates Bora to promote Aurora A-dependent Plk1 phosphorylation and activation and mitotic entry. We demonstrate that Bora phosphorylation by cyclin A/cdk1 is both necessary and sufficient for mitotic commitment. Finally, we identify a site in Bora whose phosphorylation by cyclin A/cdk1 is required for mitotic entry. We constructed a mathematical model confirming the essential role of this kinase in mitotic commitment. Overall, our results uncover the molecular mechanism by which cyclin A/cdk1 triggers mitotic entry.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM43893(United States)

The Mitochondrial-Encoded Peptide MOTS-c Translocates to the Nucleus to Regulate Nuclear Gene Expression in Response to Metabolic Stress.

  • Kim KH
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular homeostasis is coordinated through communication between mitochondria and the nucleus, organelles that each possess their own genomes. Whereas the mitochondrial genome is regulated by factors encoded in the nucleus, the nuclear genome is currently not known to be actively controlled by factors encoded in the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we show that MOTS-c, a peptide encoded in the mitochondrial genome, translocates to the nucleus and regulates nuclear gene expression following metabolic stress in a 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. In the nucleus, MOTS-c regulated a broad range of genes in response to glucose restriction, including those with antioxidant response elements (ARE), and interacted with ARE-regulating stress-responsive transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2/NRF2). Our findings indicate that the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes co-evolved to independently encode for factors to cross-regulate each other, suggesting that mitonuclear communication is genetically integrated.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK074310(United States)

Hypoxia negatively affects senescence in osteoclasts and delays osteoclastogenesis.

  • Gorissen B
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular senescence, that is, the withdrawal from the cell cycle, combined with the acquirement of the senescence associated secretory phenotype has important roles during health and disease and is essential for tissue remodeling during embryonic development. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells, responsible for bone resorption, and cell cycle arrest during osteoclastogenesis is well recognized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these cells should be considered senescent and to assess the influence of hypoxia on their potential senescence status. Osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption capacity of osteoclasts, cultured from CD14+ monocytes, were evaluated in two oxygen concentrations, normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). Osteoclasts were profiled by using specific staining for proliferation and senescence markers, qPCR of a number of osteoclast and senescence-related genes and a bone resorption assay. Results show that during in vitro osteoclastogenesis, osteoclasts heterogeneously obtain a senescent phenotype. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis was delayed at hypoxic compared to normoxic conditions, without negatively affecting the bone resorption capacity. It is concluded that osteoclasts can be considered senescent, although senescence is not uniformly present in the osteoclast population. Hypoxia negatively affects the expression of some senescence markers. Based on the direct relationship between senescence and osteoclastogenesis, it is tempting to hypothesize that contents of the so-called senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) not only play a functional role in matrix resorption, but also may regulate osteoclastogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM036373(United States)

Time-dependent expression pattern of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and soluble epoxide hydrolase in normal human placenta.

  • Cizkova K
  • Acta Histochem.
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

CYP2C and CYP2 J enzymes, commonly named as cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases, convert arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), biologically active eicosanoids with many functions in organism. EETs are rapidly hydrolysed to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We investigated spatio-temporal expression pattern of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2 J2 and sEH in normal human placenta by immunohistochemical method. In the villous trophoblast, CYP2C8 was the most abundant protein. Its expression is higher than the CYP2C9 and CYP2 J2 in the cytotrophoblast in the embryonic stage of development and remains higher in syncytiotrophoblast of term placenta. Unlike to CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2 J2 expression decrease in term placenta. sEH expression increases with gestation age and is strictly limited to cytotrophoblast in embryonic and foetal stages of the development. Moreover, CYP2C8 shows more intensive staining than the other protein monitored in Hofbauer cells in villous stroma. Specific information regarding the exact role of EETs and DHETs functions in a normal placenta is still unknown. Based on CYP epoxygenases and sEH localization and well known information about the functions of placental structures during development, we suggest that these enzymes could play different roles in various cell populations in the placenta. As the placenta is absolutely crucial for prenatal development, arachidonic acid is essential part of human nutrient and CYP epoxygenases expression can be affected by xenobiotics, further investigation of the exact role of CYP epoxygenases, sEH, and their metabolites in normal pregnancy and under pathological conditions is needed.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I003142/1(United Kingdom)

Evidence for generative homology of cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures in an elasmobranch fish based on Pax6, Cbln1 and Grid2 expression.

  • Suriano CM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The majority of neurons in the mammalian brain reside within the cerebellum (Cb). Yet, the evolutionary origins of the Cb are not well understood. There are several sensory nuclei present across vertebrate phylogeny collectively termed cerebellum-like structures (CbLS) due to a shared anatomy and physiology with the Cb. Despite the similarities, the CbLS are clearly not phylogenetically homologous with the Cb. Common structure and function may arise due to a shared genetic and developmental toolkit. To examine this possibility, we used sequence analysis, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR to test for the expression of three genes that are critical for mammalian cerebellar development in the Cb and CbLS of an elasmobranch fish, Leucoraja erinacea. In the mammalian Cb, Pax6 is necessary for parallel fiber development, while Cbln1 and Grid2 code for proteins necessary for parallel fiber-principal cell synaptogenesis. Pax6 and Cbln1 are expressed by granule cells in the Cb and CbLS of the adult skate and stage 31 embryo. Grid2 is expressed by principal cells in the Cb and CbLS of the adult and stage 31 embryo. RT-qPCR showed this expression is spatially and temporally restricted to the Cb and CbLS. If Pax6, Cbln1 and Grid2 perform the same functions in the skate Cb and CbLS as they do in the mammalian Cb, then these structures may develop using a shared genetic toolkit and be considered generatively homologous. It is possible that the evolutionary genesis of the Cb was the result of duplication or expansion of the cerebellum-like developmental toolkit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103414-10(United States)

Endogenous, regulatory cysteine sulfenylation of ERK kinases in response to proliferative signals.

  • Keyes JD
  • Free Radic. Biol. Med.
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

ERK-dependent signaling is key to many pathways through which extracellular signals are transduced into cell-fate decisions. One conundrum is the way in which disparate signals induce specific responses through a common, ERK-dependent kinase cascade. While studies have revealed intricate ways of controlling ERK signaling through spatiotemporal localization and phosphorylation dynamics, additional modes of ERK regulation undoubtedly remain to be discovered. We hypothesized that fine-tuning of ERK signaling could occur by cysteine oxidation. We report that ERK is actively and directly oxidized by signal-generated H2O2 during proliferative signaling, and that ERK oxidation occurs downstream of a variety of receptor classes tested in four cell lines. Furthermore, within the tested cell lines and proliferative signals, we observed that both activation loop-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated ERK undergo sulfenylation in cells and that dynamics of ERK sulfenylation is dependent on the cell growth conditions prior to stimulation. We also tested the effect of endogenous ERK oxidation on kinase activity and report that phosphotransfer reactions are reversibly inhibited by oxidation by as much as 80-90%, underscoring the importance of considering this additional modification when assessing ERK activation in response to extracellular signals.

SOD1 Phosphorylation by mTORC1 Couples Nutrient Sensing and Redox Regulation.

  • Tsang CK
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nutrients are not only organic compounds fueling bioenergetics and biosynthesis, but also key chemical signals controlling growth and metabolism. Nutrients enormously impact the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play essential roles in normal physiology and diseases. How nutrient signaling is integrated with redox regulation is an interesting, but not fully understood, question. Herein, we report that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a conserved component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient signaling. mTORC1 regulates SOD1 activity through reversible phosphorylation at S39 in yeast and T40 in humans in response to nutrients, which moderates ROS level and prevents oxidative DNA damage. We further show that SOD1 activation enhances cancer cell survival and tumor formation in the ischemic tumor microenvironment and protects against the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Collectively, these findings identify a conserved mechanism by which eukaryotes dynamically regulate redox homeostasis in response to changing nutrient conditions.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Science Fund FWF - P 21643(Austria)

Unbiased Combinatorial Screening Identifies a Bispecific IgG1 that Potently Inhibits HER3 Signaling via HER2-Guided Ligand Blockade.

  • Geuijen CAW
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

HER2-driven cancers require phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling through HER3 to promote tumor growth and survival. The therapeutic benefit of HER2-targeting agents, which depend on PI3K/Akt inhibition, can be overcome by hyperactivation of the heregulin (HRG)/HER3 pathway. Here we describe an unbiased phenotypic combinatorial screening approach to identify a bispecific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody against HER2 and HER3. In tumor models resistant to HER2-targeting agents, the bispecific IgG1 potently inhibits the HRG/HER3 pathway and downstream PI3K/Akt signaling via a "dock & block" mechanism. This bispecific IgG1 is a potentially effective therapy for breast cancer and other tumors with hyperactivated HRG/HER3 signaling.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Helicobacter pylori Infection Modulates Host Cell Metabolism through VacA-Dependent Inhibition of mTORC1.

  • Kim IJ
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a bacterial exotoxin that enters host cells and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the extent to which VacA-dependent mitochondrial perturbations affect overall cellular metabolism is poorly understood. We report that VacA perturbations in mitochondria are linked to alterations in cellular amino acid homeostasis, which results in the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and subsequent autophagy. mTORC1, which regulates cellular metabolism during nutrient stress, is inhibited during Hp infection by a VacA-dependent mechanism. This VacA-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling is linked to the dissociation of mTORC1 from the lysosomal surface and results in activation of cellular autophagy through the Unc 51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) complex. VacA intoxication results in reduced cellular amino acids, and bolstering amino acid pools prevents VacA-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Overall, these studies support a model that Hp modulate host cell metabolism through the action of VacA at mitochondria.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI045928()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI117497()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI106772(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM089771()

Protein kinase Cι/λ is dispensable for platelet function in thrombosis and hemostasis in mice.

  • Beck S
  • Cell. Signal.
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury is crucial for hemostasis, but it may also cause myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Upon platelet activation, cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for platelet secretion and thrombus formation. Members of the protein kinase C family, which includes 12 isoforms, are involved in most platelet responses required for thrombus formation. The atypical protein kinase Cι/λ (PKCι/λ) has been implicated as an important mediator of cell polarity, carcinogenesis and immune cell responses. PKCι/λ is known to be associated with the small GTPase Cdc42, an important mediator of multiple platelet functions; however, its exact function in platelets is not known. To study the role of PKCι/λ, we generated platelet- and megakaryocyte-specific PKCι/λ knockout mice (Prkcifl/fl, Pf4-Cre) and used them to investigate the function of PKCι/λ in platelet activation and aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, lack of PKCι/λ had no detectable effect on platelet spreading and function in vitro and in vivo under all tested conditions. These results indicate that PKCι/λ is dispensable for Cdc42-triggered processes and for thrombosis and hemostasis in mice.

Novel RNA-Affinity Proteogenomics Dissects Tumor Heterogeneity for Revealing Personalized Markers in Precision Prognosis of Cancer.

  • Wang L
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

To discriminate the patient subpopulations with different clinical outcomes within each breast cancer (BC) subtype, we introduce a robust, clinical-practical, activity-based proteogenomic method that identifies, in their oncogenically active states, candidate biomarker genes bearing patient-specific transcriptomic/genomic alterations of prognostic value. First, we used the intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) probes to sort ISE-interacting trans-acting protein factors (trans-interactome) directly from a tumor tissue for subsequent mass spectrometry characterization. In the retrospective, proteogenomic analysis of patient datasets, we identified those ISE trans-factor-encoding genes showing interaction-correlated expression patterns (iCEPs) as new BC-subtypic genes. Further, patient-specific co-alterations in mRNA expression of select iCEP genes distinguished high-risk patient subsets/subpopulations from other patients within a single BC subtype. Function analysis further validated a tumor-phenotypic trans-interactome contained the drivers of oncogenic splicing switches, representing the predominant tumor cells in a tissue, from which novel personalized biomarkers were clinically characterized/validated for precise prognostic prediction and subsequent individualized alignment of optimal therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA160351()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA179992(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211732()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA223675()

PCYT1A Regulates Phosphatidylcholine Homeostasis from the Inner Nuclear Membrane in Response to Membrane Stored Curvature Elastic Stress.

  • Haider A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell and organelle membranes consist of a complex mixture of phospholipids (PLs) that determine their size, shape, and function. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes, yet how cells sense and regulate its levels in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that PCYT1A, the rate-limiting enzyme of PC synthesis, is intranuclear and re-locates to the nuclear membrane in response to the need for membrane PL synthesis in yeast, fly, and mammalian cells. By aligning imaging with lipidomic analysis and data-driven modeling, we demonstrate that yeast PCYT1A membrane association correlates with membrane stored curvature elastic stress estimates. Furthermore, this process occurs inside the nucleus, although nuclear localization signal mutants can compensate for the loss of endogenous PCYT1A in yeast and in fly photoreceptors. These data suggest an ancient mechanism by which nucleoplasmic PCYT1A senses surface PL packing defects on the inner nuclear membrane to control PC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-312268(Canada)

Overcoming Resistance to Targeted Anticancer Therapies through Small-Molecule-Mediated MEK Degradation.

  • Peh J
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The discovery of mutant or fusion kinases that drive oncogenesis, and the subsequent approval of specific inhibitors for these enzymes, has been instrumental in the management of some cancers. However, acquired resistance remains a significant problem in the clinic, limiting the long-term effectiveness of most of these drugs. Here we demonstrate a general strategy to overcome this resistance through drug-induced MEK cleavage (via direct procaspase-3 activation) combined with targeted kinase inhibition. This combination effect is shown to be general across diverse tumor histologies (melanoma, lung cancer, and leukemia) and driver mutations (mutant BRAF or EGFR, fusion kinases EML4-ALK and BCR-ABL). Caspase-3-mediated degradation of MEK kinases results in sustained pathway inhibition and substantially delayed or eliminated resistance in cancer cells in a manner far superior to combinations with MEK inhibitors. These data suggest the generality of drug-mediated MEK kinase cleavage as a therapeutic strategy to prevent resistance to targeted anticancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA120439()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01-AI043356(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM070421()

Semisynthetic biosensors for mapping cellular concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides.

  • Sallin O
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

We introduce a new class of semisynthetic fluorescent biosensors for the quantification of free nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and ratios of reduced to oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH/NADP+) in live cells. Sensing is based on controlling the spatial proximity of two synthetic fluorophores by binding of NAD(P) to the protein component of the sensor. The sensors possess a large dynamic range, can be excited at long wavelengths, are pH-insensitive, have tunable response range and can be localized in different organelles. Ratios of free NADPH/NADP+ are found to be higher in mitochondria compared to those found in the nucleus and the cytosol. By recording free NADPH/NADP+ ratios in response to changes in environmental conditions, we observe how cells can react to such changes by adapting metabolic fluxes. Finally, we demonstrate how a comparison of the effect of drugs on cellular NAD(P) levels can be used to probe mechanisms of action.

