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Goat Anti-Chicken IgG (H+L) Antibody, Alexa Fluor ?? 488 Conjugated

RRID:AB_142924

Antibody ID

AB_142924

Target Antigen

Chicken IgG (H+L) chicken, avian

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-11039, RRID:AB_142924)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher:

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Molecular Probes

Morphological and functional changes in TRPM8-expressing corneal cold thermoreceptor neurons during aging and their impact on tearing in mice.

  • Alcalde I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter. In 3 months old animals, about 50% of TG cold thermoreceptor neurons were intensely fluorescent, likely providing strongly fluorescent axons and complex corneal nerve terminals with ongoing activity at 34°C and low-threshold, robust responses to cooling. The remaining TRPM8+ corneal axons were weakly fluorescent with nonbeaded axons, sparsely ramified nerve terminals, and exhibited a low-firing rate at 34°C, responding moderately to cooling pulses as do weakly fluorescent TG neurons. In aged (24 months) mice, the number of weakly fluorescent TG neurons was strikingly high while the morphology of TRPM8+ corneal axons changed drastically; 89% were weakly fluorescent, unbranched, and often ending in the basal epithelium. Functionally, 72.5% of aged cold terminals responded as those of young animals, but 27.5% exhibited very low-background activity and abnormal responsiveness to cooling pulses. These morpho-functional changes develop in parallel with an enhancement of tear's basal flow and osmolarity, suggesting that the aberrant sensory inflow to the brain from impaired peripheral cold thermoreceptors contributes to age-induced abnormal tearing and to the high incidence of DED in elderly people.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD003958(United States)

Spatial Fold Change of FGF Signaling Encodes Positional Information for Segmental Determination in Zebrafish.

  • Simsek MF
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signal gradients encode instructive information for numerous decision-making processes during embryonic development. A striking example of precise, scalable tissue-level patterning is the segmentation of somites-the precursors of the vertebral column-during which the fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wnt, and retinoic acid (RA) pathways establish spatial gradients. Despite decades of studies proposing roles for all three pathways, the dynamic feature of these gradients that encodes instructive information determining segment sizes remained elusive. We developed a non-elongating tail explant system, integrated quantitative measurements with computational modeling, and tested alternative models to show that positional information is encoded solely by spatial fold change (SFC) in FGF signal output. Neighboring cells measure SFC to accurately position the determination front and thus determine segment size. The SFC model successfully recapitulates results of spatiotemporal perturbation experiments on both explants and intact embryos, and it shows that Wnt signaling acts permissively upstream of FGF signaling and that RA gradient is dispensable.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R15GM94732-1 A1(United States)

Ubiquitination of ABCE1 by NOT4 in Response to Mitochondrial Damage Links Co-translational Quality Control to PINK1-Directed Mitophagy.

  • Wu Z
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Translation of mRNAs is tightly regulated and constantly surveyed for errors. Aberrant translation can trigger co-translational protein and RNA quality control processes, impairments of which cause neurodegeneration by still poorly understood mechanism(s). Here we show that quality control of translation of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM)-localized mRNA intersects with the turnover of damaged mitochondria, both orchestrated by the mitochondrial kinase PINK1. Mitochondrial damage causes stalled translation of complex-I 30 kDa subunit (C-I30) mRNA on MOM, triggering the recruitment of co-translational quality control factors Pelo, ABCE1, and NOT4 to the ribosome/mRNA-ribonucleoprotein complex. Damage-induced ubiquitination of ABCE1 by NOT4 generates poly-ubiquitin signals that attract autophagy receptors to MOM to initiate mitophagy. In the Drosophila PINK1 model, these factors act synergistically to restore mitophagy and neuromuscular tissue integrity. Thus ribosome-associated co-translational quality control generates an early signal to trigger mitophagy. Our results have broad therapeutic implications for the understanding and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA 19014(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH080378()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083417()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084412()

Recovery of "Lost" Infant Memories in Mice.

  • Guskjolen A
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampus-dependent, event-related memories formed in early infancy in human and non-human animals are rapidly forgotten. Recently we found that high levels of hippocampal neurogenesis contribute to accelerated rates of forgetting during infancy. Here, we ask whether these memories formed in infancy are permanently erased (i.e., storage failure) or become progressively inaccessible with time (i.e., retrieval failure). To do this, we developed an optogenetic strategy that allowed us to permanently express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neuronal ensembles that were activated during contextual fear encoding in infant mice. We then asked whether reactivation of ChR2-tagged ensembles in the dentate gyrus was sufficient for memory recovery in adulthood. We found that optogenetic stimulation of tagged dentate gyrus neurons recovered "lost" infant memories up to 3 months following training and that memory recovery was associated with broader reactivation of tagged hippocampal and cortical neuronal ensembles.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA79548(United States)

SOXF factors regulate murine satellite cell self-renewal and function through inhibition of β-catenin activity.

  • Alonso-Martin S
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle satellite cells are the primary source of stem cells for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Understanding genetic control of satellite cell formation, maintenance, and acquisition of their stem cell properties is on-going, and we have identified SOXF (SOX7, SOX17, SOX18) transcriptional factors as being induced during satellite cell specification. We demonstrate that SOXF factors regulate satellite cell quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, ablation of Sox17 in the muscle lineage impairs postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. We further determine that activities of SOX7, SOX17 and SOX18 overlap during muscle regeneration, with SOXF transcriptional activity requisite. Finally, we show that SOXF factors also control satellite cell expansion and renewal by directly inhibiting the output of β-catenin activity, including inhibition of Ccnd1 and Axin2. Together, our findings identify a key regulatory function of SoxF genes in muscle stem cells via direct transcriptional control and interaction with canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Funding information:
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR 11 BSV2 017 02()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-12-BSV1-0038-04()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-13-BSV1-0011-02()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-15-CE13-0011-01()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-15-RHUS-0003()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - AFM 16050()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - AFM 17865()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - TRANSLAMUSCLE 19507()
  • Basque Community - BF106.177()
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I017585/1(United Kingdom)
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - GK 1631()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - KFO192 (Sp1152/8-1)()
  • European Union Sixth and Seventh Framework Program - MYORES and ENDOSTEM # 241440()
  • Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale - DEQ20130326526()
  • Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale - FDT20130928236()
  • FSH Society - 262948-2()
  • FSH Society and BIODESIGN - 262948-2()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - BIODESIGN (262948-2)()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - MYORES and ENDOSTEM # 241440()
  • Labex REVIVE - ANR-10-LABX-73()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/PO23215/1()
  • Muscular Dystrophy UK - RA3/3052()

Dynamic Architecture of DNA Repair Complexes and the Synaptonemal Complex at Sites of Meiotic Recombination.

