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Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 Conjugated

RRID:AB_141607

Antibody ID

AB_141607

Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) mouse

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-21202, RRID:AB_141607)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued; This entry was consolidated with RRID:AB_2535788 by curator; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher:

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

Molecular Probes

Cat Num

A-21202 also A21202

Publications that use this research resource

Identification of NeuN immunopositive cells in the adult mouse subventricular zone.

  • Saito K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ), there are neural stem cells (NSCs) and the specialized neurogenic niche is critical to maintain their stemness. To date, many cellular and noncellular factors that compose the neurogenic niche and markers to identify subpopulations of Type A cells have been confirmed. In particular, neurotransmitters regulate adult neurogenesis and mature neurons in the SVZ have been only partially analyzed. Moreover, Type A cells, descendants of NSCs, are highly heterogeneous and more molecular markers are still needed to identify them. In the present study, we systematically classified NeuN, commonly used as a marker of mature and immature post-mitotic neurons, immunopositive (+) cells within the adult mouse SVZ. These SVZ-NeuN+ cells (SVZ-Ns) were mainly classified into two types. One was mature SVZ-Ns (M-SVZ-Ns). Neurochemical properties of M-SVZ-Ns were similar to those of striatal neurons, but their birth date and morphology were different. M-SVZ-Ns were generated during embryonic and early postnatal stages with bipolar peaks and extended their processes along the wall of the lateral ventricle. The second type was small SVZ-Ns (S-SVZ-Ns) with features of Type A cells. They expressed not only markers of Type A cells, but also proliferated and migrated from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, S-SVZ-Ns could be classified into two types by their spatial locations and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression. Our data indicate that M-SVZ-Ns are a new component of the neurogenic niche and S-SVZ-Ns are newly identified subpopulations of Type A cells.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM102869-01(United States)

A damaged DNA binding protein 2 mutation disrupting interaction with proliferating-cell nuclear antigen affects DNA repair and confers proliferation advantage.

  • Perucca P
  • Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammalian cells, Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) plays a role in removing DNA damage induced by UV radiation. In Global Genome-NER subpathway, DDB2 protein forms a complex with DDB1 (UV-DDB), recognizing photolesions. During DNA repair, DDB2 interacts directly with PCNA through a conserved region in N-terminal tail and this interaction is important for DDB2 degradation. In this work, we sought to investigate the role of DDB2-PCNA association in DNA repair and cell proliferation after UV-induced DNA damage. To this end, stable clones expressing DDB2Wt and DDB2PCNA- were used. We have found that cells expressing a mutant DDB2 show inefficient photolesions removal, and a concomitant lack of binding to damaged DNA in vitro. Unexpected cellular behaviour after DNA damage, such as UV-resistance, increased cell growth and motility were found in DDB2PCNA- stable cell clones, in which the most significant defects in cell cycle checkpoint were observed, suggesting a role in the new cellular phenotype. Based on these findings, we propose that DDB2-PCNA interaction may contribute to a correct DNA damage response for maintaining genome integrity.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0600676(United Kingdom)

Local Arrangement of Fibronectin by Myofibroblasts Governs Peripheral Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Cells.

  • Roman W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Skeletal muscle cells (myofibers) are rod-shaped multinucleated cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) basal lamina. In contrast to other cell types, nuclei in myofibers are positioned just below the plasma membrane at the cell periphery. Peripheral nuclear positioning occurs during myogenesis and is driven by myofibril crosslinking and contraction. Here we show that peripheral nuclear positioning is triggered by local accumulation of fibronectin secreted by myofibroblasts. We demonstrate that fibronectin via α5-integrin mediates peripheral nuclear positioning dependent on FAK and Src activation. Finally, we show that Cdc42, downstream of restricted fibronectin activation, is required for myofibril crosslinking but not myofibril contraction. Thus we identify that local activation of integrin by fibronectin secreted by myofibroblasts activates peripheral nuclear positioning in skeletal myofibers.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32-GM07062(United States)

Chronic Liver Injury Induces Conversion of Biliary Epithelial Cells into Hepatocytes.

  • Deng X
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic liver injury can cause cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, impairing organ function. Adult livers can regenerate in response to parenchymal insults, and multiple cellular sources have been reported to contribute to this response. In this study, we modeled human chronic liver injuries, in which such responses are blunted, without genetic manipulations, and assessed potential contributions of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) to hepatocyte regeneration. We show that NPC-derived hepatocytes replenish a large fraction of the liver parenchyma following severe injuries induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment. Through lineage tracing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs), we show that BECs are a source of new hepatocytes and gain an Hnf4α+CK19+ bi-phenotypic state in periportal regions and fibrotic septa. Bi-phenotypic cells were also detected in cirrhotic human livers. Together, these data provide further support for hepatocyte regeneration from BECs without genetic interventions and show their cellular plasticity during severe liver injury.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA172027(United States)

Dual leucine zipper kinase is required for mechanical allodynia and microgliosis after nerve injury.