Funding information:
  • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - Institutional support and open-access funding()
  • Max-Planck-Gesellschaft - Institutional support and open-access funding()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS081830(United States)

Synaptic protein changes after a chronic period of sensorimotor perturbation in adult rats: a potential role of phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay.

  • Fourneau J
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

In human, a chronic sensorimotor perturbation (SMP) through prolonged body immobilization alters motor task performance through a combination of peripheral and central factors. Studies performed on a rat model of SMP have shown biomolecular changes and a reorganization of sensorimotor cortex through events such as morphological modifications of dendritic spines (number, length, functionality). However, underlying mechanisms are still unclear. It is well known that phosphorylation regulates a wide field of synaptic activity leading to neuroplasticity. Another post-translational modification that interplays with phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation. This atypical glycosylation, reversible and dynamic, is involved in essential cellular and physiological processes such as synaptic activity, neuronal morphogenesis, learning and memory. We examined potential roles of phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay in synaptic plasticity within rat sensorimotor cortex after a SMP period. For this purpose, sensorimotor cortex synaptosomes were separated by sucrose gradient, in order to isolate a subcellular compartment enriched in proteins involved in synaptic functions. A period of SMP induced plastic changes at the pre- and postsynaptic levels, characterized by a reduction of phosphorylation (synapsin1, AMPAR GluA2) and expression (synaptophysin, PSD-95, AMPAR GluA2) of synaptic proteins, as well as a decrease in MAPK/ERK42 activation. Expression levels of OGT/OGA enzymes was unchanged but we observed a specific reduction of synapsin1 O-GlcNAcylation in sensorimotor cortex synaptosomes. The synergistic regulation of synapsin1 phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation could affect presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Associated with other pre- and postsynaptic changes, synaptic efficacy could be impaired in somatosensory cortex of SMP rat. Thus, synapsin1 O-GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation interplay also appears to be involved in this synaptic plasticity by finely regulating neural activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI043363(United States)

VEGF signaling regulates the fate of obstructed capillaries in mouse cortex.

  • Reeson P
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical capillaries are prone to obstruction, which over time, could have a major impact on brain angioarchitecture and function. The mechanisms that govern the removal of these obstructions and what long-term fate awaits obstructed capillaries, remains a mystery. We estimate that ~0.12% of mouse cortical capillaries are obstructed each day (lasting >20 min), preferentially in superficial layers and lower order branches. Tracking natural or microsphere-induced obstructions revealed that 75-80% of capillaries recanalized within 24 hr. Remarkably, 30% of all obstructed capillaries were pruned by 21 days, including some that had regained flow. Pruning involved regression of endothelial cells, which was not compensated for by sprouting. Using this information, we predicted capillary loss with aging that closely matched experimental estimates. Genetic knockdown or inhibition of VEGF-R2 signaling was a critical factor in promoting capillary recanalization and minimizing subsequent pruning. Our studies reveal the incidence, mechanism and long-term outcome of capillary obstructions which can also explain age-related capillary rarefaction.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DP2 DK083052(United States)

Impairing L-Threonine Catabolism Promotes Healthspan through Methylglyoxal-Mediated Proteohormesis.

  • Ravichandran M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Whether and how regulation of genes and pathways contributes to physiological aging is topic of intense scientific debate. By performing an RNA expression-based screen for genes downregulated during aging of three different species, we identified glycine-C-acetyltransferase (GCAT, EC 2.3.1.29). Impairing gcat expression promotes the lifespan of C. elegans by interfering with threonine catabolism to promote methylglyoxal (MGO; CAS 78-98-8) formation in an amine oxidase-dependent manner. MGO is a reactive dicarbonyl inducing diabetic complications in mammals by causing oxidative stress and damaging cellular components, including proteins. While high concentrations of MGO consistently exert toxicity in nematodes, we unexpectedly find that low-dose MGO promotes lifespan, resembling key mediators of gcat impairment. These were executed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, namely PBS-3 and RPN-6.1 subunits, regulated by the stress-responsive transcriptional regulators SKN-1/NRF2 and HSF-1. Taken together, GCAT acts as an evolutionary conserved aging-related gene by orchestrating an unexpected nonlinear impact of proteotoxic MGO on longevity.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM-060575(United States)

Dimerization of the Pragmin Pseudo-Kinase Regulates Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation.

  • Lecointre C
  • Structure
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pseudo-kinase and signaling protein Pragmin has been linked to cancer by regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation via unknown mechanisms. Here we present the crystal structure of the Pragmin 906-1,368 amino acid C terminus, which encompasses its kinase domain. We show that Pragmin contains a classical protein-kinase fold devoid of catalytic activity, despite a conserved catalytic lysine (K997). By proteomics, we discovered that this pseudo-kinase uses the tyrosine kinase CSK to induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells. Interestingly, the protein-kinase domain is flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions forming an original dimerization domain that regulates Pragmin self-association and stimulates CSK activity. A1329E mutation in the C-terminal extension destabilizes Pragmin dimerization and reduces CSK activation. These results reveal a dimerization mechanism by which a pseudo-kinase can induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Further sequence-structure analysis identified an additional member (C19orf35) of the superfamily of dimeric Pragmin/SgK269/PEAK1 pseudo-kinases.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM089763(United States)

Mechanism of Allosteric Coupling into and through the Plasma Membrane by EGFR.

  • Sinclair JKL
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts through its extracellular domain with seven different growth factors. These factors induce different structures within the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane (JM) segment of the dimeric receptor and propagate different growth factor-dependent signals to the cell interior. How this process occurs is unknown. Here we apply diverse experimental and computational tools to show that growth factor identity is encoded by the EGFR transmembrane (TM) helix into discrete helix dimer populations that differ in both cross-location and cross-angle. Helix dimers with smaller cross-angles at multiple cross locations are decoded to induce an EGF-type coiled coil in the adjacent JM, whereas helix dimers with larger cross-angles at fewer cross locations induce the TGF-α-type coiled coil. We propose an updated model for how conformational coupling across multiple EGFR domains results in growth factor-specific information transfer, and demonstrate that this model applies to both EGFR and the related receptor ErbB2.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K22AI071011(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM083257()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008283()

Mitochondria Bound to Lipid Droplets Have Unique Bioenergetics, Composition, and Dynamics that Support Lipid Droplet Expansion.

  • Benador IY
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondria associate with lipid droplets (LDs) in fat-oxidizing tissues, but the functional role of these peridroplet mitochondria (PDM) is unknown. Microscopic observation of interscapular brown adipose tissue reveals that PDM have unique protein composition and cristae structure and remain adherent to the LD in the tissue homogenate. We developed an approach to isolate PDM based on their adherence to LDs. Comparison of purified PDM to cytoplasmic mitochondria reveals that (1) PDM have increased pyruvate oxidation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis capacities; (2) PDM have reduced β-oxidation capacity and depart from LDs upon activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and β-oxidation; (3) PDM support LD expansion as Perilipin5-induced recruitment of mitochondria to LDs increases ATP synthase-dependent triacylglyceride synthesis; and (4) PDM maintain a distinct protein composition due to uniquely low fusion-fission dynamics. We conclude that PDM represent a segregated mitochondrial population with unique structure and function that supports triacylglyceride synthesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA118116(United States)

Listeria Adhesion Protein Induces Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction for Bacterial Translocation.

  • Drolia R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intestinal epithelial cells are the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, yet bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can breach this barrier. We show that Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction to promote bacterial translocation. These disruptions are attributed to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which is observed in mice challenged with WT and isogenic strains lacking the surface invasion protein Internalin A (ΔinlA), but not a lap- mutant. Additionally, upon engagement of its surface receptor Hsp60, LAP activates canonical NF-κB signaling, facilitating myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)-mediated opening of the epithelial barrier via cellular redistribution of the epithelial junctional proteins claudin-1, occludin, and E-cadherin. Pharmacological inhibition of MLCK or NF-κB in cells or genetic ablation of MLCK in mice prevents mislocalization of junctional proteins and L. monocytogenes translocation. Thus, L. monocytogenes uses LAP to exploit epithelial defenses and cross the intestinal epithelial barrier.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - HD043569(United States)

The GABAA Receptor α2 Subunit Activates a Neuronal TLR4 Signal in the Ventral Tegmental Area that Regulates Alcohol and Nicotine Abuse.

  • Balan I
  • Brain Sci
  • 2018 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation. However, the mechanism of signal activation, its function in dopaminergic (TH+) neurons within the reward circuitry implicated in drug-seeking behavior [viz. the ventral tegmental area (VTA)], and its contribution to nicotine co-abuse are still poorly understood. We report that the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) α2 subunit activates the TLR4 signal in neurons, culminating in the activation (phosphorylation/nuclear translocation) of cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) but not NF-kB transcription factors and the upregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The signal is activated through α2/TLR4 interaction, as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation, and it is present in the VTA from drug-untreated alcohol-preferring P rats. VTA infusion of neurotropic herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors for α2 (pHSVsiLA2) or TLR4 (pHSVsiTLR4) but not scrambled (pHSVsiNC) siRNA inhibits signal activation and both binge alcohol drinking and nicotine sensitization, suggesting that the α2-activated TLR4 signal contributes to the regulation of both alcohol and nicotine abuse.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL085061(United States)

Dysregulated IL-18 Is a Key Driver of Immunosuppression and a Possible Therapeutic Target in the Multiple Myeloma Microenvironment.

  • Nakamura K
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor-promoting inflammation and avoiding immune destruction are hallmarks of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is critically involved in these hallmarks in multiple myeloma (MM). Mice deficient for IL-18 were remarkably protected from Vk∗MYC MM progression in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. The MM-niche-derived IL-18 drove generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), leading to accelerated disease progression. A global transcriptome analysis of the immune microenvironment in 73 MM patients strongly supported the negative impact of IL-18-driven MDSCs on T cell responses. Strikingly, high levels of bone marrow plasma IL-18 were associated with poor overall survival in MM patients. Furthermore, our preclinical studies suggested that IL-18 could be a potential therapeutic target in MM.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR026314(United States)

Active Protection: Learning-Activated Raf/MAPK Activity Protects Labile Memory from Rac1-Independent Forgetting.

  • Zhang X
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation. Such experience-induced forgetting cannot be prevented by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Instead, protection of Rac1-independent forgetting correlates with non-muscle myosin II activity and persistence of learning-induced presynaptic structural changes. Increased Raf/MAPK activity, together with suppressed Rac1 activity, completely blocks labile memory decay. Thus, learning not only leads to memory formation, but also activates active protection and active forgetting to regulate the formed memory.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA107349-03(United States)

Tumor-Repopulating Cells Induce PD-1 Expression in CD8+ T Cells by Transferring Kynurenine and AhR Activation.

  • Liu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the clinical successes fostered by immune checkpoint inhibitors, mechanisms underlying PD-1 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating T cells remain an enigma. Here, we show that tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) drive PD-1 upregulation in CD8+ T cells through a transcellular kynurenine (Kyn)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Interferon-γ produced by CD8+ T cells stimulates release of high levels of Kyn produced by TRCs, which is transferred into adjacent CD8+ T cells via the transporters SLC7A8 and PAT4. Kyn induces and activates AhR and thereby upregulates PD-1 expression. This Kyn-AhR pathway is confirmed in both tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients and its blockade enhances antitumor adoptive T cell therapy efficacy. Thus, we uncovered a mechanism of PD-1 upregulation with potential tumor immunotherapeutic applications.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK076443(United States)

Genome-Scale Signatures of Gene Interaction from Compound Screens Predict Clinical Efficacy of Targeted Cancer Therapies.

  • Jiang P
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Identifying reliable drug response biomarkers is a significant challenge in cancer research. We present computational analysis of resistance (CARE), a computational method focused on targeted therapies, to infer genome-wide transcriptomic signatures of drug efficacy from cell line compound screens. CARE outputs genome-scale scores to measure how the drug target gene interacts with other genes to affect the inhibitor efficacy in the compound screens. Such statistical interactions between drug targets and other genes were not considered in previous studies but are critical in identifying predictive biomarkers. When evaluated using transcriptome data from clinical studies, CARE can predict the therapy outcome better than signatures from other computational methods and genomics experiments. Moreover, the CARE signatures for the PLX4720 BRAF inhibitor are associated with an anti-programmed death 1 clinical response, suggesting a common efficacy signature between a targeted therapy and immunotherapy. When searching for genes related to lapatinib resistance, CARE identified PRKD3 as the top candidate. PRKD3 inhibition, by both small interfering RNA and compounds, significantly sensitized breast cancer cells to lapatinib. Thus, CARE should enable large-scale inference of response biomarkers and drug combinations for targeted therapies using compound screen data.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA119070()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA180980()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK081587(United States)

CRISPR/Cas9‒Mediated Tspo Gene Mutations Lead to Reduced Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Steroid Formation in MA-10 Mouse Tumor Leydig Cells.

  • Fan J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (TSPO) binds cholesterol with high affinity and is involved in mediating its delivery into mitochondria, the rate-limiting step in hormone-induced steroidogenesis. Specific ligand binding to TSPO has been shown to initiate steroid formation. However, recent studies of the genetic deletion of Tspo have provided conflicting results. Here, we address and extend previous studies by examining the effects of Tspo-specific mutations on steroid formation in hormone- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive MA-10 cells, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two mutant subcell lines, nG1 and G2G, each carrying a Tspo exon2-specific genome modification, and two control subcell lines, G1 and HH, each carrying a wild-type Tspo, were produced. In response to dibutyryl cAMP, the nG1 and G2G cells produced progesterone at levels significantly lower than those produced by the corresponding control cells G1 and HH. Neutral lipid homeostasis, which provides free cholesterol for steroid biosynthesis, was altered significantly in the Tspo mutant cells. Interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the Tspo mutant cells was significantly reduced compared with that of the control cells, likely because of TSPO interactions with the voltage-dependent anion channel and tubulin at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression was induced in nG1 cells, suggesting that reduced TSPO affected STAR synthesis and/or processing. Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the critical role of TSPO in steroid biosynthesis and suggest that it may function at least in part via its regulation of ΔΨm and effects on STAR.

Funding information:
  • CIHR - MOP125983 ()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U19 CA-85953(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG051259()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG021092()

mTOR-dependent alterations of Kv1.1 subunit expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout mouse model of cortical dysplasia with epilepsy.

  • Nguyen LH
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause for intractable epilepsy. Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in CD; however, the mechanisms by which mTOR hyperactivation contribute to the epilepsy phenotype remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether constitutive mTOR hyperactivation in the hippocampus is associated with altered voltage-gated ion channel expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout (NS-Pten KO) mouse model of CD with epilepsy. We found that the protein levels of Kv1.1, but not Kv1.2, Kv1.4, or Kvβ2, potassium channel subunits were increased, along with altered Kv1.1 distribution, within the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice. The aberrant Kv1.1 protein levels were present in young adult (≥postnatal week 6) but not juvenile (≤postnatal week 4) NS-Pten KO mice. No changes in hippocampal Kv1.1 mRNA levels were found between NS-Pten KO and WT mice. Interestingly, mTOR inhibition with rapamycin treatment at early and late stages of the pathology normalized Kv1.1 protein levels in NS-Pten KO mice to WT levels. Together, these studies demonstrate altered Kv1.1 protein expression in association with mTOR hyperactivation in NS-Pten KO mice and suggest a role for mTOR signaling in the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel expression in this model.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI067979(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081053()

Overlapping Role of SCYL1 and SCYL3 in Maintaining Motor Neuron Viability.