  • Woglar A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated and repaired in a highly regulated manner to ensure formation of crossovers (COs) while also enabling efficient non-CO repair to restore genome integrity. We use structured-illumination microscopy to investigate the dynamic architecture of DSB repair complexes at meiotic recombination sites in relationship to the synaptonemal complex (SC). DSBs resected at both ends are converted into inter-homolog repair intermediates harboring two populations of BLM helicase and RPA, flanking a single population of MutSγ. These intermediates accumulate until late pachytene, when repair proteins disappear from non-CO sites and CO-designated sites become enveloped by SC-central region proteins, acquire a second MutSγ population, and lose RPA. These and other data suggest that the SC may protect CO intermediates from being dismantled inappropriately and promote CO maturation by generating a transient CO-specific repair compartment, thereby enabling differential timing and outcome of repair at CO and non-CO sites.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053804()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067268()

Dynamic Fluctuations in Subcellular Localization of the Hippo Pathway Effector Yorkie In Vivo.

  • Manning SA
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling network that integrates diverse cues to control organ size and cell fate. The central downstream pathway protein in Drosophila is the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (YAP and TAZ in humans), which regulates gene expression with the Scalloped/TEA domain family member (TEAD) transcription factors [1-8]. A central regulatory step in the Hippo pathway is phosphorylation of Yorkie by the NDR family kinase Warts, which promotes Yorkie cytoplasmic localization by stimulating association with 14-3-3 proteins [9-12]. Numerous reports have purported a static model of Hippo signaling whereby, upon Hippo activation, Yorkie/YAP/TAZ become cytoplasmic and therefore inactive, and upon Hippo repression, Yorkie/YAP/TAZ transit to the nucleus and are active. However, we have little appreciation for the dynamics of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ subcellular localization because most studies have been performed in fixed cells and tissues. To address this, we used live multiphoton microscopy to investigate the dynamics of an endogenously tagged Yorkie-Venus protein in growing epithelial organs. We found that the majority of Yorkie rapidly traffics between the cytoplasm and nucleus, rather than being statically localized in either compartment. In addition, discrete cell populations within the same organ display different rates of Yorkie nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. By assessing Yorkie dynamics in warts mutant tissue, we found that the Hippo pathway regulates Yorkie subcellular distribution by regulating its rate of nuclear import. Furthermore, Yorkie's localization fluctuates dramatically throughout the cell cycle, being predominantly cytoplasmic during interphase and, unexpectedly, chromatin enriched during mitosis. Yorkie's association with mitotic chromatin is Scalloped dependent, suggesting a potential role in mitotic bookmarking.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 090532(United Kingdom)

Serotonergic Signaling Controls Input-Specific Synaptic Plasticity at Striatal Circuits.

  • Cavaccini A
  • Neuron
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Monoaminergic modulation of cortical and thalamic inputs to the dorsal striatum (DS) is crucial for reward-based learning and action control. While dopamine has been extensively investigated in this context, the synaptic effects of serotonin (5-HT) have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how serotonergic signaling affects associative plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on the striatal projection neurons of the direct pathway (dSPNs). Combining chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches reveals that impeding serotonergic signaling preferentially gates spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at thalamostriatal synapses. This t-LTD requires dampened activity of the 5-HT4 receptor subtype, which we demonstrate controls dendritic Ca2+ signals by regulating BK channel activity, and which preferentially localizes at the dendritic shaft. The synaptic effects of 5-HT signaling at thalamostriatal inputs provide insights into how changes in serotonergic levels associated with behavioral states or pathology affect striatal-dependent processes.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Hippo signaling determines the number of venous pole cells that originate from the anterior lateral plate mesoderm in zebrafish.

  • Fukui H
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

The differentiation of the lateral plate mesoderm cells into heart field cells constitutes a critical step in the development of cardiac tissue and the genesis of functional cardiomyocytes. Hippo signaling controls cardiomyocyte proliferation, but the role of Hippo signaling during early cardiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that Hippo signaling regulates atrial cell number by specifying the developmental potential of cells within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), which are incorporated into the venous pole of the heart tube and ultimately into the atrium of the heart. We demonstrate that Hippo signaling acts through large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 to modulate BMP signaling and the expression of hand2, a key transcription factor that is involved in the differentiation of atrial cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hippo signaling defines venous pole cardiomyocyte number by modulating both the number and the identity of the ALPM cells that will populate the atrium of the heart.

Funding information:
  • Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development - 13414779()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 16H02618()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - 15H01221()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R00 HD055030-03(United States)

An Optical Neuron-Astrocyte Proximity Assay at Synaptic Distance Scales.

  • Octeau JC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are complex bushy cells that serve important functions through close contacts between their processes and synapses. However, the spatial interactions and dynamics of astrocyte processes relative to synapses have proven problematic to study in adult living brain tissue. Here, we report a genetically targeted neuron-astrocyte proximity assay (NAPA) to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions within intact brain preparations and at synaptic distance scales. The method exploits resonance energy transfer between extracellularly displayed fluorescent proteins targeted to synapses and astrocyte processes. We validated the method in the striatal microcircuitry following in vivo expression. We determined the proximity of striatal astrocyte processes to distinct neuronal input pathways, to D1 and D2 medium spiny neuron synapses, and we evaluated how astrocyte-to-excitatory synapse proximity changed following cortical afferent stimulation, during ischemia and in a model of Huntington's disease. NAPA provides a simple approach to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions in a variety of experimental scenarios. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA104926(United States)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Active Protection: Learning-Activated Raf/MAPK Activity Protects Labile Memory from Rac1-Independent Forgetting.