  • Wlaschin JJ
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathic pain resulting from nerve injury can become persistent and difficult to treat but the molecular signaling responsible for its development remains poorly described. Here, we identify the neuronal stress sensor dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK; Map3k12) as a key molecule controlling the maladaptive pathways that lead to pain following injury. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of DLK reduces mechanical hypersensitivity in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, DLK inhibition also prevents the spinal cord microgliosis that results from nerve injury and arises distant from the injury site. These striking phenotypes result from the control by DLK of a transcriptional program in somatosensory neurons regulating the expression of numerous genes implicated in pain pathogenesis, including the immune gene Csf1. Thus, activation of DLK is an early event, or even the master regulator, controlling a wide variety of pathways downstream of nerve injury that ultimately lead to chronic pain.

Funding information:
  • National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health - Intramural Research Program()
  • National Institute of Child Heath and Human Development - Intramural Research Program()
  • National Institutes of Health - Intramural Research Program - DDIR Innovation Award()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA33572(United States)

Radiologic and Genomic Evolution of Individual Metastases during HER2 Blockade in Colorectal Cancer.

  • Siravegna G
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Targeting HER2 is effective in 24% of ERBB2 amplified metastatic colorectal cancer; however, secondary resistance occurs in most of the cases. We studied the evolution of individual metastases during treatment to discover spatially resolved determinants of resistance. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis identified alterations associated with resistance in the majority of refractory patients. ctDNA profiles and lesion-specific radiographic reports revealed organ- or metastasis-private evolutionary patterns. When radiologic assessments documented progressive disease in target lesions, response to HER2 blockade was retained in other metastases. Genomic and functional analyses on samples and cell models from eight metastases of a patient co-recruited to a postmortem study unveiled lesion-specific evolutionary trees and pharmacologic vulnerabilities. Lesion size and contribution of distinct metastases to plasma ctDNA were correlated.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ES06694(United States)

Th17 Lymphocytes Induce Neuronal Cell Death in a Human iPSC-Based Model of Parkinson's Disease.

  • Sommer A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE019075(United States)

FRMD8 promotes inflammatory and growth factor signalling by stabilising the iRhom/ADAM17 sheddase complex.

  • Künzel U
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many intercellular signals are synthesised as transmembrane precursors that are released by proteolytic cleavage ('shedding') from the cell surface. ADAM17, a membrane-tethered metalloprotease, is the primary shedding enzyme responsible for the release of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and several EGF receptor ligands. ADAM17 exists in complex with the rhomboid-like iRhom proteins, which act as cofactors that regulate ADAM17 substrate shedding. Here we report that the poorly characterised FERM domain-containing protein FRMD8 is a new component of the iRhom2/ADAM17 sheddase complex. FRMD8 binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminus of iRhoms and is necessary to stabilise iRhoms and ADAM17 at the cell surface. In the absence of FRMD8, iRhom2 and ADAM17 are degraded via the endolysosomal pathway, resulting in the reduction of ADAM17-mediated shedding. We have confirmed the pathophysiological significance of FRMD8 in iPSC-derived human macrophages and mouse tissues, thus demonstrating its role in the regulated release of multiple cytokine and growth factor signals.

Funding information:
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds - PhD Fellowship()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 659166()
  • Medical Research Council - 1374214()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_EX_MR/N50192X/1()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS054042(United States)
  • Wellcome - 101035/Z/13/Z()
  • Wellcome - Oxford Wellcome Institutional Strategic Support Fund 121302()

Evolution of Cortical Neurogenesis in Amniotes Controlled by Robo Signaling Levels.

  • Cárdenas A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebral cortex size differs dramatically between reptiles, birds, and mammals, owing to developmental differences in neuron production. In mammals, signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis have been identified, but genetic differences behind their evolution across amniotes remain unknown. We show that direct neurogenesis from radial glia cells, with limited neuron production, dominates the avian, reptilian, and mammalian paleocortex, whereas in the evolutionarily recent mammalian neocortex, most neurogenesis is indirect via basal progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse, chick, and snake embryos and in human cerebral organoids demonstrate that high Slit/Robo and low Dll1 signaling, via Jag1 and Jag2, are necessary and sufficient to drive direct neurogenesis. Attenuating Robo signaling and enhancing Dll1 in snakes and birds recapitulates the formation of basal progenitors and promotes indirect neurogenesis. Our study identifies modulation in activity levels of conserved signaling pathways as a primary mechanism driving the expansion and increased complexity of the mammalian neocortex during amniote evolution.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Defects in the Alternative Splicing-Dependent Regulation of REST Cause Deafness.