  • Kuliyev E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Members of the SCY1-like (SCYL) family of protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed proteins characterized by an N-terminal pseudokinase domain, centrally located HEAT repeats, and an overall disorganized C-terminal segment. In mammals, 3 family members encoded by genes Scyl1, Scyl2, and Scyl3 have been described. Studies have pointed to a role for SCYL1 and SCYL2 in regulating neuronal function and viability in mice and humans, but little is known about the biological function of SCYL3. Here, we show that the biochemical and cell biological properties of SCYL3 are similar to those of SCYL1 and both proteins work in conjunction to maintain motor neuron viability. Specifically, although lack of Scyl3 in mice has no apparent effect on embryogenesis and postnatal life, it accelerates the onset of the motor neuron disorder caused by Scyl1 deficiency. Growth abnormalities, motor dysfunction, hindlimb paralysis, muscle wasting, neurogenic atrophy, motor neuron degeneration, and loss of large-caliber axons in peripheral nerves occurred at an earlier age in Scyl1/Scyl3 double-deficient mice than in Scyl1-deficient mice. Disease onset also correlated with the mislocalization of TDP-43 in spinal motor neurons, suggesting that SCYL1 and SCYL3 regulate TDP-43 proteostasis. Together, our results demonstrate an overlapping role for SCYL1 and SCYL3 in vivo and highlight the importance the SCYL family of proteins in regulating neuronal function and survival. Only male mice were used in this study.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTSCYL1 and SCYL2, members of the SCY1-like family of pseudokinases, have well-established roles in neuronal function. Herein, we uncover the role of SCYL3 in maintaining motor neuron viability. Although targeted disruption of Scyl3 in mice had little or no effect on embryonic development and postnatal life, it accelerated disease onset associated with the loss of Scyl1, a novel motor neuron disease gene in humans. Scyl1 and Scyl3 double-deficient mice had neuronal defects characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including TDP-43 pathology, at an earlier age than did Scyl1-deficient mice. Thus, we show that SCYL1 and SCYL3 play overlapping roles in maintaining motor neuronal viability in vivo and confirm that SCYL family members are critical regulators of neuronal function and survival.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA093459(United States)

Mitochondrial MDM2 Regulates Respiratory Complex I Activity Independently of p53.

  • Arena G
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Accumulating evidence indicates that the MDM2 oncoprotein promotes tumorigenesis beyond its canonical negative effects on the p53 tumor suppressor, but these p53-independent functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a fraction of endogenous MDM2 is actively imported in mitochondria to control respiration and mitochondrial dynamics independently of p53. Mitochondrial MDM2 represses the transcription of NADH-dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) in vitro and in vivo, impinging on respiratory complex I activity and enhancing mitochondrial ROS production. Recruitment of MDM2 to mitochondria increases during oxidative stress and hypoxia. Accordingly, mice lacking MDM2 in skeletal muscles exhibit higher MT-ND6 levels, enhanced complex I activity, and increased muscular endurance in mild hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, increased mitochondrial MDM2 levels enhance the migratory and invasive properties of cancer cells. Collectively, these data uncover a previously unsuspected function of the MDM2 oncoprotein in mitochondria that play critical roles in skeletal muscle physiology and may contribute to tumor progression.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG007233-01(United States)

The Polyploid State Plays a Tumor-Suppressive Role in the Liver.

  • Zhang S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most cells in the liver are polyploid, but the functional role of polyploidy is unknown. Polyploidization occurs through cytokinesis failure and endoreduplication around the time of weaning. To interrogate polyploidy while avoiding irreversible manipulations of essential cell-cycle genes, we developed orthogonal mouse models to transiently and potently alter liver ploidy. Premature weaning, as well as knockdown of E2f8 or Anln, allowed us to toggle between diploid and polyploid states. While there was no detectable impact of ploidy alterations on liver function, metabolism, or regeneration, mice with more polyploid hepatocytes suppressed tumorigenesis and mice with more diploid hepatocytes accelerated tumorigenesis in mutagen- and high-fat-induced models. Mechanistically, the diploid state was more susceptible to Cas9-mediated tumor-suppressor loss but was similarly susceptible to MYC oncogene activation, indicating that polyploidy differentially protected the liver from distinct genomic aberrations. This suggests that polyploidy evolved in part to prevent malignant outcomes of liver injury.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA190525()

KRAS Dimerization Impacts MEK Inhibitor Sensitivity and Oncogenic Activity of Mutant KRAS.

  • Ambrogio C
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism by which the wild-type KRAS allele imparts a growth inhibitory effect to oncogenic KRAS in various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), is poorly understood. Here, using a genetically inducible model of KRAS loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we show that KRAS dimerization mediates wild-type KRAS-dependent fitness of human and murine KRAS mutant LUAD tumor cells and underlies resistance to MEK inhibition. These effects are abrogated when wild-type KRAS is replaced by KRASD154Q, a mutant that disrupts dimerization at the α4-α5 KRAS dimer interface without changing other fundamental biochemical properties of KRAS, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, dimerization has a critical role in the oncogenic activity of mutant KRAS. Our studies provide mechanistic and biological insights into the role of KRAS dimerization and highlight a role for disruption of dimerization as a therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant cancers.

Activity in the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is Necessary for the Therapeutic Effects of Extinction in Rats.

  • Fucich EA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects. The inhibitory Gi-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug CaMKIIα-hM4Di was expressed in vmPFC before administering chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). vmPFC projection neurons were then inhibited during extinction treatment by administering clozapine-N-oxide. Coping behavior and cognitive flexibility were assessed 24 h later on the shock-probe defensive burying test and attentional set-shifting test, respectively. Replicating previous results, extinction reversed the CUS-induced deficits in coping behavior and cognitive flexibility. Inhibiting vmPFC during extinction blocked these therapeutic effects. Further, increasing vmPFC activity with the excitatory Gq-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug hM3Dq 24 h before testing was sufficient to reverse the CUS-induced deficits. CUS reduced mPFC responsivity, assessed by measuring afferent-evoked field potentials in the mPFC, and this reduction was reversed by extinction treatment 24 h before testing. These results demonstrate the necessity of vmPFC activity in the therapeutic effects of extinction as a model of exposure therapy, and suggest that increased vmPFC activity induced by extinction is sufficient to produce lasting plastic changes that underlie its beneficial effects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress-related psychiatric disorders remain poorly treated. Psychotherapies can be effective, but their mechanisms remain unknown, hindering progress toward improved treatment. We used a rat model of behavioral therapy to identify potential targets for enhancing treatment. Fear extinction as a therapeutic behavioral intervention reversed stress-induced cognitive dysfunction and passive coping in rats, modeling components of stress-related psychiatric disease. Extinction also reversed stress-induced attenuation of mPFC responsivity. The therapeutic effects were prevented by blocking activity of glutamatergic neurons in the mPFC during extinction, and were mimicked by inducing activity in lieu of extinction. Thus, activity and plasticity in the mPFC underlie the beneficial effects of extinction on cognitive flexibility and coping behavior compromised by stress, and could be targets to enhance behavioral therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA118750(United States)

Derivation of Human Trophoblast Stem Cells.

  • Okae H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Trophoblast cells play an essential role in the interactions between the fetus and mother. Mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells have been derived and used as the best in vitro model for molecular and functional analysis of mouse trophoblast lineages, but attempts to derive human TS cells have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that activation of Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and EGF and inhibition of TGF-β, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) enable long-term culture of human villous cytotrophoblast (CT) cells. The resulting cell lines have the capacity to give rise to the three major trophoblast lineages, which show transcriptomes similar to those of the corresponding primary trophoblast cells. Importantly, equivalent cell lines can be derived from human blastocysts. Our data strongly suggest that the CT- and blastocyst-derived cell lines are human TS cells, which will provide a powerful tool to study human trophoblast development and function.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA132977(United States)

MicroRNA501-5p induces p53 proteasome degradation through the activation of the mTOR/MDM2 pathway in ADPKD cells.

  • de Stephanis L
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 Jan 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell proliferation and apoptosis are typical hallmarks of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and cause the development of kidney cysts that lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Many factors, impaired by polycystin complex loss of function, may promote these biological processes, including cAMP, mTOR, and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, microRNAs (miRs) may also regulate the ADPKD related signaling network and their dysregulation contributes to disease progression. However, the role of miRs in ADPKD pathogenesis has not been fully understood, but also the function of p53 is quite obscure, especially its regulatory contribution on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we describe for the first time that miR501-5p, upregulated in ADPKD cells and tissues, induces the activation of mTOR kinase by PTEN and TSC1 gene repression. The increased activity of mTOR kinase enhances the expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 that in turn promotes p53 ubiquitination, leading to its degradation by proteasome machinery in a network involving p70S6K. Moreover, the overexpression of miR501-5p stimulates cell proliferation in kidney cells by the inhibition of p53 function in a mechanism driven by mTOR signaling. In fact, the downregulation of this miR as well as the pharmacological treatment with proteasome and mTOR inhibitors in ADPKD cells reduces cell growth by the activation of apoptosis. Consequently, the stimulation of cell death in ADPKD cells may occur through the inhibition of mTOR/MDM2 signaling and the restoring of p53 function. The data presented here confirm that the impaired mTOR signaling plays an important role in ADPKD.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1R01AI075077-01A1(United States)

Direct In Vivo Reprogramming with Sendai Virus Vectors Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction.

  • Miyamoto K
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Direct cardiac reprogramming holds great promise for regenerative medicine. We previously generated directly reprogrammed induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) using retrovirus vectors. However, integrating vectors pose risks associated with insertional mutagenesis and disruption of gene expression and are inefficient. Here, we show that Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing cardiac reprogramming factors efficiently and rapidly reprogram both mouse and human fibroblasts into integration-free iCMs via robust transgene expression. SeV-GMT generated 100-fold more beating iCMs than retroviral-GMT and shortened the duration to induce beating cells from 30 to 10 days in mouse fibroblasts. In vivo lineage tracing revealed that the gene transfer of SeV-GMT was more efficient than retroviral-GMT in reprogramming resident cardiac fibroblasts into iCMs in mouse infarct hearts. Moreover, SeV-GMT improved cardiac function and reduced fibrosis after myocardial infarction. Thus, efficient, non-integrating SeV vectors may serve as a powerful system for cardiac regeneration.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Brown Fat AKT2 Is a Cold-Induced Kinase that Stimulates ChREBP-Mediated De Novo Lipogenesis to Optimize Fuel Storage and Thermogenesis.

  • Sanchez-Gurmaches J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases; thus, understanding its metabolic circuitry is clinically important. Many studies of BAT compare rodents mildly cold to those severely cold. Here, we compared BAT remodeling between thermoneutral and mild-cold-adapted mice, conditions more relevant to humans. Although BAT is renowned for catabolic β-oxidative capacity, we find paradoxically that the anabolic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes encoding ACLY, ACSS2, ACC, and FASN were among the most upregulated by mild cold and that, in humans, DNL correlates with Ucp1 expression. The regulation and function of adipocyte DNL and its association with thermogenesis are not understood. We provide evidence suggesting that AKT2 drives DNL in adipocytes by stimulating ChREBPβ transcriptional activity and that cold induces the AKT2-ChREBP pathway in BAT to optimize fuel storage and thermogenesis. These data provide insight into adipocyte DNL regulation and function and illustrate the metabolic flexibility of thermogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL095491(United States)

CCPG1 Is a Non-canonical Autophagy Cargo Receptor Essential for ER-Phagy and Pancreatic ER Proteostasis.

  • Smith MD
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms of selective autophagy of the ER, known as ER-phagy, require molecular delineation, particularly in vivo. It is unclear how these events control ER proteostasis and cellular health. Here, we identify cell-cycle progression gene 1 (CCPG1), an ER-resident protein with no known physiological role, as a non-canonical cargo receptor that directly binds to core autophagy proteins via an LIR motif to mammalian ATG8 proteins and, independently and via a discrete motif, to FIP200. These interactions facilitate ER-phagy. The CCPG1 gene is inducible by the unfolded protein response and thus directly links ER stress to ER-phagy. In vivo, CCPG1 protects against ER luminal protein aggregation and consequent unfolded protein response hyperactivation and tissue injury of the exocrine pancreas. Thus, via identification of this autophagy protein, we describe an unexpected molecular mechanism of ER-phagy and provide evidence that this may be physiologically relevant in ER luminal proteostasis.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD068256(United States)

Iron promotes α-synuclein aggregation and transmission by inhibiting TFEB-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  • Xiao Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have strongly shown that cell-to-cell transmission of neuropathogenic proteins is a common mechanism for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying cause is complex and little is known. Although distinct processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, they all share the common feature of iron accumulation, an attribute that is particularly prominent in synucleinopathies. However, whether iron is a cofactor in facilitating the spread of α-synuclein remains unclear. Here, we constructed a cell-to-cell transmission model of α-synuclein using SN4741 cell line based on adenovirus vectors. Cells were treated with FeCl2, and α-synuclein aggregation and transmission were then evaluated. In addition, the possible mechanisms were investigated through gene knockdown or over-expression. Our results demonstrated that iron promoted α-synuclein aggregation and transmission by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, iron decreased the expression of nuclear transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcriptional regulator of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and inhibited its nuclear translocation through activating AKT/mTORC1 signaling. After silencing TFEB, ratios of α-synuclein aggregation and transmission were not significantly altered by the presence of iron; on the other hand, when TFEB was over-expressed, the transmission of α-synuclein induced by iron was obviously reversed; suggesting the mechanism by which iron promotes α-synuclein transmission may be mediated by TFEB. Taken together, our data reveal a previously unknown relationship between iron and α-synuclein, and identify TFEB as not only a potential target for preventing α-synuclein transmission, but also a critical factor for iron-induced α-synuclein aggregation and transmission. Indeed, this newly discovered role of iron and TFEB in synucleinopathies may provide novel targets for developing therapeutic strategies to prevent α-synuclein transmission in Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078283(United States)

Design and Profiling of a Subcellular Targeted Optogenetic cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase.

