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Anti-Post Synaptic Density Protein 95, clone 6G6-1C9 antibody

RRID:AB_2092365

Antibody ID

AB_2092365

Target Antigen

Dlg4 rat, mouse

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# MAB1596, RRID:AB_2092365)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: western blot, immunocytochemistry

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Millipore

The Microglial Innate Immune Receptor TREM2 Is Required for Synapse Elimination and Normal Brain Connectivity.

  • Filipello F
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial innate immune receptor associated with a lethal form of early, progressive dementia, Nasu-Hakola disease, and with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial defects in phagocytosis of toxic aggregates or apoptotic membranes were proposed to be at the origin of the pathological processes in the presence of Trem2 inactivating mutations. Here, we show that TREM2 is essential for microglia-mediated synaptic refinement during the early stages of brain development. The absence of Trem2 resulted in impaired synapse elimination, accompanied by enhanced excitatory neurotransmission and reduced long-range functional connectivity. Trem2-/- mice displayed repetitive behavior and altered sociability. TREM2 protein levels were also negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms in humans affected by autism. These data unveil the role of TREM2 in neuronal circuit sculpting and provide the evidence for the receptor's involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA156700(United States)

Brain phospholipid precursors administered post-injury reduce tissue damage and improve neurological outcome in experimental traumatic brain injury.

  • Thau-Zuchman O
  • J. Neurotrauma
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilisation of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PL), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesised that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome after TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of phospholipids and available for clinical use. The multi-nutrient Fortasyn® Connect (FC) contains polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, choline, uridine, vitamins, co-factors required for PL biosynthesis, and has been shown to have significant beneficial effects in early Alzheimer's disease. Male C57BL/6 mice received a controlled cortical impact injury and then were fed a control diet or a diet enriched with FC for 70 days. FC led to a significantly improved sensorimotor outcome and cognition, reduced lesion size and oligodendrocyte loss, and it restored myelin. It reversed the loss of the synaptic protein synaptophysin and decreased levels of the axon growth inhibitor Nogo-A, thus creating a permissive environment. It decreased microglia activation and the rise in ß-amyloid precursor protein and restored the depressed neurogenesis. The effects of this medical multi-nutrient suggest that support of PL biosynthesis after TBI, a new treatment paradigm, has significant therapeutic potential in this neurological condition for which there is no satisfactory treatment. The multi-nutrient tested has been used in dementia patients, is safe and well-tolerated, which would enable rapid clinical exploration in TBI.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - K-0912(United Kingdom)

TDP-43 Depletion in Microglia Promotes Amyloid Clearance but Also Induces Synapse Loss.

  • Paolicelli RC
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia coordinate various functions in the central nervous system ranging from removing synaptic connections, to maintaining brain homeostasis by monitoring neuronal function, and clearing protein aggregates across the lifespan. Here we investigated whether increased microglial phagocytic activity that clears amyloid can also cause pathological synapse loss. We identified TDP-43, a DNA-RNA binding protein encoded by the Tardbp gene, as a strong regulator of microglial phagocytosis. Mice lacking TDP-43 in microglia exhibit reduced amyloid load in a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but at the same time display drastic synapse loss, even in the absence of amyloid. Clinical examination from TDP-43 pathology cases reveal a considerably reduced prevalence of AD and decreased amyloid pathology compared to age-matched healthy controls, confirming our experimental results. Overall, our data suggest that dysfunctional microglia might play a causative role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, critically modulating the early stages of cognitive decline.

Spatial patterning of excitatory and inhibitory neuropil territories during spinal circuit development.

  • Yan Q
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites. However, systems-level E/I patterns, at spatial scales larger than single neurons, are largely uncharted. We used immunostaining for PSD-95 and gephyrin postsynaptic scaffolding proteins as proxies for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, to quantify the numbers and map the distributions of E/I synapses in zebrafish spinal cord at both an embryonic stage and a larval stage. At the embryonic stage, we found that PSD-95 puncta outnumber gephyrin puncta, with the number of gephyrin puncta increasing to match that of PSD-95 puncta at the larval stage. At both stages, PSD-95 puncta are enriched in the most lateral neuropil corresponding to distal dendrites while gephyrin puncta are enriched on neuronal somata and in the medial neuropil. Significantly, similar to synaptic puncta, neuronal processes also exhibit medial-lateral territories at both developmental stages with enrichment of glutamatergic (excitatory) processes laterally and glycinergic (inhibitory) processes medially. This establishment of neuropil excitatory-inhibitory structure largely precedes dendritic arborization of primary motor neurons, suggesting that the structured neuropil could provide a framework for the development of E/I balance at the cellular level. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1649-1667, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.