  • Nakano Y
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The DNA-binding protein REST forms complexes with histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In differentiating neurons, REST is downregulated predominantly by transcriptional silencing. Here we report that post-transcriptional inactivation of REST by alternative splicing is required for hearing in humans and mice. We show that, in the mechanosensory hair cells of the mouse ear, regulated alternative splicing of a frameshift-causing exon into the Rest mRNA is essential for the derepression of many neuronal genes. Heterozygous deletion of this alternative exon of mouse Rest causes hair cell degeneration and deafness, and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat) rescues the hearing of these mice. In humans, inhibition of the frameshifting splicing event by a novel REST variant is associated with dominantly inherited deafness. Our data reveal the necessity for alternative splicing-dependent regulation of REST in hair cells, and they identify a potential treatment for a group of hereditary deafness cases.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - 5 F32 MH064339-03(United States)

A Linc1405/Eomes Complex Promotes Cardiac Mesoderm Specification and Cardiogenesis.

  • Guo X
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells. Importantly, linc1405 co-localizes with Eomes, WDR5, and GCN5 at the primitive streak, and linc1405 depletion impairs heart development and function in vivo. In summary, linc1405 mediates a Eomes/WDR5/GCN5 complex that contributes to cardiogenesis, highlighting the critical roles of lincRNA-based complexes in the epigenetic regulation of cardiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1TR000124(United States)

Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

  • Catterson JH
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163772(United States)

VIP-immunoreactive interneurons within circuits of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

  • Rhomberg T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cortical structures, principal cell activity is tightly regulated by different GABAergic interneurons (INs). In particular, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) INs innervate preferentially other INs, providing a structural basis for temporal disinhibition of principal cells. However, relatively little is known about VIP+ INs in the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLA). In this study, we report that VIP+ INs have a variable density in the distinct subdivisions of the mouse BLA. Based on different anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, VIP+ INs could be identified as interneuron-selective INs and basket cells expressing CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Whole-cell recordings of VIP+ interneuron-selective INs revealed 3 different spiking patterns, which did not associate with the expression of calretinin. Genetic targeting combined with optogenetics and in vitro recordings allowed us to identify several types of BLA INs innervated by VIP+ INs, including other interneuron-selective INs, basket and neurogliaform cells. Moreover, light stimulation of VIP+ basket cell axon terminals, characterized by CB1 sensitivity, evoked IPSPs in ∼20% of principal neurons. Finally, we show that VIP+ INs receive a dense innervation from both GABAergic, although only 10% from other VIP+ INs, and distinct glutamatergic inputs, identified by their expression of different vesicular glutamate transporters.In conclusion, our study provides a wide-range analysis of single-cell properties of VIP+ INs in the mouse BLA and of their intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. Our results reinforce the knowledge that VIP+ INs are structurally and functionally heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity could mediate different roles in amygdala-dependent functions.Significance statement:We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of VIP+ interneurons across the entire mouse BLA, as well as of their morphological and physiological properties. VIP+ interneurons in the neocortex preferentially target other interneurons to form a disinhibitory network that facilitates principal cell firing. Our study is the first to demonstrate the presence of such a disinhibitory circuitry in the BLA. We observed structural and functional heterogeneity of these INs and characterized their input/output connectivity. We also identified several types of BLA interneurons postsynaptic to VIP+ INs, whose inhibition may provide a temporal window for principal cell firing and facilitate associative plasticity, e.g. in fear learning. Disinhibition, thus, is emerging as a general mechanism, not limited to the neocortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM055962(United States)

Transcriptome Analysis Uncovers a Growth-Promoting Activity of Orosomucoid-1 on Hepatocytes.

  • Qin XY
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The acute phase protein orosomucoid-1 (Orm1) is mainly expressed by hepatocytes (HPCs) under stress conditions. However, its specific function is not fully understood. Here, we report a role of Orm1 as an executer of HPC proliferation. Increases in serum levels of Orm1 were observed in patients after surgical resection for liver cancer and in mice undergone partial hepatectomy (PH). Transcriptome study showed that Orm1 became the most abundant in HPCs isolated from regenerating mouse liver tissues after PH. Both in vitro and in vivo siRNA-induced knockdown of Orm1 suppressed proliferation of mouse regenerating HPCs and human hepatic cells. Microarray analysis in regenerating mouse livers revealed that the signaling pathways controlling chromatin replication, especially the minichromosome maintenance protein complex genes were uniformly down-regulated following Orm1 knockdown. These data suggest that Orm1 is induced in response to hepatic injury and executes liver regeneration by activating cell cycle progression in HPCs.