  • O'Banion CP
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed, it is sequestered at specific subcellular locations throughout the cell, thereby resulting in compartmentalized cellular signaling that triggers site-specific behavioral phenotypes. We developed a three-step engineering strategy to construct an optogenetic PKA (optoPKA) and demonstrated that, upon illumination, optoPKA migrates to specified intracellular sites. Furthermore, we designed intracellular spatially segregated reporters of PKA activity and confirmed that optoPKA phosphorylates these reporters in a light-dependent fashion. Finally, proteomics experiments reveal that light activation of optoPKA results in the phosphorylation of known endogenous PKA substrates as well as potential novel substrates.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA207160()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL024136-250014(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093617()

Prenatal High Estradiol Exposure Induces Sex-Specific and Dietarily Reversible Insulin Resistance Through Decreased Hypothalamic INSR.

  • Wang HH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An adverse intrauterine environment may induce adult disease in offspring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported that fresh embryo transfer (ET) in assisted reproductive technology leads to high maternal estradiol (E2), and prenatal high E2 exposure increases the risk of organ disorders in later life. We found that male newborns and children of fresh ET showed elevated fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) scores. Male mice with high prenatal estradiol exposure (HE) grew heavier than control mice and developed insulin resistance; they also showed increased food intake, with increased orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. The hypothalamic insulin receptor (INSR) was decreased in male HE mice, associated with elevated promoter methylation. Chronic food restriction (FR) in HE mice reversed insulin resistance and rescued hypothalamic INSR expression by correcting the elevated Insr promoter methylation. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to high E2 may induce sex-specific metabolic disorders in later life through epigenetic programming of hypothalamic Insr promoter, and dietary intervention may reverse insulin resistance by remodeling its methylation pattern.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008497(United States)

Loss of functional BAP1 augments sensitivity to TRAIL in cancer cells.

  • Kolluri KK
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is poorly responsive to systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and invariably fatal. Here we describe a screen of 94 drugs in 15 exome-sequenced MM lines and the discovery of a subset defined by loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinase BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) that demonstrate heightened sensitivity to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). This association is observed across human early passage MM cultures, mouse xenografts and human tumour explants. We demonstrate that BAP1 deubiquitinase activity and its association with ASXL1 to form the Polycomb repressive deubiquitinase complex (PR-DUB) impacts TRAIL sensitivity implicating transcriptional modulation as an underlying mechanism. Death receptor agonists are well-tolerated anti-cancer agents demonstrating limited therapeutic benefit in trials without a targeting biomarker. We identify BAP1 loss-of-function mutations, which are frequent in MM, as a potential genomic stratification tool for TRAIL sensitivity with immediate and actionable therapeutic implications.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - A17341()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS043915(United States)
  • Wellcome - WT097452MA()
  • Wellcome Trust - 106555/Z/14/Z()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT107963AIA()

Abrogating Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mouse Hearts Accelerates Mitochondrial Senescence.

  • Song M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondrial fusion and fission are critical to heart health; genetically interrupting either is rapidly lethal. To understand whether it is loss of, or the imbalance between, fusion and fission that underlies observed cardiac phenotypes, we engineered mice in which Mfn-mediated fusion and Drp1-mediated fission could be concomitantly abolished. Compared to fusion-defective Mfn1/Mfn2 cardiac knockout or fission-defective Drp1 cardiac knockout mice, Mfn1/Mfn2/Drp1 cardiac triple-knockout mice survived longer and manifested a unique pathological form of cardiac hypertrophy. Over time, however, combined abrogation of fission and fusion provoked massive progressive mitochondrial accumulation that severely distorted cardiomyocyte sarcomeric architecture. Mitochondrial biogenesis was not responsible for mitochondrial superabundance, whereas mitophagy was suppressed despite impaired mitochondrial proteostasis. Similar but milder defects were observed in aged hearts. Thus, cardiomyopathies linked to dynamic imbalance between fission and fusion are temporarily mitigated by forced mitochondrial adynamism at the cost of compromising mitochondrial quantity control and accelerating mitochondrial senescence.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL059888()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL128071()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R35 HL135736()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01-HD45595(United States)

Graded Elevation of c-Jun in Schwann Cells In Vivo: Gene Dosage Determines Effects on Development, Remyelination, Tumorigenesis, and Hypomyelination.

  • Fazal SV
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Dec 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration and promotes Schwann-cell-mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumor formation in some systems, potentially suppresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues and to determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells and examined these lines during development, in adulthood, and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting, and functional tests. Schwann cells are remarkably tolerant of elevated c-Jun because the nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, in which c-Jun is elevated ∼6-fold, are normal with the exception of modestly reduced myelin thickness. The stronger elevation of c-Jun in c-Jun OE/OE mice is, however, sufficient to induce significant hypomyelination pathology, implicating c-Jun as a potential player in demyelinating neuropathies. The tumor suppressor P19ARF is strongly activated in the nerves of these mice and, even in aged c-Jun OE/OE mice, there is no evidence of tumors. This is consistent with the fact that tumors do not form in injured nerves, although they contain proliferating Schwann cells with strikingly elevated c-Jun. Furthermore, in crushed nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, where c-Jun levels are overexpressed sufficiently to accelerate axonal regeneration, myelination and function are restored after injury.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In injured and diseased nerves, the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is elevated and variously implicated in controlling beneficial or adverse functions, including trophic Schwann cell support for neurons, promotion of regeneration, tumorigenesis, and suppression of myelination. To analyze the functions of c-Jun, we have used transgenic mice with graded elevation of Schwann cell c-Jun. We show that high c-Jun elevation is a potential pathogenic mechanism because it inhibits myelination. Conversely, we did not find a link between c-Jun elevation and tumorigenesis. Modest c-Jun elevation, which is beneficial for regeneration, is well tolerated during Schwann cell development and in the adult and is compatible with restoration of myelination and nerve function after injury.

Palmitate induces mitochondrial superoxide generation and activates AMPK in podocytes.

  • Lee E
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Studies have shown that high levels of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. Palmitic acid (PA) is the predominant circulating saturated FFA, yet its role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not clear. Recently, one study suggested that mitochondrial superoxide production is related to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in diabetic mice kidneys. To elucidate the link between PA and oxidative stress and AMPK activity in DN, we compared the cultured murine podocytes exposed to PA and oleic acid (OA). Incubation of cells with 250 μM PA or OA induced a translocation of CD36, a fatty acid transport protein, with intracellular lipid accumulation. PA, but not OA, induced mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) generation in podocytes, as shown by enhanced fluorescence of MitoSOX Red and dichlorofluorescein (DCF), respectively. Costimulation of PA-treated cells with the H2 O2 scavenger catalase abolished the PA-induced DCF fluorescence. Only PA induced mitochondrial damage as shown by electron microscopy. The AMPK activity was determined by immunoblotting, measuring the ratio of phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) to total AMPK. Only PA significantly increased the p-AMPK levels compared with controls. Addition of catalase to PA-treated cells did not affect the PA-stimulated p-AMPK levels. Collectively, our results indicate that PA induces mitochondrial superoxide and H2 O2 generation in cultured podocytes, which may not be directly linked to AMPK activation. Given that, PA seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DN through lipotoxicity initiated by mitochondrial superoxide overproduction.

Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

  • Essig K
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R37 HL036982(United States)

Ablation of Transcription Factor IRF4 Promotes Transplant Acceptance by Driving Allogenic CD4+ T Cell Dysfunction.

  • Wu J
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

CD4+ T cells orchestrate immune responses and destruction of allogeneic organ transplants, but how this process is regulated on a transcriptional level remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) was a key transcriptional determinant controlling T cell responses during transplantation. IRF4 deletion in mice resulted in progressive establishment of CD4+ T cell dysfunction and long-term allograft survival. Mechanistically, IRF4 repressed PD-1, Helios, and other molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. In the absence of IRF4, chromatin accessibility and binding of Helios at PD-1 cis-regulatory elements were increased, resulting in enhanced PD-1 expression and CD4+ T cell dysfunction. The dysfunctional state of Irf4-deficient T cells was initially reversible by PD-1 ligand blockade, but it progressively developed into an irreversible state. Hence, IRF4 controls a core regulatory circuit of CD4+ T cell dysfunction, and targeting IRF4 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for achieving transplant acceptance.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI106200()

Chemical hypoxia-induced integrated stress response activation in oligodendrocytes is mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2).

  • Teske N
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The extent of remyelination in multiple sclerosis lesions is often incomplete. Injury to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can be a contributing factor for such incomplete remyelination. The precise mechanisms underlying insufficient repair remain to be defined, but oxidative stress appears to be involved. Here, we used immortalized oligodendrocyte cell lines as model systems to investigate a causal relation of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling cascades. OLN93 and OliNeu cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia by blocking the respiratory chain at various levels. Mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative stress levels were quantified by flow cytometry. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was monitored by the expression induction of activating transcription factor 3 and 4 (Atf3, Atf4), DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein (Ddit3), and glucose-regulated protein 94. Lentiviral silencing of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 or kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 was applied to study the relevance of NRF2 for endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. We demonstrate that inhibition of the respiratory chain induces oxidative stress in cultured oligodendrocytes which is paralleled by the expression induction of distinct mediators of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, namely Atf3, Atf4, and Ddit3. Atf3 and Ddit3 expression induction is potentiated in kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-deficient cells and absent in cells lacking the oxidative stress-related transcription factor NRF2. This study provides strong evidence that oxidative stress in oligodendrocytes activates endoplasmic reticulum stress response in a NRF2-dependent manner and, in consequence, might regulate oligodendrocyte degeneration in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA139246(United States)

STIM-1 and ORAI-1 channel mediate angiotensin-II-induced expression of Egr-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  • Simo-Cheyou ER
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

An upregulation of Egr-1 expression has been reported in models of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia and, various vasoactive peptides and growth promoting stimuli have been shown to induce the expression of Egr-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is a key vasoactive peptide that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Ang-II elevates intracellular Ca2+ through activation of the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) involving an inositol-3-phosphate receptor (IP3R)-coupled depletion of endoplasmic reticular Ca2+ and a subsequent activation of the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM-1)/Orai-1 complex. However, the involvement of IP3R/STIM-1/Orai-1-Ca2+ -dependent signaling in Egr-1 expression in VSMC remains unexplored. Therefore, in the present studies, we have examined the role of Ca2+ signaling in Ang-II-induced Egr-1 expression in VSMC and investigated the contribution of STIM-1 or Orai-1 in mediating this response. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a dual non-competitive antagonist of IP3R and inhibitor of SOCE, decreased Ang-II-induced Ca2+ release and attenuated Ang-II-induced enhanced expression of Egr-1 protein and mRNA levels. Egr-1 upregulation was also suppressed following blockade of calmodulin and CaMKII. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated depletion of STIM-1 or Orai-1 attenuated Ang-II-induced Egr-1 expression as well as Ang-II-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In addition, siRNA-induced silencing of CREB resulted in a reduction in the expression of Egr-1 stimulated by Ang-II. In summary, our data demonstrate that Ang-II-induced Egr-1 expression is mediated by STIM-1/Orai-1/Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways in A-10 VSMC.

Arid1a Has Context-Dependent Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressor Functions in Liver Cancer.

  • Sun X
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

ARID1A, an SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene, is commonly mutated in cancer and hypothesized to be tumor suppressive. In some hepatocellular carcinoma patients, ARID1A was highly expressed in primary tumors but not in metastatic lesions, suggesting that ARID1A can be lost after initiation. Mice with liver-specific homozygous or heterozygous Arid1a loss were resistant to tumor initiation while ARID1A overexpression accelerated initiation. In contrast, homozygous or heterozygous Arid1a loss in established tumors accelerated progression and metastasis. Mechanistically, gain of Arid1a function promoted initiation by increasing CYP450-mediated oxidative stress, while loss of Arid1a within tumors decreased chromatin accessibility and reduced transcription of genes associated with migration, invasion, and metastasis. In summary, ARID1A has context-dependent tumor-suppressive and oncogenic roles in cancer.

Bladder-cancer-associated mutations in RXRA activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors to drive urothelial proliferation.

  • Halstead AM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

RXRA regulates transcription as part of a heterodimer with 14 other nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Analysis from TCGA raised the possibility that hyperactive PPAR signaling, either due to PPAR gamma gene amplification or RXRA hot-spot mutation (S427F/Y) drives 20-25% of human bladder cancers. Here, we characterize mutant RXRA, demonstrating it induces enhancer/promoter activity in the context of RXRA/PPAR heterodimers in human bladder cancer cells. Structure-function studies indicate that the RXRA substitution allosterically regulates the PPAR AF2 domain via an aromatic interaction with the terminal tyrosine found in PPARs. In mouse urothelial organoids, PPAR agonism is sufficient to drive growth-factor-independent growth in the context of concurrent tumor suppressor loss. Similarly, mutant RXRA stimulates growth-factor-independent growth of Trp53/Kdm6a null bladder organoids. Mutant RXRA-driven growth of urothelium is reversible by PPAR inhibition, supporting PPARs as targetable drivers of bladder cancer.

Innately activated TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens is sustained by CRF amplification loop and regulates impulsivity.

  • Balan I
  • Brain Behav. Immun.
  • 2017 Nov 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood. Here we report that P rats have an innately activated TLR4 signal in NAc-shell neurons that co-express the α2 GABAA receptor subunit and CRF prior to alcohol exposure. This signal is not present in non-alcohol drinking NP rats. The TLR4 signal is sustained by a CRF amplification loop, which includes TLR4-mediated CRF upregulation through PKA/CREB activation and CRF-mediated TLR4 upregulation through the CRF type 1 receptor (CRFR1) and the MAPK/ERK pathway. NAc-shell Infusion of a neurotropic, non-replicating herpes simplex virus vector for TLR4-specific small interfering RNA (pHSVsiTLR4) inhibits TLR4 expression and cognitive impulsivity, implicating the CRF-amplified TLR4 signal in impulsivity regulation.

Cold-Induced Thermogenesis Depends on ATGL-Mediated Lipolysis in Cardiac Muscle, but Not Brown Adipose Tissue.

  • Schreiber R
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fatty acids (FAs) activate and fuel UCP1-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Release of FAs from intracellular fat stores by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is considered a key step in NST. Accordingly, the severe cold intolerance of global ATGL knockout (AKO) mice has been attributed to defective BAT lipolysis. Here we show that this conclusion is incorrect. We demonstrate that although the BAT-specific loss of ATGL impairs BAT lipolysis and alters BAT morphology, it does not compromise the β3-adrenergic thermogenic response or cold-induced NST. Instead, NST depends on nutrient supply or lipolysis in white adipose tissue during fasting, suggesting that circulating energy substrates are sufficient to fuel NST. Cold intolerance in AKO mice is not caused by BAT dysfunction as previously suspected but by severe cardiomyopathy. We conclude that functional NST requires adequate substrate supply and cardiac function, but does not depend on ATGL-mediated lipolysis in BAT.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK090166()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK077697()

Exploring Metabolic Configurations of Single Cells within Complex Tissue Microenvironments.