  • Zhang X
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation. Such experience-induced forgetting cannot be prevented by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Instead, protection of Rac1-independent forgetting correlates with non-muscle myosin II activity and persistence of learning-induced presynaptic structural changes. Increased Raf/MAPK activity, together with suppressed Rac1 activity, completely blocks labile memory decay. Thus, learning not only leads to memory formation, but also activates active protection and active forgetting to regulate the formed memory.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA107349-03(United States)

Genetic deletion of xCT attenuates peripheral and central inflammation and mitigates LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior in mice.

  • Albertini G
  • Glia
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-. This cystine-glutamate antiporter, with xCT as specific subunit, represents the main glial provider of extracellular glutamate in mouse hippocampus. Here we injected male xCT knockout and wildtype mice with a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg LPS. LPS-injection increased hippocampal xCT expression but did not alter the mainly astroglial localization of the xCT protein. Peripheral and central inflammation (as defined by cytokine levels and morphological activation of microglia) as well as LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior were significantly attenuated in xCT-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate the involvement of system xc- in peripheral and central inflammation in vivo and the potential therapeutic relevance of its inhibition in brain disorders characterized by peripheral and central inflammation, such as depression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM091896(United States)

APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway.

  • Saito-Diaz K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations cause Wnt pathway activation in human cancers. Current models for APC action emphasize its role in promoting β-catenin degradation downstream of Wnt receptors. Unexpectedly, we find that blocking Wnt receptor activity in APC-deficient cells inhibits Wnt signaling independently of Wnt ligand. We also show that inducible loss of APC is rapidly followed by Wnt receptor activation and increased β-catenin levels. In contrast, APC2 loss does not promote receptor activation. We show that APC exists in a complex with clathrin and that Wnt pathway activation in APC-deficient cells requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. We propose a model in which APC and APC2 function to promote β-catenin degradation, and APC also acts as a molecular "gatekeeper" to block receptor activation via the clathrin pathway.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX001426()
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000445()
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR002243()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA095103()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA069457()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA105038()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK111107()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099204()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM081635()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM103926()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM106720()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM121421()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM122222()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM122516()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007347()
  • NIH HHS - OD008466(United States)
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Drosophila Fezf coordinates laminar-specific connectivity through cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms.

  • Peng J
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Laminar arrangement of neural connections is a fundamental feature of neural circuit organization. Identifying mechanisms that coordinate neural connections within correct layers is thus vital for understanding how neural circuits are assembled. In the medulla of the Drosophila visual system neurons form connections within ten parallel layers. The M3 layer receives input from two neuron types that sequentially innervate M3 during development. Here we show that M3-specific innervation by both neurons is coordinated by Drosophila Fezf (dFezf), a conserved transcription factor that is selectively expressed by the earlier targeting input neuron. In this cell, dFezf instructs layer specificity and activates the expression of a secreted molecule (Netrin) that regulates the layer specificity of the other input neuron. We propose that employment of transcriptional modules that cell-intrinsically target neurons to specific layers, and cell-extrinsically recruit other neurons is a general mechanism for building layered networks of neural connections.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Gilliam Fellowship for Advanced Study()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI073587(United States)

Drosophila Full-Length Amyloid Precursor Protein Is Required for Visual Working Memory and Prevents Age-Related Memory Impairment.

  • Rieche F
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD. Whereas the AICD has been connected with transcriptional regulation, sAPPα fragments have been suggested to have a neurotrophic and neuroprotective role [1]. Moreover, expression of sAPPα in APP-deficient mice could rescue their deficits in learning, spatial memory, and long-term potentiation [2]. Loss of the Drosophila APP-like (APPL) protein impairs associative olfactory memory formation and middle-term memory that can be rescued with a secreted APPL fragment [3]. We now show that APPL is also essential for visual working memory. Interestingly, this short-term memory declines rapidly with age, and this is accompanied by enhanced processing of APPL in aged flies. Furthermore, reducing secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of APPL can prevent the age-related memory loss, whereas overexpression of the secretases aggravates the aging effect. Rescue experiments confirmed that this memory requires signaling of full-length APPL and that APPL negatively regulates the neuronal-adhesion molecule Fasciclin 2. Overexpression of APPL or one of its secreted N termini results in a dominant-negative interaction with the FASII receptor. Therefore, our results show that specific memory processes require distinct APPL products.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - Z01 BC010313(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG045830()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG055943()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Input-Specific NMDAR-Dependent Potentiation of Dendritic GABAergic Inhibition.

  • Chiu CQ
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons. This form of plasticity is expressed postsynaptically and requires both CaMKIIα and the β2 subunit of the GABA-A receptor. Importantly, this process may function to preserve dendritic inhibition, as genetic deletion of NMDAR signaling results in a selective weakening of dendritic inhibition. Overall, our results reveal a new mechanism for linking excitatory and inhibitory input in neuronal dendrites and provide novel insight into the homeostatic regulation of synaptic transmission in cortical circuits.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA138544(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY026878()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - K01 MH097961()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH099045()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076637()

Anatomical and electrophysiological development of the hypothalamic orexin neurons from embryos to neonates.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amount, quality, and diurnal pattern of sleep change greatly during development. Developmental changes of sleep/wake architecture are in a close relationship to brain development. The fragmentation of wake episodes is one of the salient features in the neonatal period, which is also observed in mature animals and human individuals lacking neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin signaling. This raises the possibility that developmental changes of lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons are relevant to the development of sleep/wake architecture. However, little information is available on morphological and physiological features of developing orexin neurons. To address the cellular basis for maturation of the sleep/wake regulatory system, we investigated the functional development of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The anatomical development as well as the changes in the electrophysiological characteristics of orexin neurons was examined from embryonic to postnatal stages in orexin-EGFP mice. Prepro-orexin promoter activity was detectable at embryonic day (E) 12.0, followed by expression of orexin A after E14.0. The number of orexin neurons and their membrane capacitance reached similar levels to adults by postnatal day (P) 7, while their membrane potentials, firing rates, and action potential waveforms were developed by P21. The hyperpolarizing effect of serotonin, which is a major inhibitory signal for adult orexin neurons, was detected after E18.0 and matured at P1. These results suggest that the expression of orexin peptides precedes the maturation of electrophysiological activity of orexin neurons. The function of orexin neurons gradually matures by 3 weeks after birth, coinciding with maturation of sleep/wake architecture.