Amygdala Corticofugal Input Shapes Mitral Cell Responses in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

  • Oboti L
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interconnections between the olfactory bulb and the amygdala are a major pathway for triggering strong behavioral responses to a variety of odorants. However, while this broad mapping has been established, the patterns of amygdala feedback connectivity and the influence on olfactory circuitry remain unknown. Here, using a combination of neuronal tracing approaches, we dissect the connectivity of a cortical amygdala [posteromedial cortical nucleus (PmCo)] feedback circuit innervating the mouse accessory olfactory bulb. Optogenetic activation of PmCo feedback mainly results in feedforward mitral cell (MC) inhibition through direct excitation of GABAergic granule cells. In addition, LED-driven activity of corticofugal afferents increases the gain of MC responses to olfactory nerve stimulation. Thus, through corticofugal pathways, the PmCo likely regulates primary olfactory and social odor processing.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA020140()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012050()
  • PHS HHS - R01 A1030048(United States)

G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Gpr17 Expression in Two Multiple Sclerosis Remyelination Models.

  • Nyamoya S
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

In multiple sclerosis patients, demyelination is prominent in both the white and gray matter. Chronic clinical deficits are known to result from acute or chronic injury to the myelin sheath and inadequate remyelination. The underlying molecular mechanisms of remyelination and its failure remain currently unclear. Recent studies have recognized G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) as an important regulator of oligodendrocyte development and remyelination. So far, the relevance of GPR17 for myelin repair was mainly tested in remyelinating white matter lesions. The relevance of GPR17 for gray matter remyelination as well as remyelination of chronic white matter lesions was not addressed so far. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of GPR17 expression during experimental de- and remyelination. Experimental lesions with robust and limited endogenous remyelination capacity were established by either acute or chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination. Furthermore, remyelinating lesions were induced by the focal injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into the corpus callosum. GPR17 expression was analyzed by complementary techniques including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and real-time PCR. In control animals, GPR17+ cells were evenly distributed in the corpus callosum and cortex and displayed a highly ramified morphology. Virtually all GPR17+ cells also expressed the oligodendrocyte-specific transcription factor OLIG2. After acute cuprizone-induced demyelination, robust endogenous remyelination was evident in the white matter corpus callosum but not in the gray matter cortex. Endogenous callosal remyelination was paralleled by a robust induction of GPR17 expression which was absent in the gray matter cortex. Higher numbers of GPR17+ cells were as well observed after LPC-induced focal white matter demyelination. In contrast, densities of GPR17+ cells were comparable to control animals after chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination indicating quiescence of this cell population. Our findings demonstrate that GPR17 expression induction correlates with acute demyelination and sufficient endogenous remyelination. This strengthens the view that manipulation of this receptor might be a therapeutic opportunity to support endogenous remyelination.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - KI 1469/8-1()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM085490-03(United States)

Histological studies on the development of porcine tonsils after birth.

  • Yang Y
  • J. Morphol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tonsils form the topographically first immune barrier of an organism against the invasion of pathogens. We used histology to study the development of tonsils of pigs after birth. At birth, the tonsils consist of diffuse lymphoid tissue without any lymphoid follicle aggregations. At the age of 7 days, lymphoid follicles appeared in the soft palate tonsil. The lymphoid layer of the nasopharyngeal tonsil, soft palate tonsil, and lingual tonsil became thicker, and lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were clearly visible at the age of 21 days. Secondary lymphoid follicles were present in the nasopharyngeal tonsil at the age of 50 days, and in the soft palate tonsil at the age of 120 days. Dendritic cells (DCs), CD3+ T cells and IgA+ B cells in the soft palate tonsil, nasopharyngeal tonsil and lingual tonsil increased continuously, especially during the first 21 days. The results suggested that tonsils have an important role in local immune defense against invading antigens after birth and will be beneficial for understanding the mechanisms of immunity in these animals after nasal and oral vaccination.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01-HL58672(United States)

Ablation of the presynaptic organizer Bassoon in excitatory neurons retards dentate gyrus maturation and enhances learning performance.

  • Annamneedi A
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bassoon is a large scaffolding protein of the presynaptic active zone involved in the development of presynaptic terminals and in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at both excitatory and inhibitory brain synapses. Mice with constitutive ablation of the Bassoon (Bsn) gene display impaired presynaptic function, show sensory deficits and develop severe seizures. To specifically study the role of Bassoon at excitatory forebrain synapses and its relevance for control of behavior, we generated conditional knockout (Bsn cKO) mice by gene ablation through an Emx1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. In these animals, we confirm selective loss of Bassoon from glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. Behavioral assessment revealed that, in comparison to wild-type littermates, Bsn cKO mice display selectively enhanced contextual fear memory and increased novelty preference in a spatial discrimination/pattern separation task. These changes are accompanied by an augmentation of baseline synaptic transmission at medial perforant path to dentate gyrus (DG) synapses, as indicated by increased ratios of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope to fiber volley amplitude. At the structural level, an increased complexity of apical dendrites of DG granule cells can be detected in Bsn cKO mice. In addition, alterations in the expression of cellular maturation markers and a lack of age-dependent decrease in excitability between juvenile and adult Bsn cKO mice are observed. Our data suggest that expression of Bassoon in excitatory forebrain neurons is required for the normal maturation of the DG and important for spatial and contextual memory.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project A06()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B05()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B09()
  • Leibniz-Gemeinschaft - LGS SynaptoGenetics()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - S06 GM061223-05A1(United States)

The homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a direct target of SoxC proteins during developmental vertebrate neurogenesis.

