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Caspr antibody

RRID:AB_2083496

Antibody ID

AB_2083496

Target Antigen

Caspr null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-001, RRID:AB_2083496)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

K65/35

Host Organism

mouse

Simultaneous Ablation of Neuronal Neurofascin and Ankyrin G in Young and Adult Mice Reveals Age-Dependent Increase in Nodal Stability in Myelinated Axons and Differential Effects on the Lifespan.

  • Taylor AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nodes of Ranvier are unique regions where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly enriched to drive saltatory conduction. Genetic ablations in adult mice with loss of specific nodal proteins causes slow but progressive nodal deterioration associated with decreased nerve conduction and axonopathy. What has remained unaddressed is whether loss of nodal proteins at different time points in postnatal life follows similar timelines of nodal disorganization. Here we utilized simultaneous ablation of Neurofascin (NF186) and Ankyrin G (AnkG) in mice of both sexes at three specific time points. We report that concurrent ablation of these core nodal components at postnatal day 13 (P13) leads to accelerated nodal destabilization in comparison with P23, and this disorganization is even slower when ablated at P93. Ablation of NF186 with AnkG at P13 reduced the half-life of NF186 to 15 days compared to 1 month at P23, which increased to 2 months at P93, indicating increasing nodal stability. The half-life of AnkG at the nodes also increased with age but showed enhanced disappearance from the node in the absence of NF186, with a half-life of 3 days at P13 ablation. The nodal disorganization occurred in a sequential manner, with AnkG disappearing first from the nodal areas irrespective of the timing of ablation, and led to decreased nerve conduction and affected axonal health. Together, our studies reveal that nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons continue to become more stable with age and suggest that nodal disorganization in adult human demyelinating disorders occurs slowly until neurological symptoms become evident.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C4909/A5942(United Kingdom)

Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) exhibits stage- and context-dependent transcriptional controls in the oligodendrocyte lineage and modulates remyelination.

  • Davidson NL
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF), a zinc-finger transcription factor encoded by Zbtb7a, is a protooncogene that regulates differentiation in diverse cell lineages, and in the CNS, its function is relatively unexplored. This study is the first to examine the role of LRF in CNS pathology. We first examined LRF expression in a murine viral model of spinal cord demyelination with clinically relevant lesion characteristics. LRF was rarely expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitors (OP) yet, was detected in nuclei of the majority of oligodendrocytes in healthy adult CNS and during remyelination. Plp/CreERT :Zbtb7afl/fl mice were then used with cuprizone demyelination to determine the effect of LRF knockdown on oligodendrocyte repopulation and remyelination. Cuprizone was given for 6 weeks to demyelinate the corpus callosum. Tamoxifen was administered at 4, 5, or 6 weeks after the start of cuprizone. Tamoxifen-induced knockdown of LRF impaired remyelination during 3 or 6-week recovery periods after cuprizone. LRF knockdown earlier within the oligodendrocyte lineage using NG2CreERT :Zbtb7afl/fl mice reduced myelination after 6 weeks of cuprizone. LRF knockdown from either the Plp/CreERT line or the NG2CreERT line did not significantly change OP or oligodendrocyte populations. In vitro promoter assays demonstrated the potential for LRF to regulate transcription of myelin-related genes and the notch target Hes5, which has been implicated in control of myelin formation and repair. In summary, in the oligodendrocyte lineage, LRF is expressed mainly in oligodendrocytes but is not required for oligodendrocyte repopulation of demyelinated lesions. Furthermore, LRF can modulate the extent of remyelination, potentially by contributing to interactions regulating transcription.

Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals Its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons.