Inducible and reversible phenotypes in a novel mouse model of Friedreich's Ataxia.

  • Chandran V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia, is caused by recessive mutations that reduce the levels of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron binding protein. We developed an inducible mouse model of Fxn deficiency that enabled us to control the onset and progression of disease phenotypes by the modulation of Fxn levels. Systemic knockdown of Fxn in adult mice led to multiple phenotypes paralleling those observed in human patients across multiple organ systems. By reversing knockdown after clinical features appear, we were able to determine to what extent observed phenotypes represent reversible cellular dysfunction. Remarkably, upon restoration of near wild-type FXN levels, we observed significant recovery of function, associated pathology and transcriptomic dysregulation even after substantial motor dysfunction and pathology were observed. This model will be of broad utility in therapeutic development and in refining our understanding of the relative contribution of reversible cellular dysfunction at different stages in disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR019391(United States)

Myosin II Controls Junction Fluctuations to Guide Epithelial Tissue Ordering.

  • Curran S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Under conditions of homeostasis, dynamic changes in the length of individual adherens junctions (AJs) provide epithelia with the fluidity required to maintain tissue integrity in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic forces. While the contribution of AJ remodeling to developmental morphogenesis has been intensively studied, less is known about AJ dynamics in other circumstances. Here, we study AJ dynamics in an epithelium that undergoes a gradual increase in packing order, without concomitant large-scale changes in tissue size or shape. We find that neighbor exchange events are driven by stochastic fluctuations in junction length, regulated in part by junctional actomyosin. In this context, the developmental increase of isotropic junctional actomyosin reduces the rate of neighbor exchange, contributing to tissue order. We propose a model in which the local variance in tension between junctions determines whether actomyosin-based forces will inhibit or drive the topological transitions that either refine or deform a tissue.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P51RR165(United States)

Deprivation-Induced Homeostatic Spine Scaling In Vivo Is Localized to Dendritic Branches that Have Undergone Recent Spine Loss.

  • Barnes SJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic scaling is a key homeostatic plasticity mechanism and is thought to be involved in the regulation of cortical activity levels. Here we investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic changes in spine size following sensory deprivation in a subset of inhibitory (layer 2/3 GAD65-positive) and excitatory (layer 5 Thy1-positive) neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using repeated in vivo two-photon imaging, we find that increases in spine size are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) dependent and thus are likely associated with synaptic scaling. Rather than occurring at all spines, the observed increases in spine size are spatially localized to a subset of dendritic branches and are correlated with the degree of recent local spine loss within that branch. Using simulations, we show that such a compartmentalized form of synaptic scaling has computational benefits over cell-wide scaling for information processing within the cell.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA034195(United States)

Single-Cell Reconstruction of Oxytocinergic Neurons Reveals Separate Hypophysiotropic and Encephalotropic Subtypes in Larval Zebrafish.

  • Herget U
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxytocin regulates a diverse set of processes including stress, analgesia, metabolism, and social behavior. How such diverse functions are mediated by a single hormonal system is not well understood. Different functions of oxytocin could be mediated by distinct cell groups, yet it is currently unknown whether different oxytocinergic cell types exist that specifically mediate peripheral neuroendocrine or various central neuromodulatory processes via dedicated pathways. Using the Brainbow technique to map the morphology and projections of individual oxytocinergic cells in the larval zebrafish brain, we report here the existence of two main types of oxytocinergic cells: those that innervate the pituitary and those that innervate diverse brain regions. Similar to the situation in the adult rat and the adult midshipman, but in contrast to the situation in the adult trout, these two cell types are mutually exclusive and can be distinguished based on morphological and anatomical criteria. Further, our results reveal that complex oxytocinergic innervation patterns are already established in the larval zebrafish brain.

Dorsal Raphe Serotonergic Neurons Control Intertemporal Choice under Trade-off.

  • Xu S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Appropriate choice about delayed reward is fundamental to the survival of animals. Although animals tend to prefer immediate reward, delaying gratification is often advantageous. The dorsal raphe (DR) serotonergic neurons have long been implicated in the processing of delayed reward, but it has been unclear whether or when their activity causally directs choice. Here, we transiently augmented or reduced the activity of DR serotonergic neurons, while mice decided between differently delayed rewards as they performed a novel odor-guided intertemporal choice task. We found that these manipulations, precisely targeted at the decision point, were sufficient to bidirectionally influence impulsive choice. The manipulation specifically affected choices with more difficult trade-off. Similar effects were observed when we manipulated the serotonergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We propose that DR serotonergic neurons preempt reward delays at the decision point and play a critical role in suppressing impulsive choice by regulating decision trade-off.

Astrocyte-Secreted Glypican 4 Regulates Release of Neuronal Pentraxin 1 from Axons to Induce Functional Synapse Formation.

  • Farhy-Tselnicker I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ. Pentraxin then accumulates AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic terminal forming functional synapses. Our findings reveal a signaling pathway that regulates synaptic activity during central nervous system development and demonstrates a role for astrocytes as organizers of active synaptic connections by coordinating both pre and post synaptic neurons. As mutations in glypicans are associated with neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this signaling cascade offers new avenues to modulate synaptic function in disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089791()
  • Wellcome Trust - P30 NS072031()

Open Chromatin Profiling in hiPSC-Derived Neurons Prioritizes Functional Noncoding Psychiatric Risk Variants and Highlights Neurodevelopmental Loci.

  • Forrest MP
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants. Of the more than 3,500 SZ-associated variants analyzed, we prioritized ∼100 putatively functional ones located in neuronal OCRs, including rs1198588, at a leading risk locus flanking MIR137. Excitatory neurons derived from hiPSCs with CRISPR/Cas9-edited rs1198588 or a rare proximally located SZ risk variant showed altered MIR137 expression, dendrite arborization, and synapse maturation. Our study shows that noncoding disease variants in OCRs can affect neurodevelopment, and that analysis of open chromatin regions can help prioritize functionally relevant noncoding variants identified by GWAS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH097216()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH106575()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH102685()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS100785()

Input-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA2 Region and Its Potential Role in Social Memory.