  • Jacob A
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The high-mobility-group-domain containing SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are expressed and required in the vertebrate central nervous system in neuronal precursors and neuroblasts. To identify genes that are widely regulated by SoxC proteins during vertebrate neurogenesis we generated expression profiles from developing mouse brain and chicken neural tube with reduced SoxC expression and found the transcription factor Prox1 strongly downregulated under both conditions. This led us to hypothesize that Prox1 expression depends on SoxC proteins in the developing central nervous system of mouse and chicken. By combining luciferase reporter assays and overexpression in the chicken neural tube with in vivo and in vitro binding studies, we identify the Prox1 gene promoter and two upstream enhancers at -44 kb and -40 kb relative to the transcription start as regulatory regions that are bound and activated by SoxC proteins. This argues that Prox1 is a direct target gene of SoxC proteins during neurogenesis. Electroporations in the chicken neural tube furthermore show that Prox1 activates a subset of SoxC target genes, whereas it has no effects on others. We propose that the transcriptional control of Prox1 by SoxC proteins may ensure coupling of two types of transcription factors that are both required during early neurogenesis, but have at least in part distinct functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024615(United States)

Exportin Crm1 is repurposed as a docking protein to generate microtubule organizing centers at the nuclear pore.

  • Bao XX
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) are important for microtubule organization in many cell types. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein Mto1, together with partner protein Mto2 (Mto1/2 complex), recruits the γ-tubulin complex to multiple non-centrosomal MTOCs, including the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we develop a comparative-interactome mass spectrometry approach to determine how Mto1 localizes to the NE. Surprisingly, we find that Mto1, a constitutively cytoplasmic protein, docks at nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), via interaction with exportin Crm1 and cytoplasmic FG-nucleoporin Nup146. Although Mto1 is not a nuclear export cargo, it binds Crm1 via a nuclear export signal-like sequence, and docking requires both Ran in the GTP-bound state and Nup146 FG repeats. In addition to determining the mechanism of MTOC formation at the NE, our results reveal a novel role for Crm1 and the nuclear export machinery in the stable docking of a cytoplasmic protein complex at NPCs.

Funding information:
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP17H01444()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP17H03636()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP25116006()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM096193(United States)
  • Wellcome - 091020()
  • Wellcome - 094517()
  • Wellcome - 108504()
  • Wellcome - 203149()
  • Wellcome - 91020()
  • Wellcome - 94517()
  • Wellcome Trust - JP16H01309()

Myoepithelial Cells of Submucosal Glands Can Function as Reserve Stem Cells to Regenerate Airways after Injury.

  • Tata A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells demonstrate plasticity following injury, but the extent of this phenomenon and the cellular mechanisms involved remain underexplored. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and lineage tracing, we uncover that myoepithelial cells (MECs) of the submucosal glands (SMGs) proliferate and migrate to repopulate the airway surface epithelium (SE) in multiple injury models. Specifically, SMG-derived cells display multipotency and contribute to basal and luminal cell types of the SMGs and SE. Ex vivo expanded MECs have the potential to repopulate and differentiate into SE cells when grafted onto denuded airway scaffolds. Significantly, we find that SMG-like cells appear on the SE of both extra- and intra-lobular airways of large animal lungs following severe injury. We find that the transcription factor SOX9 is necessary for MEC plasticity in airway regeneration. Because SMGs are abundant and present deep within airways, they may serve as a reserve cell source for enhancing human airway regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL127181()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK59630(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - U01 ES017219()

A Potent and Specific CD38 Inhibitor Ameliorates Age-Related Metabolic Dysfunction by Reversing Tissue NAD+ Decline.

  • Tarragó MG
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is characterized by the development of metabolic dysfunction and frailty. Recent studies show that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a key factor for the development of age-associated metabolic decline. We recently demonstrated that the NADase CD38 has a central role in age-related NAD+ decline. Here we show that a highly potent and specific thiazoloquin(az)olin(on)e CD38 inhibitor, 78c, reverses age-related NAD+ decline and improves several physiological and metabolic parameters of aging, including glucose tolerance, muscle function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function in mouse models of natural and accelerated aging. The physiological effects of 78c depend on tissue NAD+ levels and were reversed by inhibition of NAD+ synthesis. 78c increased NAD+ levels, resulting in activation of pro-longevity and health span-related factors, including sirtuins, AMPK, and PARPs. Furthermore, in animals treated with 78c we observed inhibition of pathways that negatively affect health span, such as mTOR-S6K and ERK, and attenuation of telomere-associated DNA damage, a marker of cellular aging. Together, our results detail a novel pharmacological strategy for prevention and/or reversal of age-related NAD+ decline and subsequent metabolic dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - N01-HV-28186(United States)

A Hierarchical, Data-Driven Approach to Modeling Single-Cell Populations Predicts Latent Causes of Cell-To-Cell Variability.