  • Miller A
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Over the past years, plenty of evidence has emerged illustrating how metabolism supports many aspects of cellular function and how metabolic reprogramming can drive cell differentiation and fate. Here, we present a method to assess the metabolic configuration of single cells within their native tissue microenvironment via the visualization and quantification of multiple enzymatic activities measured at saturating substrate conditions combined with subsequent cell type identification. After careful validation of the approach and to demonstrate its potential, we assessed the intracellular metabolic configuration of different human immune cell populations in healthy and tumor colon tissue. Additionally, we analyzed the intercellular metabolic relationship between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in a breast cancer tissue array. This study demonstrates that the determination of metabolic configurations in single cells could be a powerful complementary tool for every researcher interested to study metabolic networks in situ.

Intersubunit Crosstalk in the Rag GTPase Heterodimer Enables mTORC1 to Respond Rapidly to Amino Acid Availability.

  • Shen K
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

mTOR complex I (mTORC1) is a central growth regulator that senses amino acids through a pathway that converges on the Rag GTPases, an obligate heterodimer of two related GTPases. Despite their central role in amino acid sensing, it is unknown why the Rag GTPases are heterodimeric and whether their subunits communicate with each other. Here, we find that the binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to one subunit inhibits the binding and induces the hydrolysis of GTP by the other. This intersubunit communication pushes the Rag GTPases into either of two stable configurations, which represent active "on" or "off" states that interconvert via transient intermediates. Subunit coupling confers on the mTORC1 pathway its capacity to respond rapidly to the amino acid level. Thus, the dynamic response of mTORC1 requires intersubunit communication by the Rag GTPases, providing a rationale for why they exist as a dimer and revealing a distinct mode of control for a GTP-binding protein.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA103866()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA129105()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI047389()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R21 DK 074727(United States)

FGF19, FGF21, and an FGFR1/β-Klotho-Activating Antibody Act on the Nervous System to Regulate Body Weight and Glycemia.

  • Lan T
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the different physiologic functions of FGF19 and FGF21 as hormonal regulators of fed and fasted metabolism, their pharmacologic administration causes similar increases in energy expenditure, weight loss, and enhanced insulin sensitivity in obese animals. Here, in genetic loss-of-function studies of the shared co-receptor β-Klotho, we show that these pharmacologic effects are mediated through a common, tissue-specific pathway. Surprisingly, FGF19 and FGF21 actions in liver and adipose tissue are not required for their longer-term weight loss and glycemic effects. In contrast, β-Klotho in neurons is essential for both FGF19 and FGF21 to cause weight loss and lower glucose and insulin levels. We further show an FGF21 mimetic antibody that activates the FGF receptor 1/β-Klotho complex also requires neuronal β-Klotho for its metabolic effects. These studies highlight the importance of the nervous system in mediating the beneficial weight loss and glycemic effects of endocrine FGF drugs.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067158()

Adipokines and Their Receptors Are Widely Expressed and Distinctly Regulated by the Metabolic Environment in the Prostate of Male Mice: Direct Role Under Normal and Tumoral Conditions.

  • Sarmento-Cabral A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue-derived adipokines (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin) play important roles in the regulation of several pathophysiologic processes through the activation of specific receptors. However, although adipokines and their receptors are widely distributed in many tissues and exhibit a clear modulation according to particular metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity and/or fasting), their expression, regulation, and putative action on normal prostate glands (PGs; a hormone-dependent organ tightly regulated by the endocrine-metabolic milieu) are still to be defined. Different in vivo/in vitro models were used to comprehensively characterize the expression pattern and actions of different adipokine systems (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin/receptors) in mouse PGs. Adiponectin, resistin, and adiponectin receptors (1 and 2) and leptin receptor are coexpressed at different levels in PG cells, wherein they are finely regulated under fasting and/or obesity conditions. Furthermore, treatment with different adipokines exerted both homologous and heterologous regulation of specific adipokines/receptor-synthesis and altered the expression of key proliferation and oncogenesis markers (i.e., Ki67/c-Myc/p53) in mouse PG cell cultures, wherein some of these actions might be elicited through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Moreover, treatment with leptin, adiponectin, and resistin differentially regulated key functional parameters [i.e., proliferation and migration capacity and/or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion] in human normal and/or tumoral prostate cell lines. Altogether, our data show that various adipokine and receptor systems are differentially expressed in normal PG cells; that their expression is under a complex ligand- and receptor-selective regulation under extreme metabolic conditions; and that they mediate distinctive and common direct actions in normal and tumoral PG cells (i.e., homologous and heterologous regulation of ligand and receptor synthesis, ERK signaling activation, modulation of proliferation markers, proliferation and migration capacity, and PSA secretion), suggesting a relevant role of these systems in the regulation of PG pathophysiology.

Widespread Post-transcriptional Attenuation of Genomic Copy-Number Variation in Cancer.

  • Gonçalves E
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Copy-number variations (CNVs) are ubiquitous in cancer and often act as driver events, but the effects of CNVs on the proteome of tumors are poorly understood. Here, we analyze recently published genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics datasets made available by CPTAC and TCGA consortia on 282 breast, ovarian, and colorectal tumor samples to investigate the impact of CNVs in the proteomes of these cells. We found that CNVs are buffered by post-transcriptional regulation in 23%-33% of proteins that are significantly enriched in protein complex members. Our analyses show that complex subunits are highly co-regulated, and some act as rate-limiting steps of complex assembly, as their depletion induces decreased abundance of other complex members. We identified 48 such rate-limiting interactions and experimentally confirmed our predictions on the interactions of AP3B1 with AP3M1 and GTF2E2 with GTF2E1. This study highlights the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms in cancer that allow cells to cope with their altered genomes.

Many si/shRNAs can kill cancer cells by targeting multiple survival genes through an off-target mechanism.

  • Putzbach W
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Over 80% of multiple-tested siRNAs and shRNAs targeting CD95 or CD95 ligand (CD95L) induce a form of cell death characterized by simultaneous activation of multiple cell death pathways preferentially killing transformed and cancer stem cells. We now show these si/shRNAs kill cancer cells through canonical RNAi by targeting the 3'UTR of critical survival genes in a unique form of off-target effect we call DISE (death induced by survival gene elimination). Drosha and Dicer-deficient cells, devoid of most miRNAs, are hypersensitive to DISE, suggesting cellular miRNAs protect cells from this form of cell death. By testing 4666 shRNAs derived from the CD95 and CD95L mRNA sequences and an unrelated control gene, Venus, we have identified many toxic sequences - most of them located in the open reading frame of CD95L. We propose that specific toxic RNAi-active sequences present in the genome can kill cancer cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197450()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211271()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009560()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA070085()

Coordinated Splicing of Regulatory Detained Introns within Oncogenic Transcripts Creates an Exploitable Vulnerability in Malignant Glioma.

  • Braun CJ
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating malignancy with few therapeutic options. We identify PRMT5 in an in vivo GBM shRNA screen and show that PRMT5 knockdown or inhibition potently suppresses in vivo GBM tumors, including patient-derived xenografts. Pathway analysis implicates splicing in cellular PRMT5 dependency, and we identify a biomarker that predicts sensitivity to PRMT5 inhibition. We find that PRMT5 deficiency primarily disrupts the removal of detained introns (DIs). This impaired DI splicing affects proliferation genes, whose downregulation coincides with cell cycle defects, senescence and/or apoptosis. We further show that DI programs are evolutionarily conserved and operate during neurogenesis, suggesting that they represent a physiological regulatory mechanism. Collectively, these findings reveal a PRMT5-regulated DI-splicing program as an exploitable cancer vulnerability.

Inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 or 2 reduces induced cytokine expression in microglia through a protein synthesis independent mechanism.

  • Durham BS
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors prevent neural cell death in in vivo models of cerebral ischaemia, brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. One mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors may do this is by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response of chronically activated microglia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect and the specific HDAC responsible are not fully understood. Recent data from in vivo rodent studies have shown that inhibition of class I HDACs suppresses neuroinflammation and is neuroprotective. In our study, we have identified that selective HDAC inhibition with inhibitors apicidin, MS-275 or MI-192, or specific knockdown of HDAC1 or 2 using siRNA, suppresses the expression of cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in BV-2 murine microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that in the absence of HDAC1, HDAC2 is up-regulated and these increased levels are compensatory, suggesting that these two HDACs have redundancy in regulating the inflammatory response of microglia. Investigating the possible underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms suggests an increase in protein expression is not important. Taken together, this study supports the idea that inhibitors selective towards HDAC1 or HDAC2, may be therapeutically useful for targeting neuroinflammation in brain injuries and neurodegenerative disease.

An improved collagen zymography approach for evaluating the collagenases MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13.

  • Inanc S
  • BioTechniques
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Collagen zymography is an SDS-PAGE-based method for detecting both the proenzyme and active forms of collagenases. Although collagen zymography is used for assessment of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-13, it can be difficult to detect these collagenases due to technical issues. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the collagenase activity of MMP-8 can be detected by this method. Here, we present an improved collagen zymography method that allows quantification of the activities of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Activities of recombinant collagenases could be detected in collagen zymogram gels copolymerized with 0.3 mg/mL type I collagen extracted from rat tail tendon. This improved method is sensitive enough to detect the activity of as little as 1 ng of collagenase. We generated standard curves for the three collagenases to quantify the collagenolytic activity levels of unknown samples. To validate our improved method, we investigated MMP-1 activity levels in human thyroid cancer (8505C) and normal thyroid (Nthy-ori-3-1) cell lines, finding that the proenzyme and active MMP-1 levels were greater in 8505C cells than in Nthy-ori-3-1 cells. Taken together, our data show that collagen zymography can be used in both molecular and clinical investigations to evaluate collagenase activities in various pathological conditions.

Renal Metabolic Programming Is Linked to the Dynamic Regulation of a Leptin-Klf15 Axis and Akt/AMPKα Signaling in Male Offspring of Obese Dams.

  • Kasper P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac). After weaning at postnatal day (P)21, offspring of all groups received SD. Clinically, HFD offspring were overweight and insulin resistant at P21. Although no metabolic changes were detected at P70, renal sodium excretion was reduced by 40%, and renal matrix deposition increased in the HFD group. Mechanistically, two stages were differentiated. In the early stage (P21), compared with the control group, HFD showed threefold increased white adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Renal leptin/Stat3-signaling was activated. In contrast, the Akt/ AMPKα cascade and Krüppel-like factor 15 expression were decreased. In the late stage (P70), although no metabolic differences were detected in HFD when compared with the control group, leptin/Stat3-signaling was reduced, and Akt/AMPKα was activated in the kidneys. This effect was linked to an increase of proliferative (cyclinD1/D2) and profibrotic (ctgf/collagen IIIα1) markers, similar to leptin-deficient mice. HFD-Lac mice exhibited metabolic changes at P21 similar to HFD, but no other persistent changes. This study shows a link between maternal obesity and metabolic programming of renal structure and function and intrinsic-renal Stat3/Akt/AMPKα signaling in the offspring.

Exocrine Gland-Secreting Peptide 1 Is a Key Chemosensory Signal Responsible for the Bruce Effect in Mice.

  • Hattori T
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male. The effect was not observed in mice that lacked the ESP1 receptor, V2Rp5, which is expressed in vomeronasal sensory neurons. Prolactin surges in the blood after mating, which are essential for maintaining luteal function, were suppressed by ESP1 exposure, suggesting that a neuroendocrine mechanism underlies ESP1-mediated pregnancy failure. The single peptide pheromone ESP1 conveys not only maleness to promote female receptivity but also the males' characteristics to facilitate memorization of the mating partner.

A Brucella Type IV Effector Targets the COG Tethering Complex to Remodel Host Secretory Traffic and Promote Intracellular Replication.

  • Miller CN
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many intracellular pathogens exploit host secretory trafficking to support their intracellular cycle, but knowledge of these pathogenic processes is limited. The bacterium Brucella abortus uses a type IV secretion system (VirB T4SS) to generate a replication-permissive Brucella-containing vacuole (rBCV) derived from the host ER, a process that requires host early secretory trafficking. Here we show that the VirB T4SS effector BspB contributes to rBCV biogenesis and Brucella replication by interacting with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex, a major coordinator of Golgi vesicular trafficking, thus remodeling Golgi membrane traffic and redirecting Golgi-derived vesicles to the BCV. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates COG-dependent trafficking via delivery of a T4SS effector to promote rBCV biogenesis and intracellular proliferation, providing mechanistic insight into how bacterial exploitation of host secretory functions promotes pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI129992()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI112649()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007025()

Combinatorial Signal Perception in the BMP Pathway.

  • Antebi YE
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway comprises multiple ligands and receptors that interact promiscuously with one another and typically appear in combinations. This feature is often explained in terms of redundancy and regulatory flexibility, but it has remained unclear what signal-processing capabilities it provides. Here, we show that the BMP pathway processes multi-ligand inputs using a specific repertoire of computations, including ratiometric sensing, balance detection, and imbalance detection. These computations operate on the relative levels of different ligands and can arise directly from competitive receptor-ligand interactions. Furthermore, cells can select different computations to perform on the same ligand combination through expression of alternative sets of receptor variants. These results provide a direct signal-processing role for promiscuous receptor-ligand interactions and establish operational principles for quantitatively controlling cells with BMP ligands. Similar principles could apply to other promiscuous signaling pathways.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD075335()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008042()

LMO1 Synergizes with MYCN to Promote Neuroblastoma Initiation and Metastasis.

  • Zhu S
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that dβh promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN to increase the proliferation of hyperplastic sympathoadrenal precursor cells, leading to a reduced latency and increased penetrance of neuroblastomagenesis. The transgenic expression of LMO1 also promoted hematogenous dissemination and distant metastasis, which was linked to neuroblastoma cell invasion and migration, and elevated expression levels of genes affecting tumor cell-extracellular matrix interaction, including loxl3, itga2b, itga3, and itga5. Our results provide in vivo validation of LMO1 as an important oncogene that promotes neuroblastoma initiation, progression, and widespread metastatic dissemination.

Obesity-Induced Infertility in Male Mice Is Associated With Disruption of Crisp4 Expression and Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

  • Borges BC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Approximately 15% of human couples of reproductive age have impaired fertility, and the male component accounts for about half of these cases. The etiology is usually unknown, but high correlation with the increase in obesity rates is documented. In this study, we show that diet-induced and genetically obese mice display copulatory behavior comparable to controls, but the number of females impregnated by obese males is remarkably low. Screening for changes in gene expression in the male reproductive tract showed decreased Crisp4 expression in testis and epididymis of obese mice. Lack of CRISP4 in the luminal membrane of epididymal cells indicated inadequate secretion. Consistent with CRISP4 action in acrosome reaction, sperm from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) had decreased fertilization capacity. CRISP4 treatment of sperm from HFD mice prior to in vitro fertilization improved fertilization rate. In leptin-deficient obese and infertile mice, leptin's effect to restore CRISP4 expression and function required gonadal hormones. Our findings indicate that the obesity-induced decline in sperm motility and fertilization capacity results in part from the disruption of epididymal CRISP4 expression and secretion.

Role of AMPA receptors in homocysteine-NMDA receptor-induced crosstalk between ERK and p38 MAPK.