  • Saifetiarova J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability, and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled. Using a mouse model system, we report here that perinatal and juvenile neuronal ablation of AnkG has differential consequences on nodal stability. Early loss of AnkG creates immature nodes with abnormal morphology, which undergo accelerated destabilization within a month, resulting in rapid voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel and βIV spectrin loss with reduced effects on neurofascin 186. On the other hand, late ablation of AnkG from established nodal complexes leads to slow but progressive nodal destabilization over 10 months, primarily affecting βIV spectrin, followed by NaV channels, with modest impact on neurofascin 186. We also show that ankyrin R and βI spectrin are not sufficient to prevent nodal disorganization after AnkG ablation. Additionally, nodal disorganization in both early and late AnkG mutants is accompanied by axonal pathology and neurological dysfunction. Together, our results suggest that AnkG plays an indispensable role in the maturation and long-term stabilization of the newly assembled nodal complex, and that loss of AnkG after nodal stabilization does not lead to rapid nodal disassembly but to loss of specific nodal components in a time-dependent manner.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nodes of Ranvier are the myelin-free gaps along myelinated axons that allow fast communication between neurons and their target cells by propagating action potentials in a saltatory manner. The cytoskeletal scaffolding protein ankyrin G (AnkG) has been thought to play an important role in node formation; however, its precise role in nodal assembly, stability, and maintenance is still not clear. By using spatiotemporal ablation of AnkG, we report its differential role in nodal maturation and stabilization. We show that early AnkG-deficient nodes fail to mature and undergo rapid destabilization. In contrast, nodes that assemble with AnkG are much more stable and undergo gradual disintegration with sequential loss of nodal components in the absence of AnkG.

Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

  • Kadam PD
  • Int Urogynecol J
  • 2016 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG005855(United States)

Age-related differences in oligodendrogenesis across the dorsal-ventral axis of the mouse hippocampus.

  • Yamada J
  • Hippocampus
  • 2014 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) continue to divide and generate new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the healthy adult brain. Although recent studies have indicated that adult oligodendrogenesis may be vital for the maintenance of normal brain function, the significance of adult oligodendrogenesis in brain aging remains unclear. In this study, we report a stereological estimation of age-related oligodendrogenesis changes in the mouse hippocampus: the dorsal subdivision is related to learning and memory, while the ventral subdivision is involved in emotional behaviors. To identify OPCs and OLs, we used a set of molecular markers, OL lineage transcription factor (Olig2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFαR). Intracellular dye injection shows that PDGFαR+/Olig2+ cells and PDGFαR-/Olig2+ cells can be defined as OPCs and OLs, respectively. In the dorsal Ammon's horn, the numbers of OPCs decreased with age, while those of OLs remained unchanged during aging. In the ventral Ammon's horn, the numbers of OPCs and OLs generally decreased with age. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) fate-tracing analysis revealed that the numbers of BrdU+ mitotic OPCs in the Ammon's horn remained unchanged during aging in both the dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Unexpectedly, the numbers of BrdU+ newly generated OLs increased with age in the dorsal Ammon's horn, but remained unchanged in the ventral Ammon's horn. Together, the numbers of OLs in the dorsal Ammon's horn may be maintained during aging by increased survival of adult born OLs, while the numbers of OLs in the ventral Ammon's horn may be reduced with age due to the lack of such compensatory mechanisms. These observations provide new insight into the involvement of adult oligodendrogenesis in age-related changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)

Progressive disorganization of paranodal junctions and compact myelin due to loss of DCC expression by oligodendrocytes.

  • Bull SJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Paranodal axoglial junctions are critical for maintaining the segregation of axonal domains along myelinated axons; however, the proteins required to organize and maintain this structure are not fully understood. Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) are proteins enriched at paranodes that are expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes. To identify the specific function of DCC expressed by oligodendrocytes in vivo, we selectively eliminated DCC from mature myelinating oligodendrocytes using an inducible cre regulated by the proteolipid protein promoter. We demonstrate that DCC deletion results in progressive disruption of the organization of axonal domains, myelin ultrastructure, and myelin protein composition. Conditional DCC knock-out mice develop balance and coordination deficits and exhibit decreased conduction velocity. We conclude that DCC expression by oligodendrocytes is required for the maintenance and stability of myelin in vivo, which is essential for proper signal conduction in the CNS.

Transplantation reveals regional differences in oligodendrocyte differentiation in the adult brain.

  • Viganò F
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

To examine the role of gray and white matter niches for oligodendrocyte differentiation, we used homo- and heterotopic transplantations into the adult mouse cerebral cortex. White matter-derived cells differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes in both niches with equal efficiency, whereas gray matter-derived cells did not. Thus, white matter promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation, and cells from this niche differentiate more easily, even in the less supportive gray matter environment.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103527(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH076136(United States)

An efficient method for dorsal root ganglia neurons purification with a one-time anti-mitotic reagent treatment.