  • Loos C
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

All biological systems exhibit cell-to-cell variability. Frameworks exist for understanding how stochastic fluctuations and transient differences in cell state contribute to experimentally observable variations in cellular responses. However, current methods do not allow identification of the sources of variability between and within stable subpopulations of cells. We present a data-driven modeling framework for the analysis of populations comprising heterogeneous subpopulations. Our approach combines mixture modeling with frameworks for distribution approximation, facilitating the integration of multiple single-cell datasets and the detection of causal differences between and within subpopulations. The computational efficiency of our framework allows hundreds of competing hypotheses to be compared. We initially validate our method using simulated data with an understood ground truth, then we analyze data collected using quantitative single-cell microscopy of cultured sensory neurons involved in pain initiation. This approach allows us to quantify the relative contribution of neuronal subpopulations, culture conditions, and expression levels of signaling proteins to the observed cell-to-cell variability in NGF/TrkA-initiated Erk1/2 signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI024157(United States)

Phosphatidylinositol-5-Phosphate 4-Kinases Regulate Cellular Lipid Metabolism By Facilitating Autophagy.

  • Lundquist MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the majority of phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PI-4, 5-P2) in mammalian cells is generated by the conversion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4-P) to PI-4, 5-P2, a small fraction can be made by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI-5-P). The physiological relevance of this second pathway is not clear. Here, we show that deletion of the genes encoding the two most active enzymes in this pathway, Pip4k2a and Pip4k2b, in the liver of mice causes a large enrichment in lipid droplets and in autophagic vesicles during fasting. These changes are due to a defect in the clearance of autophagosomes that halts autophagy and reduces the supply of nutrients salvaged through this pathway. Similar defects in autophagy are seen in nutrient-starved Pip4k2a-/-Pip4k2b-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in C. elegans lacking the PI5P4K ortholog. These results suggest that this alternative pathway for PI-4, 5-P2 synthesis evolved, in part, to enhance the ability of multicellular organisms to survive starvation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197588()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA210184()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR024128(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041890()

Nucleus Accumbens Microcircuit Underlying D2-MSN-Driven Increase in Motivation.

  • Soares-Cunha C
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB008281(United States)

Induction of the Immunoproteasome Subunit Lmp7 Links Proteostasis and Immunity in α-Synuclein Aggregation Disorders.

  • Ugras S
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein into Lewy bodies is thought to contribute to the onset and progression of dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Although protein aggregation is associated with perturbation of proteostasis, how α-synuclein aggregation affects the brain proteome and signaling remains uncertain. In a mouse model of α-synuclein aggregation, 6% of 6215 proteins and 1.6% of 8183 phosphopeptides changed in abundance, indicating conservation of proteostasis and phosphorylation signaling. The proteomic analysis confirmed changes in abundance of proteins that regulate dopamine synthesis and transport, synaptic activity and integrity, and unearthed changes in mRNA binding, processing and protein translation. Phosphorylation signaling changes centered on axonal and synaptic cytoskeletal organization and structural integrity. Proteostatic responses included a significant increase in the levels of Lmp7, a component of the immunoproteasome. Increased Lmp7 levels and activity were also quantified in postmortem human brains with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies. Functionally, the immunoproteasome degrades α-synuclein aggregates and generates potentially antigenic peptides. Expression and activity of the immunoproteasome may represent testable targets to induce adaptive responses that maintain proteome integrity and modulate immune responses in protein aggregation disorders.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG013966()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD086984()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS088322()

Modulation of LIN28B/Let-7 Signaling by Propranolol Contributes to Infantile Hemangioma Involution.

  • Mong EF
  • Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
  • 2018 May 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy, characterized by a rapid growth phase followed by a spontaneous involution, or triggered by propranolol treatment by poorly understood mechanisms. LIN28/let-7 axis plays a central role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. However, the role of LIN28B/let-7 signaling in IH pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: LIN28B is highly expressed in proliferative IH and is less expressed in involuted and in propranolol-treated IH samples as measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative RT-PCR. Small RNA sequencing analysis of IH samples revealed a decrease in microRNAs that target LIN28B, including let-7, and an increase in microRNAs in the mir-498(46) cistron. Overexpression of LIN28B in HEK293 cells induced the expression of miR-516b in the mir-498(46) cistron. Propranolol treatment of induced pluripotent stem cells, which express mir-498(46) endogenously, reduced the expression of both LIN28B and mir-498(46) and increased the expression of let-7. Furthermore, propranolol treatment reduced the proliferation of induced pluripotent stem cells and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: This work uncovers the role of the LIN28B/let-7 switch in IH pathogenesis and provides a novel mechanism by which propranolol induces IH involution. Furthermore, it provides therapeutic implications for cancers in which the LIN28/let-7 pathway is imbalanced.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - A6689(United Kingdom)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL109133(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL128411(United States)

Time-dependent change of in vivo optical imaging of oxidative stress in a mouse stroke model.