  • Cao M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients. Synapses of these mice displayed endocytic defects and a striking accumulation of clathrin-coated intermediates, strongly implicating Sac domain's activity in endocytic protein dynamics. Mutant brains had elevated auxilin (PARK19) and parkin (PARK2) levels. Moreover, dystrophic axonal terminal changes were selectively observed in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum. These results strengthen evidence for a link between synaptic endocytic dysfunction and Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103412()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036942()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036942()

Optogenetic Control of Synaptic Composition and Function.

  • Sinnen BL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane is sculpted by synaptic activity. During synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses, numerous structural, signaling, and receptor molecules concentrate at the postsynaptic density (PSD) to regulate synaptic strength. We developed an approach that uses light to tune the abundance of specific molecules in the PSD. We used this approach to investigate the relationship between the number of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the PSD and synaptic strength. Surprisingly, adding more AMPA receptors to excitatory contacts had little effect on synaptic strength. Instead, we observed increased excitatory input through the apparent addition of new functional sites. Our data support a model where adding AMPA receptors is sufficient to activate synapses that had few receptors to begin with, but that additional remodeling events are required to strengthen established synapses. More broadly, this approach introduces the precise spatiotemporal control of optogenetics to the molecular control of synaptic function.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001082()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - T32 AA007464()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD041697()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007635()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F30 NS092421()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040701()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS082271()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS040701()

Expression and cellular localization of the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ3 in the rodent retina.

  • Pérez de Sevilla Müller L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-voltage-activated calcium channels are hetero-oligomeric protein complexes that mediate multiple cellular processes, including the influx of extracellular Ca(2+), neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, and synaptic plasticity. These channels consist of a primary α(1) pore-forming subunit, which is associated with an extracellular α(2)δ subunit and an intracellular β auxiliary subunit, which alter the gating properties and trafficking of the calcium channel. The cellular localization of the α(2)δ(3) subunit in the mouse and rat retina is unknown. In this study using RT-PCR, a single band at ∼ 305 bp corresponding to the predicted size of the α(2)δ(3) subunit fragment was found in mouse and rat retina and brain homogenates. Western blotting of rodent retina and brain homogenates showed a single 123-kDa band. Immunohistochemistry with an affinity-purified antibody to the α(2)δ(3) subunit revealed immunoreactive cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer and immunoreactive processes in the inner plexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer. α(2)δ(3) immunoreactivity was localized to multiple cell types, including ganglion, amacrine, and bipolar cells and photoreceptors, but not horizontal cells. The expression of the α(2)δ(3) calcium channel subunit to multiple cell types suggests that this subunit participates widely in Ca-channel-mediated signaling in the retina.

Postnatal expression of neurotrophic factors accessible to spiral ganglion neurons in the auditory system of adult hearing and deafened rats.

  • Bailey EM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) receive input from cochlear hair cells and project from the cochlea to the cochlear nucleus. After destruction of hair cells with aminoglycoside antibiotics or noise, SGNs gradually die. It has been assumed that SGN death is attributable to loss of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) derived from hair cells or supporting cells in the organ of Corti (OC). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assay NTF expression-neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), BDNF, GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and CNTF-in the OC and cochlear nucleus at various ages from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P90 in control hearing and neonatally deafened rats. NT-3, neurturin, and CNTF were most abundant in the postnatal hearing OC; CNTF and neurturin most abundant in the cochlear nucleus. In the OC, NT-3 and CNTF showed a postnatal increase in expression approximately concomitant with hearing onset. In rats deafened by daily kanamycin injections (from P8 to P16), surviving inner hair cells were evident at P16 but absent by P19, with most postsynaptic boutons lost before P16. NT-3 and CNTF, which normally increase postnatally, had significantly reduced expression in the OC of deafened rats, although CNTF was expressed throughout the time that SGNs were dying. In contrast, neurturin expression was constant, unaffected by deafening or by age. CNTF and neurturin expression in the cochlear nucleus was unaffected by deafening or age. Thus, NTFs other than NT-3 are available to SGNs even as they are dying after deafening, apparently conflicting with the hypothesis that SGN death is attributable to lack of NTFs.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY016155(United States)

The X-linked mental retardation protein OPHN1 interacts with Homer1b/c to control spine endocytic zone positioning and expression of synaptic potentiation.