  • Liu R
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2013 Apr 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron is an invaluable tool in axon growth, growth factor regulation, myelin formation and myelin-relevant researches. The purification of DRG neurons is a key step in these studies. Traditionally, purified DRG neurons were obtained in two weeks after exposure to several rounds of anti-mitotic reagent. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this report, a novel, simple and efficient method for DRG purification is presented. DRG cultures were treated once with a high-dose anti-mitotic reagent cocktail for 72 hours. Using this new method, DRG neurons were obtained with 99% purification within 1 week. We confirmed that the neurite growth and the viability of the purified DRG neurons have no difference from the DRG neurons purified by traditional method. Furthermore, P0 and MBP expression was observed in myelin by immunocytochemistry in the DRG/SC co-culture system. The formation of mature node of Ranvier in DRG-Schwann cell co-culture system was observed using anti-Nav 1.6 and anti-caspr antibody. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that this high dose single treatment did not compromise the capacity of DRG neurons for myelin formation in the DRG/SC co-culture system. In conclusion, a convenient approach for purifying DRG neurons was developed which is time-saving and high-efficiency.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK035385(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM62414(United States)

Isoflurane-induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the neonatal primate brain.

  • Brambrink AM
  • Ann. Neurol.
  • 2012 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Previously we reported that exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane for 5 hours triggers a robust neuroapoptosis response in developing brain. We have also observed (unpublished data) that isoflurane causes apoptosis of cellular profiles in the white matter that resemble glia. We analyzed the cellular identity of the apoptotic white matter profiles and determined the magnitude of this cell death response to isoflurane. METHODS: Neonatal (P6) rhesus macaques were exposed for 5 hours to isoflurane anesthesia according to current clinical standards in pediatric anesthesia. Brains were collected 3 hours later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze apoptotic neuronal and glial death. RESULTS: Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed significant apoptosis in both the white and gray matter throughout the central nervous system. Approximately 52% of the dying cells were glia, and 48% were neurons. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) engaged in myelinogenesis were selectively vulnerable, in contrast to OL progenitors, astrocytes, microglia, and interstitial neurons. When adjusted for control rates of OL apoptosis, the percentage of OLs that degenerated in the forebrain white matter of the isoflurane-treated group was 6.3% of the total population of myelinating OLs. INTERPRETATION: Exposure of the infant rhesus macaque brain to isoflurane for 5 hours is sufficient to cause widespread apoptosis of neurons and OLs throughout the developing brain. Deletion of OLs at a stage when they are just beginning to myelinate axons could potentially have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences that might be additive to the potential consequences of isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/C509566/1(United Kingdom)

Benefits and pitfalls of secondary antibodies: why choosing the right secondary is of primary importance.

  • Manning CF
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40-RR17072(United States)

An ankyrinG-binding motif is necessary and sufficient for targeting Nav1.6 sodium channels to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier.

  • Gasser A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons are highly polarized cells with functionally distinct axonal and somatodendritic compartments. Voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.6 are highly enriched at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, where they are necessary for generation and propagation of action potentials. Previous studies using reporter proteins in unmyelinated cultured neurons suggest that an ankyrinG-binding motif within intracellular loop 2 (L2) of sodium channels is sufficient for targeting these channels to the AIS, but mechanisms of channel targeting to nodes remain poorly understood. Using a CD4-Na(v)1.2/L2 reporter protein in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron-Schwann cell myelinating cocultures, we show that the ankyrinG-binding motif is sufficient for protein targeting to nodes of Ranvier. However, reporter proteins cannot capture the complexity of full-length channels. To determine how native, full-length sodium channels are clustered in axons, and to show the feasibility of studying these channels in vivo, we constructed fluorescently tagged and functional mouse Na(v)1.6 channels for in vivo analysis using in utero brain electroporation. We show here that wild-type tagged-Na(v)1.6 channels are efficiently clustered at nodes and AISs in vivo. Furthermore, we show that mutation of a single invariant glutamic acid residue (E1100) within the ankyrinG-binding motif blocked Na(v)1.6 targeting in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we show that caseine kinase phosphorylation sites within this motif, while not essential for targeting, can modulate clustering at the AIS. Thus, the ankyrinG-binding motif is both necessary and sufficient for the clustering of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier and the AIS.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002787-19(United States)

Paranodal myelin damage after acute stretch in Guinea pig spinal cord.