  • Poddar R
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homocysteine, a metabolite of the methionine cycle has been reported to play a role in neurotoxicity through activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR)-mediated signaling pathway. The proposed mechanisms associated with homocysteine-NMDAR-induced neurotoxicity involve a unique signaling pathway that triggers a crosstalk between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPKs, where activation of p38 MAPK is downstream of and dependent on ERK MAPK. However, the molecular basis of the ERK MAPK-mediated p38 MAPK activation is not understood. This study investigates whether α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) play a role in facilitating the ERK MAPK-mediated p38 MAPK activation. Using surface biotinylation and immunoblotting approaches we show that treatment with homocysteine leads to a decrease in surface expression of GluA2-AMPAR subunit in neurons, but have no effect on the surface expression of GluA1-AMPAR subunit. Inhibition of NMDAR activation with D-AP5 or ERK MAPK phosphorylation with PD98059 attenuates homocysteine-induced decrease in surface expression of GluA2-AMPAR subunit. The decrease in surface expression of GluA2-AMPAR subunit is associated with p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is inhibited by 1-napthyl acetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), a selective antagonist of GluA2-lacking Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs. These results suggest that homocysteine-NMDAR-mediated ERK MAPK phosphorylation leads to a decrease in surface expression of GluA2-AMPAR subunit resulting in Ca2+ influx through the GluA2-lacking Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Cell death assays further show that inhibition of AMPAR activity with 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4,tetrahydrobenzoquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX)/6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3, -dione (CNQX) or GluA2-lacking Ca2+ -permeable AMPAR activity with NASPM attenuates homocysteine-induced neurotoxicity. We have identified an important mechanism involved in homocysteine-induced neurotoxicity that highlights the intermediary role of GluA2-lacking Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs in the crosstalk between ERK and p38 MAPKs.

The Conserved Intron Binding Protein EMB-4 Plays Differential Roles in Germline Small RNA Pathways of C. elegans.

  • Tyc KM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper regulation of the germline transcriptome is essential for fertility. In C. elegans, germline homeostasis hinges on a complex repertoire of both silencing and activating small RNA pathways, along with RNA processing. However, our understanding of how fundamental RNA processing steps intersect with small RNA machineries in the germline remains limited. Here, we link the conserved intron binding protein, EMB-4/AQR/IBP160, to the CSR-1 and HRDE-1 nuclear 22G-RNA pathways in the C. elegans germline. Loss of emb-4 leads to distinct alterations in CSR-1- versus HRDE-1-associated small RNA and mRNA transcriptomes. Our transcriptome-wide analysis shows that EMB-4 is enriched along pre-mRNAs of nearly 8,000 transcripts. While EMB-4 complexes are enriched for both intronic and exonic sequences of HRDE-1 targets, CSR-1 pathway targets are enriched for intronic, but not exonic, sequences. These data suggest that EMB-4 could contribute to a molecular signature that distinguishes the targets of these two germline small RNA pathways.

The Kinase Fyn As a Novel Intermediate in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease.

  • Sanz-Blasco S
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine replacement therapy with L-DOPA is the treatment of choice for Parkinson's disease; however, its long-term use is frequently associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many molecules have been implicated in the development of LID, and several of these have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets. However, to date, none of these molecules have demonstrated full clinical efficacy, either because they lie downstream of dopaminergic signaling, or due to adverse side effects. Therefore, discovering new strategies to reduce LID in Parkinson's disease remains a major challenge. Here, we have explored the tyrosine kinase Fyn, as a novel intermediate molecule in the development of LID. Fyn, a member of the Src kinase family, is located in the postsynaptic density, where it regulates phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in response to dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. We have used Fyn knockout and wild-type mice, lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine and chronically treated with L-DOPA, to investigate the role of Fyn in the induction of LID. We found that mice lacking Fyn displayed reduced LID, ΔFosB accumulation and NR2B phosphorylation compared to wild-type control mice. Pre-administration of saracatinib (AZD0530), an inhibitor of Fyn activity, also significantly reduced LID in dyskinetic wild-type mice. These results support that Fyn has a critical role in the molecular pathways affected during the development of LID and identify Fyn as a novel potential therapeutic target for the management of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.

Cell-Type-Specific Translation Profiling Reveals a Novel Strategy for Treating Fragile X Syndrome.

  • Thomson SR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excessive mRNA translation downstream of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) is a core pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FX); however, the differentially translating mRNAs that contribute to altered neural function are not known. We used translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) and RNA-seq to identify mistranslating mRNAs in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the FX mouse model (Fmr1-/y) hippocampus, which exhibit exaggerated mGlu1/5-induced long-term synaptic depression (LTD). In these neurons, we find that the Chrm4 transcript encoding muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M4) is excessively translated, and synthesis of M4 downstream of mGlu5 activation is mimicked and occluded. Surprisingly, enhancement rather than inhibition of M4 activity normalizes core phenotypes in the Fmr1-/y, including excessive protein synthesis, exaggerated mGluR-LTD, and audiogenic seizures. These results suggest that not all excessively translated mRNAs in the Fmr1-/y brain are detrimental, and some may be candidates for enhancement to correct pathological changes in the FX brain.

Circadian Reprogramming in the Liver Identifies Metabolic Pathways of Aging.

  • Sato S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells. Moreover, de novo oscillating genes under CR show an enrichment in SIRT1 targets in the liver. This is accompanied by distinct circadian hepatic signatures in NAD+-related metabolites and cyclic global protein acetylation. Strikingly, this oscillation in acetylation is absent in old mice while CR robustly rescues global protein acetylation. Our findings indicate that the clock operates at the crossroad between protein acetylation, liver metabolism, and aging.

A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development.

  • Ciarlo C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a screen in primary zebrafish embryo cultures for chemicals that disrupt neural crest development, as read out by crestin:EGFP expression. We found that the natural product caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) disrupts neural crest gene expression, migration, and melanocytic differentiation by reducing Sox10 activity. CAPE inhibits FGF-stimulated PI3K/Akt signaling, and neural crest defects in CAPE-treated embryos are suppressed by constitutively active Akt1. Inhibition of Akt activity by constitutively active PTEN similarly decreases crestin expression and Sox10 activity. Our study has identified Akt as a novel intracellular pathway required for neural crest differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM069593(United States)

Ablation of Hepatic Production of the Acid-Labile Subunit in Bovine-GH Transgenic Mice: Effects on Organ and Skeletal Growth.

  • Liu Z
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are anabolic hormones that facilitate somatic and skeletal growth and regulate metabolism via endocrine and autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. We hypothesized that excess tissue production of GH would protect skeletal growth and integrity in states of reduction in serum IGF-1 levels. To test our hypothesis, we used bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice as a model of GH hypersecretion and ablated the liver-derived acid-labile subunit, which stabilizes IGF-1 complexes with IGF-binding protein-3 and -5 in circulation. We used a genetic approach to create bGH/als gene knockout (ALSKO) mice and small interfering RNA (siRNA) gene-silencing approach to reduce als or igf-1 gene expression. We found that in both models, decreased IGF-1 levels in serum were associated with decreased body and skeletal size of the bGH mice. Excess GH produced more robust bones but compromised mechanical properties in male mice. Excess GH production in tissues did not protect from trabecular bone loss in response to reductions in serum IGF-1 (in bGH/ALSKO or bGH mice treated with siRNAs). Reduced serum IGF-1 levels in the bGH mice did not alleviate the hyperinsulinemia and did not resolve liver or kidney pathologies that resulted from GH hypersecretion. We concluded that reduced serum IGF-1 levels decrease somatic and skeletal growth even in states of excess GH.

The Role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in Activity-Dependent Neuronal Plasticity in the Visual Cortex.

  • Pulimood NS
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element binding factor), SRF (serum response factor), and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) play critical roles in the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. However, the role of the activation of these transcription factors in the different components of plasticity in vivo is not well known. In this study, we tested the role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), a paradigm of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex. These three proteins bind to the synaptic activity response element (SARE), an enhancer sequence found upstream of many plasticity-related genes (Kawashima et al., 2009; Rodríguez-Tornos et al., 2013), and can act cooperatively to express Arc, a gene required for ODP (McCurry et al., 2010). We used viral-mediated gene transfer to block the transcription function of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in the visual cortex, and measured visually evoked potentials in awake male and female mice before and after a 7 d monocular deprivation, which allowed us to examine both the depression component (Dc-ODP) and potentiation component (Pc-ODP) of plasticity independently. We found that CREB, SRF, and MEF2 are all required for ODP, but have differential effects on Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP. CREB is necessary for both Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP, whereas SRF and MEF2 are only needed for Dc-ODP. This finding supports previous reports implicating SRF and MEF2 in long-term depression (required for Dc-ODP), and CREB in long-term potentiation (required for Pc-ODP).SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is the cellular basis for learning and memory, and it is crucial for the refinement of neuronal circuits during development. Identifying the mechanisms of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is crucial to finding therapeutic interventions in the myriad of disorders where it is disrupted, such as Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, epilepsy, major depressive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Transcription factors are essential nuclear proteins that trigger the expression of gene programs required for long-term functional and structural plasticity changes. Our results elucidate the specific role of the transcription factors CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in the depression and potentiation components of ODP in vivo, therefore better informing future attempts to find therapeutic targets for diseases where activity-dependent plasticity is disrupted.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA013023()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA022455()

mTORC2 Regulates Amino Acid Metabolism in Cancer by Phosphorylation of the Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter xCT.

  • Gu Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA186668()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM116897()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073831()

Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-2 Inhibition Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Male Murine Model of Obesity.

  • Sinha I
  • Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity leads to a loss of muscle mass and impaired muscle regeneration. In obese individuals, pathologically elevated levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme 2 (PHD2) limit skeletal muscle hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Loss of local VEGF may further impair skeletal muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that PHD2 inhibition would restore vigorous muscle regeneration in a murine model of obesity. Adult (22-week-old) male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), with 60% of calories derived from fat, or a regular diet (RD), with 10% of calories derived from fat, for 16 weeks. On day 5 following cryoinjury to the tibialis anterior muscle, newly regenerated muscle fiber cross-sectional areas were significantly smaller in mice fed an HFD as compared to RD, indicating an impaired regenerative response. Cryoinjured gastrocnemius muscles of HFD mice also showed elevated PHD2 levels (twofold higher) and reduced VEGF levels (twofold lower) as compared to RD. Dimethyloxalylglycine, a cell permeable competitive inhibitor of PHD2, restored VEGF levels and significantly improved regenerating myofiber size in cryoinjured mice fed an HFD. We conclude that pathologically increased PHD2 in the obese state drives impairments in muscle regeneration, in part by blunting VEGF production. Inhibition of PHD2 over activity in the obese state normalizes VEGF levels and restores muscle regenerative potential.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL119355()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()

Alleviation of Neuropathology by Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase in APP Transgenic Mice Lacking CB2 Receptors.

  • Zhang J
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Jul 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, produces profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and improves synaptic and cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are still not clear. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) has been thought to be a therapeutic target for AD. Here, we provide evidence, however, that CB2R does not play a role in ameliorating AD neuropathology produced by inactivation of MAGL in 5XFAD APP transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. We observed that expression of APP and β-secretase as well as production of total Aβ and Aβ42 were significantly reduced in APP transgenic mice lacking CB2R (TG-CB2-KO) treated with JZL184, a selective and potent inhibitor for MAGL. Inactivation of MAGL also alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in TG-CB2-KO mice. Importantly, TG-CB2-KO mice treated with JZL184 still exhibited improvements in spatial learning and memory. In addition, MAGL inhibition prevented deterioration in expression of important synaptic proteins in TG-CB2-KO mice. Our results suggest that CB2R is not required in ameliorating neuropathology and preventing cognitive decline by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism in AD model animals.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076815()

An FAK-YAP-mTOR Signaling Axis Regulates Stem Cell-Based Tissue Renewal in Mice.

  • Hu JK
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tissue homeostasis requires the production of newly differentiated cells from resident adult stem cells. Central to this process is the expansion of undifferentiated intermediates known as transit-amplifying (TA) cells, but how stem cells are triggered to enter this proliferative TA state remains an important open question. Using the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model of stem cell-based tissue renewal, we found that the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ are required both to maintain TA cell proliferation and to inhibit differentiation. Specifically, we identified a pathway involving activation of integrin α3 in TA cells that signals through an LATS-independent FAK/CDC42/PP1A cascade to control YAP-S397 phosphorylation and nuclear localization. This leads to Rheb expression and potentiates mTOR signaling to drive the proliferation of TA cells. These findings thus reveal a YAP/TAZ signaling mechanism that coordinates stem cell expansion and differentiation during organ renewal.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - F32 DE023705()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - K99 DE025874()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE024988()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R35 DE026602()

Apoptosis and Compensatory Proliferation Signaling Are Coupled by CrkI-Containing Microvesicles.

  • Gupta KH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Apoptosis has been implicated in compensatory proliferation signaling (CPS), whereby dying cells induce proliferation in neighboring cells as a means to restore homeostasis. The nature of signaling between apoptotic cells and their neighboring cells remains largely unknown. Here we show that a fraction of apoptotic cells produce and release CrkI-containing microvesicles (distinct from exosomes and apoptotic bodies), which induce proliferation in neighboring cells upon contact. We provide visual evidence of CPS by videomicroscopy. We show that purified vesicles in vitro and in vivo are sufficient to stimulate proliferation in other cells. Our data demonstrate that CrkI inactivation by ExoT bacterial toxin or by mutagenesis blocks vesicle formation in apoptotic cells and inhibits CPS, thus uncoupling apoptosis from CPS. We further show that c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a pivotal role in mediating vesicle-induced CPS in recipient cells. CPS could have important ramifications in diseases that involve apoptotic cell death.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI110685()

Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

  • Nüsken E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL132862(United States)

CTRP3 is a novel biomarker for diabetic retinopathy and inhibits HGHL-induced VCAM-1 expression in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  • Yan Z
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe complication of chronic diabetes. The C1q/TNF-related protein family (CTRPs) has been demonstrated to exert protective effects against obesity and atherosclerosis in animal studies. Heretofore, the association between circulating CTRPs and DR patients has been unexplored. In the current study, we attempt to define this association, as well as the effect of CTRPs upon DR pathophysiology. DESIGN: The present investigation is a case control study that enrolled control subjects and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients diagnosed with DR. Serum CTRPs and sVACM-1 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Serum CTRP3 and CTRP5 levels were markedly decreased in patients with T2DM compared to controls (p<0.05) and inversely associated with T2DM. Furthermore, mutivariate regression and ROC analysis revealed CTRP3 deficiency, not CTRP5, was associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Spearman's rank correlation assay demonstrated an inverse association between CTRP3 and sVCAM-1. Finally, exogenous CTRP3 administration attenuated high glucose high lipid (HGHL)-induced VCAM-1 production in an AMPK-dependent manner in cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). CONCLUSION: CTRP3 may serve as a novel biomarker for DR severity. CTRP3 may represent a future novel therapeutic against DR, a common ocular complication of diabetes.

