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Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-adsorbed Antibody, Alexa Fluor ?? 546 Conjugated


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) mouse

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-11030, RRID:AB_144695)




Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher:

Host Organism



Molecular Probes

Apical and Basal Matrix Remodeling Control Epithelial Morphogenesis.

  • Diaz-de-la-Loza MD
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context:


Epithelial tissues can elongate in two dimensions by polarized cell intercalation, oriented cell division, or cell shape change, owing to local or global actomyosin contractile forces acting in the plane of the tissue. In addition, epithelia can undergo morphogenetic change in three dimensions. We show that elongation of the wings and legs of Drosophila involves a columnar-to-cuboidal cell shape change that reduces cell height and expands cell width. Remodeling of the apical extracellular matrix by the Stubble protease and basal matrix by MMP1/2 proteases induces wing and leg elongation. Matrix remodeling does not occur in the haltere, a limb that fails to elongate. Limb elongation is made anisotropic by planar polarized Myosin-II, which drives convergent extension along the proximal-distal axis. Subsequently, Myosin-II relocalizes to lateral membranes to accelerate columnar-to-cuboidal transition and isotropic tissue expansion. Thus, matrix remodeling induces dynamic changes in actomyosin contractility to drive epithelial morphogenesis in three dimensions.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK-069884(United States)

Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1) Controls Mucus Expansion in Colon by Proteolytic Activity.

  • Nyström EEL
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Many epithelial surfaces of the body are covered with protective mucus, and disrupted mucus homeostasis is coupled to diseases such as ulcerative colitis, helminth infection, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive lung disease. However, little is known how a balanced mucus system is maintained. By investigating the involvement of proteases in colonic mucus dynamics we identified metalloprotease activity to be a key contributor to mucus expansion. The effect was mediated by calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) as application of recombinant CLCA1 on intestinal mucus in freshly dissected tissue resulted in increased mucus thickness independently of ion and mucus secretion, but dependent on its metallohydrolase activity. Further, CLCA1 modulated mucus dynamics in both human and mouse, and knock-out of CLCA1 in mice was compensated for by cysteine proteases. Our results suggest that CLCA1 is involved in intestinal mucus homeostasis by facilitating processing and removal of mucus to prevent stagnation. In light of our findings, we suggest future studies to investigate if upregulation of CLCA1 in diseases associated with mucus accumulation could facilitate removal of mucus in an attempt to maintain homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

An Optical Neuron-Astrocyte Proximity Assay at Synaptic Distance Scales.

  • Octeau JC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Astrocytes are complex bushy cells that serve important functions through close contacts between their processes and synapses. However, the spatial interactions and dynamics of astrocyte processes relative to synapses have proven problematic to study in adult living brain tissue. Here, we report a genetically targeted neuron-astrocyte proximity assay (NAPA) to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions within intact brain preparations and at synaptic distance scales. The method exploits resonance energy transfer between extracellularly displayed fluorescent proteins targeted to synapses and astrocyte processes. We validated the method in the striatal microcircuitry following in vivo expression. We determined the proximity of striatal astrocyte processes to distinct neuronal input pathways, to D1 and D2 medium spiny neuron synapses, and we evaluated how astrocyte-to-excitatory synapse proximity changed following cortical afferent stimulation, during ischemia and in a model of Huntington's disease. NAPA provides a simple approach to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions in a variety of experimental scenarios. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA104926(United States)

In Vitro Culture, Drug Sensitivity, and Transcriptome of Plasmodium Vivax Hypnozoites.

  • Gural N
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


The unique relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection is a major barrier to malaria eradication. Upon infection, dormant liver-stage forms, hypnozoites, linger for weeks to months and then relapse to cause recurrent blood-stage infection. Very little is known about hypnozoite biology; definitive biomarkers are lacking and in vitro platforms that support phenotypic studies are needed. Here, we recapitulate the entire liver stage of P. vivax in vitro, using a multiwell format that incorporates micropatterned primary human hepatocyte co-cultures (MPCCs). MPCCs feature key aspects of P. vivax biology, including establishment of persistent small forms and growing schizonts, merosome release, and subsequent infection of reticulocytes. We find that the small forms exhibit previously described hallmarks of hypnozoites, and we pilot MPCCs as a tool for testing candidate anti-hypnozoite drugs. Finally, we employ a hybrid capture strategy and RNA sequencing to describe the hypnozoite transcriptome and gain insight into its biology.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01-DK087727(United States)

The TIA1 RNA-Binding Protein Family Regulates EIF2AK2-Mediated Stress Response and Cell Cycle Progression.