  • Sun W
  • J. Neurotrauma
  • 2012 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanical injury causes myelin disruption and subsequent axonal conduction failure in the mammalian spinal cord. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In mammalian myelinated axons, proper paranodal myelin structure is crucial for the generation and propagation of action potentials. The exposure of potassium channels at the juxtaparanodal region due to myelin disruption is thought to induce outward potassium currents and inhibit the genesis of the action potential, leading to conduction failure. Using multimodal imaging techniques, we provided anatomical evidence demonstrating paranodal myelin disruption and consequent exposure and redistribution of potassium channels following mechanical insult in the guinea pig spinal cord. Decompaction of paranodal myelin was also observed. It was shown that paranodal demyelination can result from both an initial physical impact and secondary biochemical reactions that are calcium dependent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), a known potassium channel blocker, can partially restore axonal conduction, which further implicates the role of potassium channels in conduction failure. We provide important evidence of paranodal myelin damage, the role of potassium channels in conduction loss, and the therapeutic value of potassium blockade as an effective intervention to restore function following spinal cord trauma.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA133346(United States)

Rapid disruption of axon-glial integrity in response to mild cerebral hypoperfusion.

  • Reimer MM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelinated axons have a distinct protein architecture essential for action potential propagation, neuronal communication, and maintaining cognitive function. Damage to myelinated axons, associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, contributes to age-related cognitive decline. We sought to determine early alterations in the protein architecture of myelinated axons and potential mechanisms after hypoperfusion. Using a mouse model of hypoperfusion, we assessed changes in proteins critical to the maintenance of paranodes, nodes of Ranvier, axon-glial integrity, axons, and myelin by confocal laser scanning microscopy. As early as 3 d after hypoperfusion, the paranodal septate-like junctions were damaged. This was marked by a progressive reduction of paranodal Neurofascin signal and a loss of septate-like junctions. Concurrent with paranodal disruption, there was a significant increase in nodal length, identified by Nav1.6 staining, with hypoperfusion. Disruption of axon-glial integrity was also determined after hypoperfusion by changes in the spatial distribution of myelin-associated glycoprotein staining. These nodal/paranodal changes were more pronounced after 1 month of hypoperfusion. In contrast, the nodal anchoring proteins AnkyrinG and Neurofascin 186 were unchanged and there were no overt changes in axonal and myelin integrity with hypoperfusion. A microarray analysis of white matter samples indicated that there were significant alterations in 129 genes. Subsequent analysis indicated alterations in biological pathways, including inflammatory responses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, blood vessel development, and cell proliferation processes. Our results demonstrate that hypoperfusion leads to a rapid disruption of key proteins critical to the stability of the axon-glial connection that is mediated by a diversity of molecular events.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM078585(United States)

Acrolein induces myelin damage in mammalian spinal cord.

  • Shi Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2011 May 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelin damage can lead to the loss of axonal conduction and paralysis in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Here, we show that acrolein, a lipid peroxidation product, can cause significant myelin damage in isolated guinea pig spinal cord segments. Acrolein-mediated myelin damage is particularly conspicuous in the paranodal region in both a calcium dependent (nodal lengthening) and a calcium-independent manner (paranodal myelin splitting). In addition, paranodal protein complexes can dissociate with acrolein incubation. Degraded myelin basic protein is also detected at the paranodal region. Acrolein-induced exposure and redistribution of paranodal potassium channels and the resulting axonal conduction failure can be partially reversed by 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker. From this data, it is clear that acrolein is capable of inflicting myelin damage as well as axonal degeneration, and may represent an important factor in the pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - 5 U54 LM008748(United States)

Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation.

  • Huff TB
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2011 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin in live spinal tissues in real time. Paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation. Retraction was seen to begin minutes after the onset of stimulation and continue for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased, but was found to reverse after a 2 h recovery period. The myelin retraction resulted in exposure of Kv 1.2 potassium channels visualized by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, treating the stimulated tissue with a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, led to the appearance of a shoulder peak in the compound action potential curve. Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBSB16542(United Kingdom)

Oestrogen receptor beta ligand: a novel treatment to enhance endogenous functional remyelination.