  • Leroy F
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Input-timing-dependent plasticity (ITDP) is a circuit-based synaptic learning rule by which paired activation of entorhinal cortical (EC) and Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) produces a long-term enhancement of SC excitation. We now find that paired stimulation of EC and SC inputs also induces ITDP of SC excitation of CA2 PNs. However, whereas CA1 ITDP results from long-term depression of feedforward inhibition (iLTD) as a result of activation of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors on cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons, CA2 ITDP results from iLTD through activation of δ-opioid receptors on parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Furthermore, whereas CA1 ITDP has been previously linked to enhanced specificity of contextual memory, we find that CA2 ITDP is associated with enhanced social memory. Thus, ITDP may provide a general synaptic learning rule for distinct forms of hippocampal-dependent memory mediated by distinct hippocampal regions.

Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence.

  • Chai H
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions. We found significant differences in electrophysiological properties, Ca2+ signaling, morphology, and astrocyte-synapse proximity between striatal and hippocampal astrocytes. Unbiased evaluation of actively translated RNA and proteomic data confirmed significant astrocyte diversity between hippocampal and striatal circuits. We thus report core astrocyte properties, reveal evidence for specialized astrocytes within neural circuits, and provide new, integrated database resources and approaches to explore astrocyte diversity and function throughout the adult brain. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Distinct Neural Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of Episodic Memories.

  • Roy DS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.

Directing visceral white adipocyte precursors to a thermogenic adipocyte fate improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice.

  • Hepler C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. Unlike subcutaneous WAT, visceral WAT is resistant to adopting a protective thermogenic phenotype characterized by the accumulation of Ucp1+ beige/BRITE adipocytes (termed 'browning'). In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program. Zfp423 deletion in fetal visceral adipose precursors (Zfp423loxP/loxP; Wt1-Cre), or adult visceral white adipose precursors (PdgfrbrtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP), results in the accumulation of beige-like thermogenic adipocytes within multiple visceral adipose depots. Thermogenic visceral WAT improves cold tolerance and prevents and reverses insulin resistance in obesity. These data indicate that beneficial visceral WAT browning can be engineered by directing visceral white adipocyte precursors to a thermogenic adipocyte fate, and suggest a novel strategy to combat insulin resistance in obesity.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK100095()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK113696()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R00 DK094973()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK104789()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008203()

Recruited Monocytes and Type 2 Immunity Promote Lung Regeneration following Pneumonectomy.

  • Lechner AJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

To investigate the role of immune cells in lung regeneration, we used a unilateral pneumonectomy model that promotes the formation of new alveoli in the remaining lobes. Immunofluorescence and single-cell RNA sequencing found CD115+ and CCR2+ monocytes and M2-like macrophages accumulating in the lung during the peak of type 2 alveolar epithelial stem cell (AEC2) proliferation. Genetic loss of function in mice and adoptive transfer studies revealed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) traffic to the lung through a CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis and are required for optimal lung regeneration, along with Il4ra-expressing leukocytes. Our data suggest that these cells modulate AEC2 proliferation and differentiation. Finally, we provide evidence that group 2 innate lymphoid cells are a source of IL-13, which promotes lung regeneration. Together, our data highlight the potential for immunomodulatory therapies to stimulate alveologenesis in adults.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - F30 HL131198()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL127002()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01 HL134766()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007618()

Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Interneurons following Male-Male Social Interaction.

  • Cansler HL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemosensory information processing in the mouse accessory olfactory system guides the expression of social behavior. After salient chemosensory encounters, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) experiences changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition at reciprocal synapses between mitral cells (MCs) and local interneurons. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain controversial. Moreover, it remains unclear whether MC-interneuron plasticity is unique to specific behaviors, such as mating, or whether it is a more general feature of the AOB circuit. Here, we describe targeted electrophysiological studies of AOB inhibitory internal granule cells (IGCs), many of which upregulate the immediate-early gene Arc after male-male social experience. Following the resident-intruder paradigm, Arc-expressing IGCs in acute AOB slices from resident males displayed stronger excitation than nonexpressing neighbors when sensory inputs were stimulated. The increased excitability of Arc-expressing IGCs was not correlated with changes in the strength or number of excitatory synapses with MCs but was instead associated with increased intrinsic excitability and decreased HCN channel-mediated IH currents. Consistent with increased inhibition by IGCs, MCs responded to sensory input stimulation with decreased depolarization and spiking following resident-intruder encounters. These results reveal that nonmating behaviors drive AOB inhibitory plasticity and indicate that increased MC inhibition involves intrinsic excitability changes in Arc-expressing interneurons.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is a site of experience-dependent plasticity between excitatory mitral cells (MCs) and inhibitory internal granule cells (IGCs), but the physiological mechanisms and behavioral conditions driving this plasticity remain unclear. Here, we report studies of AOB neuronal plasticity following male-male social chemosensory encounters. We show that the plasticity-associated immediate-early gene Arc is selectively expressed in IGCs from resident males following the resident-intruder assay. After behavior, Arc-expressing IGCs are more strongly excited by sensory input stimulation and MC activation is suppressed. Arc-expressing IGCs do not show increased excitatory synaptic drive but instead show increased intrinsic excitability. These data indicate that MC-IGC plasticity is induced after male-male social chemosensory encounters, resulting in enhanced MC suppression by Arc-expressing IGCs.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R00 DC011780()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC015784()

A Central Catecholaminergic Circuit Controls Blood Glucose Levels during Stress.

  • Zhao Z
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stress-induced hyperglycemia is a fundamental adaptive response that mobilizes energy stores in response to threats. Here, our examination of the contributions of the central catecholaminergic (CA) neuronal system to this adaptive response revealed that CA neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) control stress-induced hyperglycemia. Ablation of VLM CA neurons abolished the hyperglycemic response to both physical and psychological stress, whereas chemogenetic activation of these neurons was sufficient to induce hyperglycemia. We further found that CA neurons in the rostral VLM, but not those in the caudal VLM, cause hyperglycemia via descending projections to the spinal cord. Monosynaptic tracing experiments showed that VLM CA neurons receive direct inputs from multiple stress-responsive brain areas. Optogenetic studies identified an excitatory PVN-VLM circuit that induces hyperglycemia. This study establishes the central role of VLM CA neurons in stress-induced hyperglycemia and substantially expands our understanding of the central mechanism that controls glucose metabolism.

Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability.

  • Du J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085724()

A Class of Environmental and Endogenous Toxins Induces BRCA2 Haploinsufficiency and Genome Instability.

  • Tan SLW
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations truncating a single copy of the tumor suppressor, BRCA2, cause cancer susceptibility. In cells bearing such heterozygous mutations, we find that a cellular metabolite and ubiquitous environmental toxin, formaldehyde, stalls and destabilizes DNA replication forks, engendering structural chromosomal aberrations. Formaldehyde selectively depletes BRCA2 via proteasomal degradation, a mechanism of toxicity that affects very few additional cellular proteins. Heterozygous BRCA2 truncations, by lowering pre-existing BRCA2 expression, sensitize to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency induced by transient exposure to natural concentrations of formaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, an alcohol catabolite detoxified by ALDH2, precipitates similar effects. Ribonuclease H1 ameliorates replication fork instability and chromosomal aberrations provoked by aldehyde-induced BRCA2 haploinsufficiency, suggesting that BRCA2 inactivation triggers spontaneous mutagenesis during DNA replication via aberrant RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). These findings suggest a model wherein carcinogenesis in BRCA2 mutation carriers can be incited by compounds found pervasively in the environment and generated endogenously in certain tissues with implications for public health.

A cell cycle-independent, conditional gene inactivation strategy for differentially tagging wild-type and mutant cells.

  • Nagarkar-Jaiswal S
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Here, we describe a novel method based on intronic MiMIC insertions described in Nagarkar-Jaiswal et al. (2015) to perform conditional gene inactivation in Drosophila. Mosaic analysis in Drosophila cannot be easily performed in post-mitotic cells. We therefore, therefore, developed Flip-Flop, a flippase-dependent in vivo cassette-inversion method that marks wild-type cells with the endogenous EGFP-tagged protein, whereas mutant cells are marked with mCherry upon inversion. We document the ease and usefulness of this strategy in differential tagging of wild-type and mutant cells in mosaics. We use this approach to phenotypically characterize the loss of SNF4Aγ, encoding the γ subunit of the AMP Kinase complex. The Flip-Flop method is efficient and reliable, and permits conditional gene inactivation based on both spatial and temporal cues, in a cell cycle-, and developmental stage-independent fashion, creating a platform for systematic screens of gene function in developing and adult flies with unprecedented detail.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067858()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Transformation of Cortex-wide Emergent Properties during Motor Learning.

  • Makino H
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Learning involves a transformation of brain-wide operation dynamics. However, our understanding of learning-related changes in macroscopic dynamics is limited. Here, we monitored cortex-wide activity of the mouse brain using wide-field calcium imaging while the mouse learned a motor task over weeks. Over learning, the sequential activity across cortical modules became temporally more compressed, and its trial-by-trial variability decreased. Moreover, a new flow of activity emerged during learning, originating from premotor cortex (M2), and M2 became predictive of the activity of many other modules. Inactivation experiments showed that M2 is critical for the post-learning dynamics in the cortex-wide activity. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging revealed that M2 ensemble activity also showed earlier activity onset and reduced variability with learning, which was accompanied by changes in the activity-movement relationship. These results reveal newly emergent properties of macroscopic cortical dynamics during motor learning and highlight the importance of M2 in controlling learned movements.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY025349()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014690()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC012641()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091010()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS094342()

Representations of Novelty and Familiarity in a Mushroom Body Compartment.

  • Hattori D
  • Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment. Moreover, exposure of a fly to novel odors evokes an alerting response that can also be elicited by optogenetic activation of α'3 MBONs. Silencing these MBONs eliminates the alerting behavior. These data suggest that the α'3 compartment plays a causal role in the behavioral response to novel and familiar stimuli as a consequence of dopamine-mediated plasticity at the Kenyon cell-MBONα'3 synapse.

Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination.

  • Chung S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE013899()

Astrocytes Control Circadian Timekeeping in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus via Glutamatergic Signaling.

  • Brancaccio M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus orchestrates daily rhythms of physiology and behavior in mammals. Its circadian (∼24 hr) oscillations of gene expression and electrical activity are generated intrinsically and can persist indefinitely in temporal isolation. This robust and resilient timekeeping is generally regarded as a product of the intrinsic connectivity of its neurons. Here we show that neurons constitute only one "half" of the SCN clock, the one metabolically active during circadian daytime. In contrast, SCN astrocytes are active during circadian nighttime, when they suppress the activity of SCN neurons by regulating extracellular glutamate levels. This glutamatergic gliotransmission is sensed by neurons of the dorsal SCN via specific pre-synaptic NMDA receptor assemblies containing NR2C subunits. Remarkably, somatic genetic re-programming of intracellular clocks in SCN astrocytes was capable of remodeling circadian behavioral rhythms in adult mice. Thus, SCN circuit-level timekeeping arises from interdependent and mutually supportive astrocytic-neuronal signaling.

Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States Differentially Prime Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor-Initiating Cells for Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Latil M
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells has been associated with metastasis, stemness, and resistance to therapy. Some tumors undergo EMT while others do not, which may reflect intrinsic properties of their cell of origin. However, this possibility is largely unexplored. By targeting the same oncogenic mutations to discrete skin compartments, we show that cell-type-specific chromatin and transcriptional states differentially prime tumors to EMT. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) derived from interfollicular epidermis (IFE) are generally well differentiated, while hair follicle (HF) stem cell-derived SCCs frequently exhibit EMT, efficiently form secondary tumors, and possess increased metastatic potential. Transcriptional and epigenomic profiling revealed that IFE and HF tumor-initiating cells possess distinct chromatin landscapes and gene regulatory networks associated with tumorigenesis and EMT that correlate with accessibility of key epithelial and EMT transcription factor binding sites. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin states and transcriptional priming in dictating tumor phenotypes and EMT.