  • Meyer C
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


TIA1 and TIAL1 encode a family of U-rich element mRNA-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed and conserved in metazoans. Using PAR-CLIP, we determined that both proteins bind target sites with identical specificity in 3' UTRs and introns proximal to 5' as well as 3' splice sites. Double knockout (DKO) of TIA1 and TIAL1 increased target mRNA abundance proportional to the number of binding sites and also caused accumulation of aberrantly spliced mRNAs, most of which are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Loss of PRKRA by mis-splicing triggered the activation of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase EIF2AK2/PKR and stress granule formation. Ectopic expression of PRKRA cDNA or knockout of EIF2AK2 in DKO cells rescued this phenotype. Perturbation of maturation and/or stability of additional targets further compromised cell cycle progression. Our study reveals the essential contributions of the TIA1 protein family to the fidelity of mRNA maturation, translation, and RNA-stress-sensing pathways in human cells.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM104962()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK068429(United States)

Atg5 Disassociates the V1V0-ATPase to Promote Exosome Production and Tumor Metastasis Independent of Canonical Macroautophagy.

  • Guo H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Autophagy and autophagy-related genes (Atg) have been attributed prominent roles in tumorigenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes are also implicated in cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that exosome production is strongly reduced in cells lacking Atg5 and Atg16L1, but this is independent of Atg7 and canonical autophagy. Atg5 specifically decreases acidification of late endosomes where exosomes are produced, disrupting the acidifying V1V0-ATPase by removing a regulatory component, ATP6V1E1, into exosomes. The effect of Atg5 on exosome production promotes the migration and in vivo metastasis of orthotopic breast cancer cells. These findings uncover mechanisms controlling exosome release and identify means by which autophagy-related genes can contribute to metastasis in autophagy-independent pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR40864(United States)

MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

  • Ali A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer.

A diverse host thrombospondin-type-1 repeat protein repertoire promotes symbiont colonization during establishment of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

  • Neubauer EF
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


The mutualistic endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is mediated by complex inter-partner signaling events, where the host cnidarian innate immune system plays a crucial role in recognition and regulation of symbionts. To date, little is known about the diversity of thrombospondin-type-1 repeat (TSR) domain proteins in basal metazoans or their potential role in regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms. We reveal a large and diverse repertoire of TSR proteins in seven anthozoan species, and show that in the model sea anemone Aiptasia pallida the TSR domain promotes colonization of the host by the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum. Blocking TSR domains led to decreased colonization success, while adding exogenous TSRs resulted in a 'super colonization'. Furthermore, gene expression of TSR proteins was highest at early time-points during symbiosis establishment. Our work characterizes the diversity of cnidarian TSR proteins and provides evidence that these proteins play an important role in the establishment of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

Developmental analysis of the dopamine-containing neurons of the Drosophila brain.

  • Hartenstein V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


The Drosophila dopaminergic (DAergic) system consists of a relatively small number of neurons clustered throughout the brain and ventral nerve cord. Previous work shows that clusters of DA neurons innervate different brain compartments, which in part accounts for functional diversity of the DA system. We analyzed the association between DA neuron clusters and specific brain lineages, developmental and structural units of the Drosophila brain that provide a framework of connections that can be followed throughout development. The hatching larval brain contains six groups of primary DA neurons (born in the embryo), which we assign to six distinct lineages. We can show that all larval DA clusters persist into the adult brain. Some clusters increase in cell number during late larval stages, whereas others do not become DA positive until early pupa. Ablating neuroblasts with hydroxyurea (HU) prior to onset of larval proliferation (generates secondary neurons) confirms that these added DA clusters are primary neurons born in the embryo, rather than secondary neurons. A single cluster that becomes DA positive in the late pupa, PAM1/lineage DALcm1/2, forms part of a secondary lineage that can be ablated by larval HU application. By supplying lineage information for each DA cluster, our analysis promotes further developmental and functional analyses of this important system of neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:363-379, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

  • Hirata H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.

Opposing effects of membrane-anchored CX3CL1 on amyloid and tau pathologies via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  • Lee S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Several Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk genes are specifically expressed by microglia within the CNS. However, the mechanisms by which microglia regulate the pathological hallmarks of AD--extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)--remain to be established. Notably, deficiency for the microglial CX3CR1 receptor has opposing effects on Aβ and MAPT pathologies. CX3CL1, the neuronally derived cognate ligand for CX3CR1, signals both in membrane-anchored and soluble forms. In this study, we sought to determine the relative contribution on membrane-anchored versus soluble CX3CL1 in regulating the microglia-mediated amelioration of Aβ pathology, as well as provide insight into the potential downstream microglial-based mechanisms. As expected, CX3CL1 deficiency reduced Aβ deposition in APPPS1 animals in a similar manner to CX3CR1 deficiency. Surprisingly, however, CX3CL1-deficient APPPS1 animals exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite reduced amyloid burden. Importantly, neither of these phenotypes was altered by transgenic expression of the soluble CX3CL1 isoform, suggesting that it is the membrane-anchored version of CX3CL1 that regulates microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and neuronal MAPT phosphorylation. Analysis of transcript levels in purified microglia isolated from APPPS1 mice with the various CX3CL1/CX3CR1 genotypes revealed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and phagocytic markers, which was associated with activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Aβ internalization within microglia. Together, these studies challenge the "frustrated phagocytosis" concept and suggest that neuronal-microglial communication link the two central AD pathologies.