  • Crawford DK
  • Brain
  • 2010 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. Therapeutic strategies that induce effective neuroprotection and enhance intrinsic repair mechanisms are central goals for future therapy of multiple sclerosis. Oestrogens and oestrogen receptor ligands are promising treatments to prevent multiple sclerosis-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study we investigated the capacity of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment to affect callosal axon demyelination and stimulate endogenous myelination in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using electrophysiology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and tract-tracing methods. Oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice prevented both histopathological and functional abnormalities of callosal axons despite the presence of inflammation. Specifically, there were fewer demyelinated, damaged axons and more myelinated axons with intact nodes of Ranvier in oestrogen receptor β ligand-treated mice. In addition, oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment caused an increase in mature oligodendrocyte numbers, a significant increase in myelin sheath thickness and axon transport. Functional analysis of callosal axon conduction showed a significant improvement in compound action potential amplitudes, latency and in axon refractoriness. These findings show a direct neuroprotective effect of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment on oligodendrocyte differentiation, myelination and axon conduction during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB006494-04S1(United States)

Pulpitis increases the proportion of atypical nodes of Ranvier in human dental pulp axons without a change in Nav1.6 sodium channel expression.

  • Luo S
  • Neuroscience
  • 2010 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Studies show a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth to study NaCh expression and here examine the expression of the major NaCh isoform located at nodes of Ranvier, Na(v)1.6, in normal and painful samples. Pulpal sections were double-labeled with human-specific Na(v)1.6 antibody and caspr antibody (paranodal protein to identify nodes). Confocal microscopy was used to obtain a z-series of optically-sectioned images of axon bundles surrounded by inflammatory cells in painful samples and of similar regions within the coronal pulp of normal samples. Nodes contained within these images were classified as typical or atypical as based on caspr staining relationships, and NIH ImageJ software was used to quantify the size and immunofluorescence staining intensity of Na(v)1.6 accumulations at these nodal sites. Results show no significant difference in the size or immunofluorescence staining intensity of Na(v)1.6 nodal accumulations located at either typical or atypical nodal sites (heminodes and split nodes) within axons in normal samples when compared to painful samples (n=9/each group). In contrast, there was a highly significant decrease in the proportion of typical nodal sites and an increase in atypical nodal sites in painful samples when compared to normal samples. The unchanged expression of Na(v)1.6 contrasts to our previous finding that showed an increased expression of Na(v)1.7 at both typical and atypical nodal sites within painful samples. Together, these findings suggest there is not a simple replacement of one isoform with another, but rather an increased co-expression of multiple isoforms at both intact and remodeling/demyelinating (atypical) nodal sites within the painful dental pulp. The resultant heterogeneous population of isoforms may produce unique axonal excitability properties that could contribute to spontaneous pain sensations that are common in toothache.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - 1R01EB008400(United States)

Kv1.1 potassium channel deficiency reveals brain-driven cardiac dysfunction as a candidate mechanism for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy.

  • Glasscock E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mice lacking Kv1.1 Shaker-like potassium channels encoded by the Kcna1 gene exhibit severe seizures and die prematurely. The channel is widely expressed in brain but only minimally, if at all, in mouse myocardium. To test whether Kv1.1-potassium deficiency could underlie primary neurogenic cardiac dysfunction, we performed simultaneous video EEG-ECG recordings and found that Kcna1-null mice display potentially malignant interictal cardiac abnormalities, including a fivefold increase in atrioventricular (AV) conduction blocks, as well as bradycardia and premature ventricular contractions. During seizures the occurrence of AV conduction blocks increased, predisposing Kv1.1-deficient mice to sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), which we recorded fortuitously in one animal. To determine whether the interictal AV conduction blocks were of cardiac or neural origin, we examined their response to selective pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Simultaneous administration of atropine and propranolol to block parasympathetic and sympathetic branches, respectively, eliminated conduction blocks. When administered separately, only atropine ameliorated AV conduction blocks, indicating that excessive parasympathetic tone contributes to the neurocardiac defect. We found no changes in Kv1.1-deficient cardiac structure, but extensive Kv1.1 expression in juxtaparanodes of the wild-type vagus nerve, the primary source of parasympathetic input to the heart, suggesting a novel site of action leading to Kv1.1-associated cardiac bradyarrhythmias. Together, our data suggest that Kv1.1 deficiency leads to impaired neural control of cardiac rhythmicity due in part to aberrant parasympathetic neurotransmission, making Kcna1 a strong candidate gene for human SUDEP.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/L018616/1(United Kingdom)

Mechanisms for adjusting interaural time differences to achieve binaural coincidence detection.