The Mammalian Ribo-interactome Reveals Ribosome Functional Diversity and Heterogeneity.

  • Simsek D
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

During eukaryotic evolution, ribosomes have considerably increased in size, forming a surface-exposed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) shell of unknown function, which may create an interface for yet uncharacterized interacting proteins. To investigate such protein interactions, we establish a ribosome affinity purification method that unexpectedly identifies hundreds of ribosome-associated proteins (RAPs) from categories including metabolism and cell cycle, as well as RNA- and protein-modifying enzymes that functionally diversify mammalian ribosomes. By further characterizing RAPs, we discover the presence of ufmylation, a metazoan-specific post-translational modification (PTM), on ribosomes and define its direct substrates. Moreover, we show that the metabolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM), interacts with sub-pools of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated ribosomes, exerting a non-canonical function as an RNA-binding protein in the translation of ER-destined mRNAs. Therefore, RAPs interconnect one of life's most ancient molecular machines with diverse cellular processes, providing an additional layer of regulatory potential to protein expression.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD086730()
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD008509()

IL-22 Upregulates Epithelial Claudin-2 to Drive Diarrhea and Enteric Pathogen Clearance.

  • Tsai PY
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diarrhea is a host response to enteric pathogens, but its impact on pathogenesis remains poorly defined. By infecting mice with the attaching and effacing bacteria Citrobacter rodentium, we defined the mechanisms and contributions of diarrhea and intestinal barrier loss to host defense. Increased permeability occurred within 2 days of infection and coincided with IL-22-dependent upregulation of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-2. Permeability increases were limited to small molecules, as expected for the paracellular water and Na+ channel formed by claudin-2. Relative to wild-type, claudin-2-deficient mice experienced severe disease, including increased mucosal colonization by C. rodentium, prolonged pathogen shedding, exaggerated cytokine responses, and greater tissue injury. Conversely, transgenic claudin-2 overexpression reduced disease severity. Chemically induced osmotic diarrhea reduced colitis severity and C. rodentium burden in claudin-2-deficient, but not transgenic, mice, demonstrating that claudin-2-mediated protection is the result of enhanced water efflux. Thus, IL-22-induced claudin-2 upregulation drives diarrhea and pathogen clearance.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025643()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007009()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK103511()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK009180()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK092381()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK061931()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK068271()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK099803()

Conditional Ablation of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Results in Subfertility in the Female and Development of Endometrial Cysts.

  • McCallum ML
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Progesterone (P4) is essential for female fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional requirement of the nonclassical P4 receptor (PGR), PGR membrane component 1, in regulating female fertility. To achieve this goal, the Pgrmc1 gene was floxed by insertion of loxP sites on each side of exon 2. Pgrmc1 floxed (Pgrmc1(fl/fl)) mice were crossed with Pgr(cre) or Amhr2(cre) mice to delete Pgrmc1 (Pgrmc1(d/d)) from the female reproductive tract. A 6-month breeding trial revealed that conditional ablation of Pgrmc1 with Pgr(cre/+) mice resulted in a 40% reduction (P = .0002) in the number of pups/litter. Neither the capacity to ovulate in response to gonadotropin treatment nor the expression of PGR and the estrogen receptor was altered in the uteri of Pgrmc1(d/d) mice compared with Pgrmc1(fl/fl) control mice. Although conditional ablation of Pgrmc1 from mesenchymal tissue using Amhr2(cre/+) mice did not reduce the number of pups/litter, the total number of litters born in the 6-month breeding trial was significantly decreased (P = .041). In addition to subfertility, conditional ablation of Pgrmc1 using either Amhr2(cre/+) or Pgr(cre/+) mice resulted in the development of endometrial cysts starting around 4 months of age. Interestingly, pregnancy attenuated the formation of these uterine cysts. These new findings demonstrate that PGR membrane component 1 plays an important role in female fertility and uterine tissue homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008061(United States)

mTORC1 Signaling Contributes to Drinking But Not Blood Pressure Responses to Brain Angiotensin II.

  • Muta K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a molecular node that couples extracellular cues to a wide range of cellular events controlling various physiological processes. Here, we identified mTORC1 signaling as a critical mediator of angiotensin II (Ang II) action in the brain. In neuronal GT1-7 cells, we show that Ang II stimulates neuronal mTORC1 signaling in an Ang II type 1 receptor-dependent manner. In mice, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection or chronic sc infusion of Ang II activated mTORC1 signaling in the subfornical organ, a critical brain region in cardiovascular control and fluid balance. Moreover, transgenic sRA mice with brain-specific overproduction of Ang II displayed increased mTORC1 signaling in the subfornical organ. To test the functional role of brain mTORC1 in mediating the action of Ang II, we examined the consequence of mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin on Ang II-induced increase in water intake and arterial pressure. ICV pretreatment with rapamycin blocked ICV Ang II-mediated increases in the frequency, duration, and amount of water intake but did not interfere with the pressor response evoked by Ang II. In addition, ICV delivery of rapamycin significantly reduced polydipsia, but not hypertension, of sRA mice. These results demonstrate that mTORC1 is a novel downstream pathway of Ang II type 1 receptor signaling in the brain and selectively mediates the effect of Ang II on drinking behavior.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM043154(United States)

HIF-1α is required for disturbed flow-induced metabolic reprogramming in human and porcine vascular endothelium.

  • Wu D
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hemodynamic forces regulate vascular functions. Disturbed flow (DF) occurs in arterial bifurcations and curvatures, activates endothelial cells (ECs), and results in vascular inflammation and ultimately atherosclerosis. However, how DF alters EC metabolism, and whether resulting metabolic changes induce EC activation, is unknown. Using transcriptomics and bioenergetic analysis, we discovered that DF induces glycolysis and reduces mitochondrial respiratory capacity in human aortic ECs. DF-induced metabolic reprogramming required hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), downstream of NAD(P)H oxidase-4 (NOX4)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). HIF-1α increased glycolytic enzymes and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1), which reduces mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Swine aortic arch endothelia exhibited elevated ROS, NOX4, HIF-1α, and glycolytic enzyme and PDK1 expression, suggesting that DF leads to metabolic reprogramming in vivo. Inhibition of glycolysis reduced inflammation suggesting a causal relationship between flow-induced metabolic changes and EC activation. These findings highlight a previously uncharacterized role for flow-induced metabolic reprogramming and inflammation in ECs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - F32 HL134288()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL103789()

Regulated Intron Removal Integrates Motivational State and Experience.

  • Gill J
  • Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA. A screen identified pasilla, the fly ortholog of mammalian Nova-1/2, as a mediator of Orb2A mRNA processing. A single-nucleotide substitution in the intronic region that reduces Pasilla binding and intron removal selectively impairs long-term memory. We posit that pasilla-mediated processing of unspliced Orb2A mRNA integrates experience and internal state to control Orb2A protein abundance and long-term memory formation.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH101440()

CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cell Host Dependency Factors.

  • Ma Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI123420()

Dissection of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered YAP protein and the transcription factor TEAD.

  • Mesrouze Y
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the Ω-loop found in YAP.

Lithocholic Acid Hydroxyamide Destabilizes Cyclin D1 and Induces G0/G1 Arrest by Inhibiting Deubiquitinase USP2a.

  • Magiera K
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

USP2a is a deubiquitinase responsible for stabilization of cyclin D1, a crucial regulator of cell-cycle progression and a proto-oncoprotein overexpressed in numerous cancer types. Here we report that lithocholic acid (LCA) derivatives are inhibitors of USP proteins, including USP2a. The most potent LCA derivative, LCA hydroxyamide (LCAHA), inhibits USP2a, leading to a significant Akt/GSK3β-independent destabilization of cyclin D1, but does not change the expression of p27. This leads to the defects in cell-cycle progression. As a result, LCAHA inhibits the growth of cyclin D1-expressing, but not cyclin D1-negative cells, independently of the p53 status. We show that LCA derivatives may be considered as future therapeutics for the treatment of cyclin D1-addicted p53-expressing and p53-defective cancer types.

Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.

  • Yang Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Notably, a single mouse EPS cell shows widespread chimeric contribution to both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in vivo and permits generating single-EPS-cell-derived mice by tetraploid complementation. Furthermore, human EPS cells exhibit interspecies chimeric competency in mouse conceptuses. Our findings constitute a first step toward capturing pluripotent stem cells with extraembryonic developmental potentials in culture and open new avenues for basic and translational research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Ribonucleotide Reductase Requires Subunit Switching in Hypoxia to Maintain DNA Replication.

  • Foskolou IP
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells exposed to hypoxia experience replication stress but do not accumulate DNA damage, suggesting sustained DNA replication. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the only enzyme capable of de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). However, oxygen is an essential cofactor for mammalian RNR (RRM1/RRM2 and RRM1/RRM2B), leading us to question the source of dNTPs in hypoxia. Here, we show that the RRM1/RRM2B enzyme is capable of retaining activity in hypoxia and therefore is favored over RRM1/RRM2 in order to preserve ongoing replication and avoid the accumulation of DNA damage. We found two distinct mechanisms by which RRM2B maintains hypoxic activity and identified responsible residues in RRM2B. The importance of RRM2B in the response to tumor hypoxia is further illustrated by correlation of its expression with a hypoxic signature in patient samples and its roles in tumor growth and radioresistance. Our data provide mechanistic insight into RNR biology, highlighting RRM2B as a hypoxic-specific, anti-cancer therapeutic target.

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecA triggers host cell signalling by glycosphingolipid-dependent phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII.

  • Zheng S
  • Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • 2017 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII by activating the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl to promote its uptake into host cells. So far, specific factors of P. aeruginosa, which induce Abl/CrkII signalling, are entirely unknown. In this research, we employed human lung epithelial cells H1299, Chinese hamster ovary cells and P. aeruginosa wild type strain PAO1 to study the invasion process of P. aeruginosa into host cells by using microbiological, biochemical and cell biological approaches such as Western Blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Here, we demonstrate that the host glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide, also termed Gb3, represents a signalling receptor for the P. aeruginosa lectin LecA to induce CrkII phosphorylation at tyrosine 221. Alterations in Gb3 expression and LecA function correlate with CrkII phosphorylation. Interestingly, phosphorylation of CrkIIY221 occurs independently of Abl kinase. We further show that Src family kinases transduce the signal induced by LecA binding to Gb3, leading to CrkY221 phosphorylation. In summary, we identified LecA as a bacterial factor, which utilizes a so far unrecognized mechanism for phospho-CrkIIY221 induction by binding to the host glycosphingolipid receptor Gb3. The LecA/Gb3 interaction highlights the potential of glycolipids to mediate signalling processes across the plasma membrane and should be further elucidated to gain deeper insights into this non-canonical mechanism of activating host cell processes.

Ambra1 spatially regulates Src activity and Src/FAK-mediated cancer cell invasion via trafficking networks.

  • Schoenherr C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Here, using mouse squamous cell carcinoma cells, we report a completely new function for the autophagy protein Ambra1 as the first described 'spatial rheostat' controlling the Src/FAK pathway. Ambra1 regulates the targeting of active phospho-Src away from focal adhesions into autophagic structures that cancer cells use to survive adhesion stress. Ambra1 binds to both FAK and Src in cancer cells. When FAK is present, Ambra1 is recruited to focal adhesions, promoting FAK-regulated cancer cell direction-sensing and invasion. However, when Ambra1 cannot bind to FAK, abnormally high levels of phospho-Src and phospho-FAK accumulate at focal adhesions, positively regulating adhesion and invasive migration. Spatial control of active Src requires the trafficking proteins Dynactin one and IFITM3, which we identified as Ambra1 binding partners by interaction proteomics. We conclude that Ambra1 is a core component of an intracellular trafficking network linked to tight spatial control of active Src and FAK levels, and so crucially regulates their cancer-associated biological outputs.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 294440()

Replication Study: Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations.

  • Horrigan SK
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

In 2015, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Chroscinski et al., 2014) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations" (Berger et al., 2012). Here we report the results of those experiments. We regenerated cells stably expressing ectopic wild-type and mutant phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2 (PREX2) using the same immortalized human NRASG12D melanocytes as the original study. Evaluation of PREX2 expression in these newly generated stable cells revealed varying levels of expression among the PREX2 isoforms, which was also observed in the stable cells made in the original study (Figure S6A; Berger et al., 2012). Additionally, ectopically expressed PREX2 was found to be at least 5 times above endogenous PREX2 expression. The monitoring of tumor formation of these stable cells in vivo resulted in no statistically significant difference in tumor-free survival driven by PREX2 variants, whereas the original study reported that these PREX2 mutations increased the rate of tumor incidence compared to controls (Figure 3B and S6B; Berger et al., 2012). Surprisingly, the median tumor-free survival was 1 week in this replication attempt, while 70% of the control mice were reported to be tumor-free after 9 weeks in the original study. The rapid tumor onset observed in this replication attempt, compared to the original study, makes the detection of accelerated tumor growth in PREX2 expressing NRASG12D melanocytes extremely difficult. Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.

Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson's Disease.

  • Sampson TR
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 1

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Abstract:

The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology. Antibiotic treatment ameliorates, while microbial re-colonization promotes, pathophysiology in adult animals, suggesting that postnatal signaling between the gut and the brain modulates disease. Indeed, oral administration of specific microbial metabolites to germ-free mice promotes neuroinflammation and motor symptoms. Remarkably, colonization of αSyn-overexpressing mice with microbiota from PD-affected patients enhances physical impairments compared to microbiota transplants from healthy human donors. These findings reveal that gut bacteria regulate movement disorders in mice and suggest that alterations in the human microbiome represent a risk factor for PD.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA060553(United States)

Nervous System Expression of PPARγ and Mutant PPARγ Has Profound Effects on Metabolic Regulation and Brain Development.

  • Stump M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Nov 30

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Abstract:

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. Recent studies suggest PPARγ may mediate some of its metabolic effects through actions in the brain. We used a Cre-recombinase-dependent (using NestinCre) conditionally activatable transgene expressing either wild-type (WT) or dominant-negative (P467L) PPARγ to examine mechanisms by which PPARγ in the nervous system controls energy balance. Inducible expression of PPARγ was evident throughout the brain. Expression of 2 PPARγ target genes, aP2 and CD36, was induced by WT but not P467L PPARγ in the brain. Surprisingly, NesCre/PPARγ-WT mice exhibited severe microcephaly and brain malformation, suggesting that PPARγ can modulate brain development. On the contrary, NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice exhibited blunted weight gain to high-fat diet, which correlated with a decrease in lean mass and tissue masses, accompanied by elevated plasma GH, and depressed plasma IGF-1, indicative of GH resistance. There was no expression of the transgene in the pancreas but both fasting plasma glucose, and fed and fasted plasma insulin levels were markedly decreased. NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice fed either control diet or high-fat diet displayed impaired glucose tolerance yet exhibited increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin and increased insulin receptor signaling in white adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. These observations support the concept that alterations in PPARγ-driven mechanisms in the nervous system play a role in the regulation of growth and glucose metabolic homeostasis.