Long-Term GABA Administration Induces Alpha Cell-Mediated Beta-like Cell Neogenesis.

  • Ben-Othman N
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The recent discovery that genetically modified α cells can regenerate and convert into β-like cells in vivo holds great promise for diabetes research. However, to eventually translate these findings to human, it is crucial to discover compounds with similar activities. Herein, we report the identification of GABA as an inducer of α-to-β-like cell conversion in vivo. This conversion induces α cell replacement mechanisms through the mobilization of duct-lining precursor cells that adopt an α cell identity prior to being converted into β-like cells, solely upon sustained GABA exposure. Importantly, these neo-generated β-like cells are functional and can repeatedly reverse chemically induced diabetes in vivo. Similarly, the treatment of transplanted human islets with GABA results in a loss of α cells and a concomitant increase in β-like cell counts, suggestive of α-to-β-like cell conversion processes also in humans. This newly discovered GABA-induced α cell-mediated β-like cell neogenesis could therefore represent an unprecedented hope toward improved therapies for diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS064013(United States)

A microRNA negative feedback loop downregulates vesicle transport and inhibits fear memory.

  • Mathew RS
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The SNARE-mediated vesicular transport pathway plays major roles in synaptic remodeling associated with formation of long-term memories, but the mechanisms that regulate this pathway during memory acquisition are not fully understood. Here we identify miRNAs that are up-regulated in the rodent hippocampus upon contextual fear-conditioning and identify the vesicular transport and synaptogenesis pathways as the major targets of the fear-induced miRNAs. We demonstrate that miR-153, a member of this group, inhibits the expression of key components of the vesicular transport machinery, and down-regulates Glutamate receptor A1 trafficking and neurotransmitter release. MiR-153 expression is specifically induced during LTP induction in hippocampal slices and its knockdown in the hippocampus of adult mice results in enhanced fear memory. Our results suggest that miR-153, and possibly other fear-induced miRNAs, act as components of a negative feedback loop that blocks neuronal hyperactivity at least partly through the inhibition of the vesicular transport pathway.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD090255()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092578()

Neonatal disease environment limits the efficacy of retinal transplantation in the LCA8 mouse model.

  • Cho SH
  • BMC Ophthalmol
  • 2016 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Mutations of Crb1 gene cause irreversible and incurable visual impairment in humans. This study aims to use an LCA8-like mouse model to identify host-mediated responses that might interfere with survival, retinal integration and differentiation of grafted cells during neonatal cell therapy. METHODS: Mixed retinal donor cells (1 ~ 2 × 104) isolated from neural retinas of neonatal eGFP transgenic mice were injected into the subretinal space of LCA8-like model neonatal mice. Markers of specific cell types were used to analyze microglial attraction, CSPG induction and retinal cell differentiation. The positions of host retinal cells were traced according to their laminar location during disease progression to look for host cell rearrangements that might inhibit retinal integration of the transplanted cells. RESULTS: Transplanted retinal cells showed poor survival and attracted microglial cells, but CSPG was not greatly induced. Retinas of the LCA8 model hosts underwent significant cellular rearrangement, including rosette formation and apical displacement of inner retinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Local disease environment, particularly host immune responses to injected cells and formation of a physical barrier caused by apical migration of host retinal cells upon disruption of outer limiting membrane, may impose two major barriers in LCAs cell transplantation therapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)

Competitive Disinhibition Mediates Behavioral Choice and Sequences in Drosophila.

  • Jovanic T
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Even a simple sensory stimulus can elicit distinct innate behaviors and sequences. During sensorimotor decisions, competitive interactions among neurons that promote distinct behaviors must ensure the selection and maintenance of one behavior, while suppressing others. The circuit implementation of these competitive interactions is still an open question. By combining comprehensive electron microscopy reconstruction of inhibitory interneuron networks, modeling, electrophysiology, and behavioral studies, we determined the circuit mechanisms that contribute to the Drosophila larval sensorimotor decision to startle, explore, or perform a sequence of the two in response to a mechanosensory stimulus. Together, these studies reveal that, early in sensory processing, (1) reciprocally connected feedforward inhibitory interneurons implement behavioral choice, (2) local feedback disinhibition provides positive feedback that consolidates and maintains the chosen behavior, and (3) lateral disinhibition promotes sequence transitions. The combination of these interconnected circuit motifs can implement both behavior selection and the serial organization of behaviors into a sequence.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG036040(United States)

Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells.

  • Miraucourt LS
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina, but the role of endocannabinoids in vision is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel mechanism underlying a CB1R-mediated increase in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic excitability acting through AMPK-dependent inhibition of NKCC1 activity. Clomeleon imaging and patch clamp recordings revealed that inhibition of NKCC1 downstream of CB1R activation reduces intracellular Cl(-) levels in RGCs, hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential. We confirmed that such hyperpolarization enhances RGC action potential firing in response to subsequent depolarization, consistent with the increased intrinsic excitability of RGCs observed with CB1R activation. Using a dot avoidance assay in freely swimming Xenopus tadpoles, we demonstrate that CB1R activation markedly improves visual contrast sensitivity under low-light conditions. These results highlight a role for endocannabinoids in vision and present a novel mechanism for cannabinoid modulation of neuronal activity through Cl(-) regulation.

Regrowth of Serotonin Axons in the Adult Mouse Brain Following Injury.

  • Jin Y
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely believed that damaged axons in the adult mammalian brain have little capacity to regrow, thereby impeding functional recovery after injury. Studies using fixed tissue have suggested that serotonin neurons might be a notable exception, but remain inconclusive. We have employed in vivo two-photon microscopy to produce time-lapse images of serotonin axons in the neocortex of the adult mouse. Serotonin axons undergo massive retrograde degeneration following amphetamine treatment and subsequent slow recovery of axonal density, which is dominated by new growth with little contribution from local sprouting. A stab injury that transects serotonin axons running in the neocortex is followed by local regression of cut serotonin axons and followed by regrowth from cut ends into and across the stab rift zone. Regrowing serotonin axons do not follow the pathways left by degenerated axons. The regrown axons release serotonin and their regrowth is correlated with recovery in behavioral tests.