  • Seidl AH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Understanding binaural perception requires detailed analyses of the neural circuitry responsible for the computation of interaural time differences (ITDs). In the avian brainstem, this circuit consists of internal axonal delay lines innervating an array of coincidence detector neurons that encode external ITDs. Nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons project to the dorsal dendritic field of the ipsilateral nucleus laminaris (NL) and to the ventral field of the contralateral NL. Contralateral-projecting axons form a delay line system along a band of NL neurons. Binaural acoustic signals in the form of phase-locked action potentials from NM cells arrive at NL and establish a topographic map of sound source location along the azimuth. These pathways are assumed to represent a circuit similar to the Jeffress model of sound localization, establishing a place code along an isofrequency contour of NL. Three-dimensional measurements of axon lengths reveal major discrepancies with the current model; the temporal offset based on conduction length alone makes encoding of physiological ITDs impossible. However, axon diameter and distances between Nodes of Ranvier also influence signal propagation times along an axon. Our measurements of these parameters reveal that diameter and internode distance can compensate for the temporal offset inferred from axon lengths alone. Together with other recent studies, these unexpected results should inspire new thinking on the cellular biology, evolution, and plasticity of the circuitry underlying low-frequency sound localization in both birds and mammals.

Functional recovery of callosal axons following demyelination: a critical window.

  • Crawford DK
  • Neuroscience
  • 2009 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal dysfunction as a result of persistent demyelination has been increasingly appreciated as a cause of functional deficit in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the ultimate causes of ongoing axonal dysfunction and find effective measures to prevent axon loss. Our findings related to functional deficit and functional recovery of axons from a demyelinating insult are important preliminary steps towards understanding this issue. Cuprizone diet for 3-6 wks triggered extensive corpus callosum (CC) demyelination, reduced axon conduction, and resulted in loss of axon structural integrity including nodes of Ranvier. Replacing cuprizone diet with normal diet led to regeneration of myelin, but did not fully reverse the conduction and structural deficits. A shorter 1.5 wk cuprizone diet also caused demyelination of the CC, with minimal loss of axon structure and nodal organization. Switching to normal diet led to remyelination and restored callosal axon conduction to normal levels. Our findings suggest the existence of a critical window of time for remyelination, beyond which demyelinated axons become damaged beyond the point of repair and permanent functional loss follows. Moreover, initiating remyelination early within the critical period, before prolonged demyelination-induced axon damage ensues, will improve functional axon recovery and inhibit disease progression.

Proteomic analysis of optic nerve lipid rafts reveals new paranodal proteins.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2009 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuron-glia interactions at paranodal junctions play important roles in action potential propagation. Among their many functions, they contribute to the passive electrical properties of myelinated nerve fibers and actively regulate the polarized distribution of ion channels along axons. Despite their importance, relatively little is known about the molecules responsible for paranode formation and function. Paranodal junction formation apparently depends on interactions among three cell adhesion molecules: caspr and contactin on the axon and neurofascin 155 (NF-155) on the glial membrane. Using Caspr-null paranodal mutant mice, we demonstrate that loss of paranodal junctions causes failure of NF-155 to partition into lipid rafts, indicating that proteins located at paranodal junctions have biochemical characteristics of lipid raft-associated proteins. Based on this property of paranodal junctions, mass spectrometry of lipid rafts isolated from a pure white matter tract (optic nerve) was used to search for new paranodal proteins. Because we used a relatively crude biochemical preparation, we identified several hundred different proteins. Among these, we found all previously described paranodal proteins. Further analysis based on antibody staining of central and peripheral nerves revealed beta-adducin, septin 2, and sh3p8 as putative paranodal proteins. We describe the localization of these proteins in relation to other markers of nodes, paranodes, and juxtaparanodes in adult and developing nerve fibers. Finally, we describe their distribution in dysmyelinating TremblerJ mice, a model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Defects in myelination, paranode organization and Purkinje cell innervation in the ether lipid-deficient mouse cerebellum.