Stochasticity in the miR-9/Hes1 oscillatory network can account for clonal heterogeneity in the timing of differentiation.

  • Phillips NE
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 4

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Abstract:

Recent studies suggest that cells make stochastic choices with respect to differentiation or division. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such stochasticity is unknown. We previously proposed that the timing of vertebrate neuronal differentiation is regulated by molecular oscillations of a transcriptional repressor, HES1, tuned by a post-transcriptional repressor, miR-9. Here, we computationally model the effects of intrinsic noise on the Hes1/miR-9 oscillator as a consequence of low molecular numbers of interacting species, determined experimentally. We report that increased stochasticity spreads the timing of differentiation in a population, such that initially equivalent cells differentiate over a period of time. Surprisingly, inherent stochasticity also increases the robustness of the progenitor state and lessens the impact of unequal, random distribution of molecules at cell division on the temporal spread of differentiation at the population level. This advantageous use of biological noise contrasts with the view that noise needs to be counteracted.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-37765(Canada)

Obesity-Dependent Increases in Oocyte mRNAs Are Associated With Increases in Proinflammatory Signaling and Gut Microbial Abundance of Lachnospiraceae in Female Mice.

  • Xie F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Aug 17

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Abstract:

RNAs stored in the metaphase II-arrested oocyte play important roles in successful embryonic development. Their abundance is defined by transcriptional activity during oocyte growth and selective degradation of transcripts during LH-induced oocyte maturation. Our previous studies demonstrated that mRNA abundance is increased in mature ovulated oocytes collected from obese humans and mice and therefore may contribute to reduced oocyte developmental competence associated with metabolic dysfunction. In the current study mouse models of diet-induced obesity were used to determine whether obesity-dependent increases in proinflammatory signaling regulate ovarian abundance of oocyte-specific mRNAs. The abundance of oocyte-specific Bnc1, Dppa3, and Pou5f1 mRNAs as well as markers of proinflammatory signaling were significantly increased in ovaries of obese compared with lean mice which were depleted of fully grown preovulatory follicles. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses also demonstrated increased association of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 with the Pou5f1 promoter in ovaries of obese mice suggesting that proinflammatory signaling regulates transcription of this gene in the oocyte. The cecum microbial content of lean and obese female mice was subsequently examined to identify potential relationships between microbial composition and proinflammatory signaling in the ovary. Multivariate Association with Linear Models identified significant positive correlations between cecum abundance of the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae and ovarian abundance of Tnfa as well as Dppa3, Bnc1, and Pou5f1 mRNAs. Together, these data suggest that diet-induced changes in gut microbial composition may be contributing to ovarian inflammation which in turn alters ovarian gene expression and ultimately contributes to obesity-dependent reduction in oocyte quality and development of infertility in obese patients.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018660(United States)

Ouabain-induced changes in MAP kinase phosphorylation in primary culture of rat cerebellar cells.

  • Lopachev AV
  • Cell Biochem. Funct.
  • 2016 Jul 24

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Abstract:

Cardiotonic steroid (CTS) ouabain is a well-established inhibitor of Na,K-ATPase capable of inducing signalling processes including changes in the activity of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) in various cell types. With increasing evidence of endogenous CTS in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, it is of particular interest to study ouabain-induced signalling in neurons, especially the activation of MAPK, because they are the key kinases activated in response to extracellular signals and regulating cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the effect of ouabain on the level of phosphorylation of three MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) and on cell survival in the primary culture of rat cerebellar cells. Using Western blotting we described the time course and concentration dependence of phosphorylation for ERK1/2, JNK and p38 in response to ouabain. We discovered that ouabain at a concentration of 1 μM does not cause cell death in cultured neurons while it changes the phosphorylation level of the three MAPK: ERK1/2 is phosphorylated transiently, p38 shows sustained phosphorylation, and JNK is dephosphorylated after a long-term incubation. We showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation increase does not depend on ouabain-induced calcium increase and p38 activation. Changes in p38 phosphorylation, which is independent from ERK1/2 activation, are calcium dependent. Changes in JNK phosphorylation are calcium dependent and also depend on ERK1/2 and p38 activation. Ten-micromolar ouabain leads to cell death, and we conclude that different effects of 1-μM and 10-μM ouabain depend on different ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation profiles. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS042225(United States)

An ShRNA Screen Identifies MEIS1 as a Driver of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

  • Patel AV
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Jul 1

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Abstract:

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare soft tissue sarcomas that are a major source of mortality in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. To identify MPNST driver genes, we performed a lentiviral short hairpin (sh) RNA screen, targeting all 130 genes up-regulated in neurofibroma and MPNSTs versus normal human nerve Schwann cells. NF1 mutant cells show activation of RAS/MAPK signaling, so a counter-screen in RAS mutant carcinoma cells was performed to exclude common RAS-pathway driven genes. We identified 7 genes specific for survival of MPSNT cells, including MEIS1. MEIS1 was frequently amplified or hypomethylated in human MPSNTs, correlating with elevated MEIS1 gene expression. In MPNST cells and in a genetically engineered mouse model, MEIS1 expression in developing nerve glial cells was necessary for MPNST growth. Mechanistically, MEIS1 drives MPNST cell growth via the transcription factor ID1, thereby suppressing expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip) and maintaining cell survival.

Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Plays an Essential Role in Male Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Proliferation, Differentiation, and Response to Injury.

  • Milanesi A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

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Abstract:

Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in myogenesis, the process required for skeletal muscle development and repair, although the mechanisms have not been established. Skeletal muscle develops from the fusion of precursor myoblasts into myofibers. We have used the C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, primary myoblasts, and mouse models of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) α and β, to determine the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of myoblast differentiation. T3, which activates thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, increased myoblast differentiation whereas GC1, a selective TRβ agonist, was minimally effective. Genetic approaches confirmed that TRα plays an important role in normal myoblast proliferation and differentiation and acts through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Myoblasts with TRα knockdown, or derived from RTH-TRα PV (a frame-shift mutation) mice, displayed reduced proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Moreover, skeletal muscle from the TRα1PV mutant mouse had impaired in vivo regeneration after injury. RTH-TRβ PV mutant mouse model skeletal muscle and derived primary myoblasts did not have altered proliferation, myogenic differentiation, or response to injury when compared with control. In conclusion, TRα plays an essential role in myoblast homeostasis and provides a potential therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103723(United States)

Fingolimod induces the transition to a nerve regeneration promoting Schwann cell phenotype.

  • Heinen A
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is mainly attributed to the plastic behavior of Schwann cells. Upon loss of axons, these cells trans-differentiate into regeneration promoting repair cells which provide trophic support to regrowing axons. Among others, activation of cJun was revealed to be involved in this process, initiating the stereotypic pattern of Schwann cell phenotype alterations during Wallerian degeneration. Nevertheless, the ability of Schwann cells to adapt and therefore the nerve's potential to regenerate can be limited in particular after long term denervation or in neuropathies leading to incomplete regeneration only and thus emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Here we stimulated primary neonatal and adult rat Schwann cells with Fingolimod/FTY720P and investigated its impact on the regeneration promoting phenotype. FTY720P activated a number of de-differentiation markers including cJun and interfered with maturation marker and myelin expression. Functionally, FTY720P treated Schwann cells upregulated growth factor expression and these cells enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that FTY720P application supports the generation of a repair promoting cellular phenotype and suggest that Fingolimod could be used as treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and diseases.

Registered report: A coding-independent function of gene and pseudogene mRNAs regulates tumour biology.

  • Cowley D
  • Elife
  • 2015 Sep 3

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Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'A coding-independent function of gene and pseudogene mRNAs regulates tumour biology' by Poliseno et al. (2010), published in Nature in 2010. The key experiments to be replicated are reported in Figures 1D, 2F-H, and 4A. In these experiments, Poliseno and colleagues report microRNAs miR-19b and miR-20a transcriptionally suppress both PTEN and PTENP1 in prostate cancer cells (Figure 1D; Poliseno et al., 2010). Decreased expression of PTEN and/or PTENP1 resulted in downregulated PTEN protein levels (Figure 2H), downregulation of both mRNAs (Figure 2G), and increased tumor cell proliferation (Figure 2F; Poliseno et al., 2010). Furthermore, overexpression of the PTEN 3' UTR enhanced PTENP1 mRNA abundance limiting tumor cell proliferation, providing additional evidence for the co-regulation of PTEN and PTENP1 (Figure 4A; Poliseno et al., 2010). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - AG025688(United States)

The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in insulin regulation of food intake, body weight, and sympathetic nerve activity in male mice.

  • Muta K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

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Abstract:

Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Down-regulation of KCC2 expression and phosphorylation in motoneurons, and increases the number of in primary afferent projections to motoneurons in mice with post-stroke spasticity.

  • Toda T
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Dec 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spasticity obstructs motor function recovery post-stroke, and has been reported to occur in spinal cord injury and electrophysiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess spinal cord circuit spasticity in post-stroke mice. At 3, 7, 21, and 42 d after photothrombotic ischemic cortical injury in C57BL/6J mice, we observed decreased rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) in the affected forelimb of mice compared with the limbs of sham mice and the non-affected forelimb. This finding suggests a hyper-excitable stretch reflex in the affected forelimb. We then performed immunohistochemical and western blot analyses to examine the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and phosphorylation of the KCC2 serine residue, 940 (S940), since this is the main chloride extruder that affects neuronal excitability. We also performed immunohistochemical analyses on the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1)-positive boutons to count the number of Ia afferent fibers that connect to motoneurons. Western bolts revealed that, compared with sham mice, experimental mice had significantly reduced KCC2 expression at 7 d post-stroke, and dephosphorylated S940 at 3 and 7 d post-stroke in motoneuron plasma membranes. We also observed a lower density of KCC2-positive areas in the plasma membrane of motoneurons at 3 and 7 d post-stroke. However, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there were no differences between groups 21 and 42 d post-stroke, respectively. In addition, at 7 and 42 d post-stroke, experimental mice exhibited a significant increase in vGluT1 boutons compared with sham mice. Our findings suggest that both the down-regulation of KCC2 and increases in Ia afferent fibers are involved in post-stroke spasticity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH106013(United States)

Synaptic and cognitive improvements by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are through upregulation of microRNA-188-3p in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Zhang J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Abnormal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant Aβ formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for Aβ formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, Aβ, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists and suppressed by PPARγ antagonism or NF-κB activation. Reducing Aβ and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPARγ antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPARγ activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-κB. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and Aβ formation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA193419(United States)

Filamin A (FLNA) plays an essential role in somatostatin receptor 2 (SST2) signaling and stabilization after agonist stimulation in human and rat somatotroph tumor cells.

  • Peverelli E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

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Abstract:

Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of medical therapy for GH-secreting pituitary tumors, but molecular mechanisms regulating its expression and signaling are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA) in SST2 expression and signaling in somatotroph tumor cells. We found a highly variable expression of FLNA in human GH-secreting tumors, without a correlation with SST2 levels. FLNA silencing in human tumoral cells did not affect SST2 expression and localization but abolished the SST2-induced reduction of cyclin D1 (-37% ± 15% in control cells, P < .05 vs basal) and caspase-3/7 activation (+63% ± 31% in control cells, P < .05 vs basal). Overexpression of a FLNA dominant-negative mutant that specifically prevents SST2-FLNA binding reduced SST2 expression after prolonged agonist exposure (-55% ± 5%, P < .01 vs untreated cells) in GH3 cells. Moreover, SST2-induced apoptotic effect (77% ± 54% increase of caspase activity, P < .05 vs basal) and SST2-mediated ERK1/2 inhibition (48% ± 17% reduction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, P < .01 vs basal) were abrogated in cells overexpressing another FLNA mutant that prevents FLNA interaction with partner proteins but not with SST2, suggesting a scaffold function of FLNA in somatotrophs. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that FLNA is involved in SST2 stabilization and signaling in tumoral somatotrophs, playing both a structural and functional role.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023061(United States)

Molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid arrhythmogenic action of bisphenol A in female rat hearts.

  • Gao X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

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Abstract:

Previously we showed that bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptor, rapidly altered Ca(2+) handling and promoted arrhythmias in female rat hearts. The underlying molecular mechanism was not known. Here we examined the cardiac-specific signaling mechanism mediating the rapid impact of low-dose BPA in female rat ventricular myocytes. We showed that protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling pathways are the two major pathways activated by BPA. Exposure to 1 nM BPA rapidly increased production of cAMP and rapidly but transiently increased the phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptors by PKA but not by CAMKII. BPA also rapidly increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), a key regulator protein of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake, by CAMKII but not PKA. The increase in CAMKII phosphorylation of PLN was mediated by phospholipase C and inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release, likely from the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) storage. These two pathways are likely localized, impacting only their respective target proteins. The rapid impacts of BPA on ryanodine receptors and PLN phosphorylation were mediated by estrogen receptor-β but not estrogen receptor-α. BPA's rapid signaling in cardiac myocytes did not involve activation of ERK1/2. Functional analysis showed that PKA but not CAMKII activation contributed to BPA-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak, and both PKA and CAMKII were necessary contributors to the stimulatory effect of BPA on arrhythmogenesis. These results provide mechanistic insight into BPA's rapid proarrhythmic actions in female cardiac myocytes and contribute to the assessment of the consequence and potential cardiac toxicity of BPA exposure.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078041(United States)

TGF-β superfamily member Nodal stimulates human β-cell proliferation while maintaining cellular viability.

  • Boerner BP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In an effort to expand human islets and enhance allogeneic islet transplant for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, identifying signaling pathways that stimulate human β-cell proliferation is paramount. TGF-β superfamily members, in particular activin-A, are likely involved in islet development and may contribute to β-cell proliferation. Nodal, another TGF-β member, is present in both embryonic and adult rodent islets. Nodal, along with its coreceptor, Cripto, are pro-proliferative factors in certain cell types. Although Nodal stimulates apoptosis of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1), Nodal and Cripto signaling have not been studied in the context of human islets. The current study investigated the effects of Nodal and Cripto on human β-cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. In the human pancreas and isolated human islets, we observed Nodal mRNA and protein expression, with protein expression observed in β and α-cells. Cripto expression was absent from human islets. Furthermore, in cultured human islets, exogenous Nodal stimulated modest β-cell proliferation and inhibited α-cell proliferation with no effect on cellular viability, apoptosis, or differentiation. Nodal stimulated the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2, with no effect on AKT or MAPK signaling, suggesting phosphorylated SMAD signaling was involved in β-cell proliferation. Cripto had no effect on human islet cell proliferation, differentiation, or viability. In conclusion, Nodal stimulates human β-cell proliferation while maintaining cellular viability. Nodal signaling warrants further exploration to better understand and enhance human β-cell proliferative capacity.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41 EB015896(United States)