The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

  • Larson ED
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Dec 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

Expanding the power of recombinase-based labeling to uncover cellular diversity.

  • Plummer NW
  • Development
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Investigating the developmental, structural and functional complexity of mammalian tissues and organs depends on identifying and gaining experimental access to diverse cell populations. Here, we describe a set of recombinase-responsive fluorescent indicator alleles in mice that significantly extends our ability to uncover cellular diversity by exploiting the intrinsic genetic signatures that uniquely define cell types. Using a recombinase-based intersectional strategy, these new alleles uniquely permit non-invasive labeling of cells defined by the overlap of up to three distinct gene expression domains. In response to different combinations of Cre, Flp and Dre recombinases, they express eGFP and/or tdTomato to allow the visualization of full cellular morphology. Here, we demonstrate the value of these features through a proof-of-principle analysis of the central noradrenergic system. We label previously inaccessible subpopulations of noradrenergic neurons to reveal details of their three-dimensional architecture and axon projection profiles. These new indicator alleles will provide experimental access to cell populations at unprecedented resolution, facilitating analysis of their developmental origin and anatomical, molecular and physiological properties.

Comprehensive expression map of transcription regulators in the adult zebrafish telencephalon reveals distinct neurogenic niches.

  • Diotel N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 310829(International)

Impact of diet-induced obesity on intestinal stem cells: hyperproliferation but impaired intrinsic function that requires insulin/IGF1.

  • Mah AT
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nutrient intake regulates intestinal epithelial mass and crypt proliferation. Recent findings in model organisms and rodents indicate nutrient restriction impacts intestinal stem cells (ISC). Little is known about the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO), a model of excess nutrient intake on ISC. We used a Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse to test the hypothesis that an adaptive response to DIO or associated hyperinsulinemia involves expansion and hyperproliferation of ISC. The Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse allows study and isolation of ISC, progenitors, and differentiated lineages based on different Sox9-EGFP expression levels. Sox9-EGFP mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks to induce DIO and compared with littermates fed low-fat rodent chow. Histology, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and mRNA analyses measured impact of DIO on jejunal crypt-villus morphometry, numbers, and proliferation of different Sox9-EGFP cell populations and gene expression. An in vitro culture assay directly assessed functional capacity of isolated ISC. DIO mice exhibited significant increases in body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels and intestinal Igf1 mRNA. DIO mice had increased villus height and crypt density but decreased intestinal length and decreased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. In vivo, DIO resulted in a selective expansion of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISC and percentage of ISC in S-phase. ISC expansion significantly correlated with plasma insulin levels. In vitro, isolated ISC from DIO mice formed fewer enteroids in standard 3D Matrigel culture compared to controls, indicating impaired ISC function. This decreased enteroid formation in isolated ISC from DIO mice was rescued by exogenous insulin, IGF1, or both. We conclude that DIO induces specific increases in ISC and ISC hyperproliferation in vivo. However, isolated ISC from DIO mice have impaired intrinsic survival and growth in vitro that can be rescued by exogenous insulin or IGF1.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN268201100037C(United States)

Insulin and IGF-I inhibit GH synthesis and release in vitro and in vivo by separate mechanisms.

  • Gahete MD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-I is considered a primary inhibitor of GH secretion. Insulin may also play an important role in regulating GH levels because insulin, like IGF-I, can suppress GH synthesis and release in primary pituitary cell cultures and insulin is negatively correlated with GH levels in vivo. However, understanding the relative contribution insulin and IGF-I exert on controlling GH secretion has been hampered by the fact that circulating insulin and IGF-I are regulated in parallel and insulin (INSR) and IGF-I (IGFIR) receptors are structurally/functionally related and ubiquitously expressed. To evaluate the separate roles of insulin and IGF-I in directly regulating GH secretion, we used the Cre/loxP system to knock down the INSR and IGFIR in primary mouse pituitary cell cultures and found insulin-mediated suppression of GH is independent of the IGFIR. In addition, pharmacological blockade of intracellular signals in both mouse and baboon cultures revealed insulin requires different pathways from IGF-I to exert a maximal inhibitory effect on GH expression/release. In vivo, somatotrope-specific knockout of INSR (SIRKO) or IGFIR (SIGFRKO) increased GH levels. However, comparison of the pattern of GH release, GH expression, somatotrope morphometry, and pituitary explant sensitivity to acute GHRH challenge in lean SIRKO and SIGFRKO mice strongly suggests the primary role of insulin in vivo is to suppress GH release, whereas IGF-I serves to regulate GH synthesis. Finally, SIRKO and/or SIGFRKO could not prevent high-fat, diet-induced suppression of pituitary GH expression, indicating other factors/tissues are involved in the decline of GH observed with weight gain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS074256(United States)

A-kinase anchoring protein 150 expression in a specific subset of TRPV1- and CaV 1.2-positive nociceptive rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

  • Brandao KE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modulation of phosphorylation states of ion channels is a critical step in the development of hyperalgesia during inflammation. Modulatory enhancement of channel activity may increase neuronal excitability and affect downstream targets such as gene transcription. The specificity required for such regulation of ion channels quickly occurs via targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases by the scaffolding A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 has been implicated in inflammatory pain by targeting protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in peripheral sensory neurons, thus lowering threshold for activation of the channel by multiple inflammatory reagents. However, the expression pattern of AKAP150 in peripheral sensory neurons is unknown. Here we identify the peripheral neuron subtypes that express AKAP150, the subcellular distribution of AKAP150, and the potential target ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) slices. We found that AKAP150 is expressed predominantly in a subset of small DRG sensory neurons, where it is localized at the plasma membrane of the soma, axon initial segment, and small fibers. Most of these neurons are peripherin positive and produce C fibers, although a small portion produce Aδ fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AKAP79/150 colocalizes with TRPV1 and Ca(V) 1.2 in the soma and axon initial segment. Thus AKAP150 is expressed in small, nociceptive DRG neurons, where it is targeted to membrane regions and where it may play a role in the modulation of ion channel phosphorylation states required for hyperalgesia.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG006464(United States)