  • Nakano Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 May 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a pivotal role in cellular defense against oxidative stress damage after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we examined the time-dependent change of in vivo optical imaging of oxidative stress after stroke with Keap1-dependent oxidative stress detector (OKD) mice. OKD mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 45 min, and in vivo optical signals were detected during the pre-operative period, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after tMCAO. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after obtaining in vivo optical signals at 1 d after tMCAO. Immunohistochemical analyses and infarct volume were also examined after in vivo imaging at each period. The in vivo signals showed a peak at 1 d after tMCAO that was slightly correlated to infarct volume. The strong ex vivo signals, which were detected in the peri-ischemic area, corresponded to endogenous Nrf2 expression. Moreover, endogenous Nrf2 expression was detected mainly in neurons followed by oligodendrocytes and pericytes, but only slightly in astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells. The present study successfully demonstrated the temporal change of in vivo imaging of oxidative stress after tMCAO, which is consistent with strong expression of endogenous Nrf2 in the peri-ischemic area with a similar time course. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Systematic Characterization of Stress-Induced RNA Granulation.

  • Namkoong S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI043477(United States)

Arginine Methylation by PRMT2 Controls the Functions of the Actin Nucleator Cobl.

  • Hou W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL24415(United States)

Hippo Signaling Plays an Essential Role in Cell State Transitions during Cardiac Fibroblast Development.

  • Xiao Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, progenitors progress through transition states. The cardiac epicardium contains progenitors of essential non-cardiomyocytes. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that inhibits the Yap transcriptional co-factor, controls organ size in developing hearts. Here, we investigated Hippo kinases Lats1 and Lats2 in epicardial diversification. Epicardial-specific deletion of Lats1/2 was embryonic lethal, and mutant embryos had defective coronary vasculature remodeling. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that Lats1/2 mutant cells failed to activate fibroblast differentiation but remained in an intermediate cell state with both epicardial and fibroblast characteristics. Lats1/2 mutant cells displayed an arrested developmental trajectory with persistence of epicardial markers and expanded expression of Yap targets Dhrs3, an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis, and Dpp4, a protease that modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation revealed that Yap inhibits fibroblast differentiation, prolonging a subepicardial-like cell state, and promotes expression of matricellular factors, such as Dpp4, that define ECM characteristics.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA020401(United States)

Derivation and characterization of the NIH registry human stem cell line NYSCF100 line under defined feeder-free conditions.

  • Sevilla A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe001-A was derived from a day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe001-A line, registered as NYSCF100 on the NIH registry, presents normal karyotype, is mycoplasma free, expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA138998(United States)

InsP3R-SEC5 interaction on phagosomes modulates innate immunity to Candida albicans by promoting cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and TBK1 activity.

  • Yang L
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans (C. albicans) invasion triggers antifungal innate immunity, and the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) plays a critical role in this process. However, the molecular pathways linking the InsP3R-mediated increase in Ca2+ and immune responses remain elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we find that during C. albicans phagocytosis in macrophages, exocyst complex component 2 (SEC5) promotes InsP3R channel activity by binding to its C-terminal α-helix (H1), increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]c). Immunofluorescence reveals enriched InsP3R-SEC5 complex formation on phagosomes, while disruption of the InsP3R-SEC5 interaction by recombinant H1 peptides attenuates the InsP3R-mediated Ca2+ elevation, leading to impaired phagocytosis. Furthermore, we show that C. albicans infection promotes the recruitment of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) by the InsP3R-SEC5 interacting complex, leading to the activation of TBK1. Subsequently, activated TBK1 phosphorylates interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and mediates type I interferon responses, suggesting that the InsP3R-SEC5 interaction may regulate antifungal innate immune responses not only by elevating cytoplasmic Ca2+ but also by activating the TBK1-IRF-3 pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our data have revealed an important role of the InsP3R-SEC5 interaction in innate immune responses against C. albicans.

Funding information:
  • National Basic Research Program of China - 2013CB531602()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - S06 GM008012-37(United States)
  • Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research - PD2012-4()

Kir4.1-Dependent Astrocyte-Fast Motor Neuron Interactions Are Required for Peak Strength.

  • Kelley KW
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.

Funding information:
  • FIC NIH HHS - K01 TW000001(United States)

Developmental History Provides a Roadmap for the Emergence of Tumor Plasticity.