  • Nakano-Kobayashi A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

At glutamatergic synapses, local endocytic recycling of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is important for the supply of a mobile pool of AMPARs required for synaptic potentiation. This local recycling of AMPARs critically relies on the presence of an endocytic zone (EZ) near the postsynaptic density (PSD). The precise mechanisms that couple the EZ to the PSD still remain largely elusive, with the large GTPase Dynamin-3 and the multimeric PSD adaptor protein Homer1 as the two main players identified. Here, we demonstrate that a physical interaction between the X-linked mental retardation protein oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) and Homer1b/c is crucial for the positioning of the EZ adjacent to the PSD, and present evidence that this interaction is important for OPHN1's role in controlling activity-dependent strengthening of excitatory synapses in the rat hippocampus. Disruption of the OPHN1-Homer1b/c interaction causes a displacement of EZs from the PSD, along with impaired AMPAR recycling and reduced AMPAR accumulation at synapses, in both basal conditions and conditions that can induce synaptic potentiation. Together, our findings unveil a novel role for OPHN1 as an interaction partner of Homer1b/c in spine EZ positioning, and provide new mechanistic insight into how genetic deficits in OPHN1 can lead to impaired synapse maturation and plasticity.

Expression of voltage-gated calcium channel α(2)δ(4) subunits in the mouse and rat retina.

  • De Sevilla Müller LP
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-voltage activated Ca channels participate in multiple cellular functions, including transmitter release, excitation, and gene transcription. Ca channels are heteromeric proteins consisting of a pore-forming α(1) subunit and auxiliary α(2)δ and β subunits. Although there are reports of α(2)δ(4) subunit mRNA in the mouse retina and localization of the α(2)δ(4) subunit immunoreactivity to salamander photoreceptor terminals, there is a limited overall understanding of its expression and localization in the retina. α(2)δ(4) subunit expression and distribution in the mouse and rat retina were evaluated by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry with specific primers and a well-characterized antibody to the α(2)δ(4) subunit. α(2)δ(4) subunit mRNA and protein are present in mouse and rat retina, brain, and liver homogenates. Immunostaining for the α(2)δ(4) subunit is mainly localized to Müller cell processes and endfeet, photoreceptor terminals, and photoreceptor outer segments. This subunit is also expressed in a few displaced ganglion cells and bipolar cell dendrites. These findings suggest that the α(2)δ(4) subunit participates in the modulation of L-type Ca(2+) current regulating neurotransmitter release from photoreceptor terminals and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways in bipolar and Müller cells.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19AI110820(United States)

Synaptic and nonsynaptic localization of protocadherin-gammaC5 in the rat brain.

  • Li Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been proposed that gamma-protocadherins (Pcdh-gammas) are involved in the establishment of specific patterns of neuronal connectivity. Contrary to the other Pcdh-gammas, which are expressed in the embryo, Pcdh-gammaC5 is expressed postnatally in the brain, coinciding with the peak of synaptogenesis. We have developed an antibody specific for Pcdh-gammaC5 to study the expression and localization of Pcdh-gammaC5 in brain. Pcdh-gammaC5 is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, dentate gyrus, CA1 region of the hippocampus, layers I and II of the cerebral cortex, and molecular layer of the cerebellum. Pcdh-gammaC5 is expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, and in the absence of astrocytes, a significant percentage of synapses, more GABAergic than glutamatergic, have associated Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters. Some GABAergic axons show Pcdh-gammaC5 in the majority of their synapses. Nevertheless, many Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters are not associated with synapses. In the brain, significant numbers of Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters are located at contact points between neurons and astrocytes. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of the rat brain shows that 1) Pcdh-gammaC5 is present in some GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses both pre- and postsynaptically; 2) Pcdh-gammaC5 is also extrasynaptically localized in membranes and in cytoplasmic organelles of neurons and astrocytes; and 3) Pcdh-gammaC5 is also localized in perisynaptic astrocyte processes. The results support the notions that 1) Pcdh-gammaC5 plays a role in synaptic specificity and/or synaptic maturation and 2) Pcdh-gammaC5 is involved in neuron-neuron synaptic interactions and in neuron-astrocyte interactions, including perisynaptic neuron-astrocyte interactions.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32HL007638(United States)