  • Teigler A
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2009 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ether lipids (ELs), particularly plasmalogens, are essential constituents of the mammalian central nervous system. The physiological role of ELs, in vivo, however is still enigmatic. In the present study, we characterized a mouse model carrying a targeted deletion of the peroxisomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase gene that results in the complete lack of ELs. Investigating the cerebellum of these mice, we observed: (i) defects in foliation patterning and delay in precursor granule cell migration, (ii) defects in myelination and concomitant reduction in the level of myelin basic protein, (iii) disturbances in paranode organization by extending the Caspr distribution and disrupting axo-glial septate-like junctions, (iv) impaired innervation of Purkinje cells by both parallel fibers and climbing fibers and (v) formation of axon swellings by the accumulation of inositol-tris-phosphate receptor 1 containing smooth ER-like tubuli. Functionally, conduction velocity of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum was significantly reduced. Most of these phenotypes were already apparent at P20 but still persisted in 1-year-old animals. In summary, these data show that EL deficiency results in severe developmental and lasting structural alterations at the cellular and network level of the cerebellum, and reveal an important role of ELs for proper brain function. Common molecular mechanisms that may underlie these phenotypes are discussed.

The ataxia3 mutation in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of sodium channel Na(v)1.6 disrupts intracellular trafficking.

  • Sharkey LM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Mar 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ENU-induced neurological mutant ataxia3 was mapped to distal mouse chromosome 15. Sequencing of the positional candidate gene Scn8a encoding the sodium channel Na(v)1.6 identified a T>C transition in exon 1 resulting in the amino acid substitution p.S21P near the N terminus of the channel. The cytoplasmic N-terminal region is evolutionarily conserved but its function has not been well characterized. ataxia3 homozygotes exhibit a severe disorder that includes ataxia, tremor, and juvenile lethality. Unlike Scn8a null mice, they retain partial hindlimb function. The mutant transcript is stable but protein abundance is reduced and the mutant channel is not detected in its usual site of concentration at nodes of Ranvier. In whole-cell patch-clamp studies of transfected ND7/23 cells that were maintained at 37 degrees C, the mutant channel did not produce sodium current, and function was not restored by coexpression of beta1 and beta2 subunits. However, when transfected cells were maintained at 30 degrees C, the mutant channel generated voltage-dependent inward sodium currents with an average peak current density comparable with wild type, demonstrating recovery of channel activity. Immunohistochemistry of primary cerebellar granule cells from ataxia3 mice demonstrated that the mutant protein is retained in the cis-Golgi. This trafficking defect can account for the low level of Na(v)1.6-S21P at nodes of Ranvier in vivo and at the surface of transfected cells. The data demonstrate that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the sodium channel is required for anterograde transport from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane.

Neonatal chimerization with human glial progenitor cells can both remyelinate and rescue the otherwise lethally hypomyelinated shiverer mouse.

  • Windrem MS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2008 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Congenitally hypomyelinated shiverer mice fail to generate compact myelin and die by 18-21 weeks of age. Using multifocal anterior and posterior fossa delivery of sorted fetal human glial progenitor cells into neonatal shiverer x rag2(-/-) mice, we achieved whole neuraxis myelination of the engrafted hosts, which in a significant fraction of cases rescued this otherwise lethal phenotype. The transplanted mice exhibited greatly prolonged survival with progressive resolution of their neurological deficits. Substantial myelination in multiple regions was accompanied by the acquisition of normal nodes of Ranvier and transcallosal conduction velocities, ultrastructurally normal and complete myelination of most axons, and a restoration of a substantially normal neurological phenotype. Notably, the resultant mice were cerebral chimeras, with murine gray matter but a predominantly human white matter glial composition. These data demonstrate that the neonatal transplantation of human glial progenitor cells can effectively treat disorders of congenital and perinatal hypomyelination.