  • Tata PR
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

We show that the loss or gain of transcription factor programs that govern embryonic cell-fate specification is associated with a form of tumor plasticity characterized by the acquisition of alternative cell fates normally characteristic of adjacent organs. In human non-small cell lung cancers, downregulation of the lung lineage-specifying TF NKX2-1 is associated with tumors bearing features of various gut tissues. Loss of Nkx2-1 from murine alveolar, but not airway, epithelium results in conversion of lung cells to gastric-like cells. Superimposing oncogenic Kras activation enables further plasticity in both alveolar and airway epithelium, producing tumors that adopt midgut and hindgut fates. Conversely, coupling Nkx2-1 loss with foregut lineage-specifying SOX2 overexpression drives the formation of squamous cancers with features of esophageal differentiation. These findings demonstrate that elements of pathologic tumor plasticity mirror the normal developmental history of organs in that cancer cells acquire cell fates associated with developmentally related neighboring organs.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA172025(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K99 HL127181()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P30 HL101287()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL127181()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL118185()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007205()

Generation of two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from p.F508del Cystic Fibrosis patients.

  • Fleischer A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic, lethal disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene. Here we report the production of CF-iPS cell lines from two different p.F508del homozygous female patients (Table 1). Two different primary cell types, skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, were transfected with retroviral cocktails containing four: c-MYC, KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (MKOS) or three: KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (KOS) reprogramming factors. Two fibroblast-derived MKOS lines are described in the main text. The lines carry the p.F508del mutation, have a normal karyotype, express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate into the three germ layers.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01-DK069983(United States)

Generation of a luciferase-expressing human embryonic stem cell line: NERCe002-A-2.

  • Peng Y
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human embryonic stem cell line NERCe002-A-2 was generated by transduction of NERCe002-A cells with an expression vector carrying the luciferase gene. The stem cells labelled with luciferase can be transplanted into animals and detected by the bioluminescence imaging technology. This provides optimal prospects of application to in vivo stem cell tracing. Luciferin served as a substrate to detect the activity of luciferase, and luciferase expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Characterization assays suggested that the NERCe002-A-2 cell line expresses typical markers of pluripotency and can form the 3 germ layers in vivo.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway.

  • Saito-Diaz K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations cause Wnt pathway activation in human cancers. Current models for APC action emphasize its role in promoting β-catenin degradation downstream of Wnt receptors. Unexpectedly, we find that blocking Wnt receptor activity in APC-deficient cells inhibits Wnt signaling independently of Wnt ligand. We also show that inducible loss of APC is rapidly followed by Wnt receptor activation and increased β-catenin levels. In contrast, APC2 loss does not promote receptor activation. We show that APC exists in a complex with clathrin and that Wnt pathway activation in APC-deficient cells requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. We propose a model in which APC and APC2 function to promote β-catenin degradation, and APC also acts as a molecular "gatekeeper" to block receptor activation via the clathrin pathway.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX001426()
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000445()
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR002243()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA095103()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA069457()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA105038()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK111107()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099204()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM081635()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM103926()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM106720()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM121421()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM122222()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM122516()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007347()
  • NIH HHS - OD008466(United States)
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 21-year-old X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) patient.

  • You YR
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disease that caused by mutations in adenosine triphosphate [ATP]-binding-cassette transporter superfamily D member 1 (ABCD1) gene. We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 21-year-old male X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts by Sendai virus mediated reprogramming. Established iPSCs stably expanded while maintaining immunoreactivity for various pluripotency markers and alkaline phosphatase, as well as normal 44+XY karyotype. Under the differentiation condition, the cells gave rise to cells of three germ layers.

Mechanism and consequence of abnormal calcium homeostasis in Rett syndrome astrocytes.

  • Dong Q
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes play an important role in Rett syndrome (RTT) disease progression. Although the non-cell-autonomous effect of RTT astrocytes on neurons was documented, cell-autonomous phenotypes and mechanisms within RTT astrocytes are not well understood. We report that spontaneous calcium activity is abnormal in RTT astrocytes in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Such abnormal calcium activity is mediated by calcium overload in the endoplasmic reticulum caused by abnormal store operated calcium entry, which is in part dependent on elevated expression of TRPC4. Furthermore, the abnormal calcium activity leads to excessive activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs) on neighboring neurons and increased network excitability in Mecp2 knockout mice. Finally, both the abnormal astrocytic calcium activity and the excessive activation of eNMDARs are caused by Mecp2 deletion in astrocytes in vivo. Our findings provide evidence that abnormal calcium homeostasis is a key cell-autonomous phenotype in RTT astrocytes, and reveal its mechanism and consequence.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/D017319(United Kingdom)
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development - R01HD064743()
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development - U54HD090256()
  • National Institute of Mental Health - ZIAMH002897()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R21NS081484()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R56NS100024()

Spatial-Temporal Lineage Restrictions of Embryonic p63+ Progenitors Establish Distinct Stem Cell Pools in Adult Airways.

  • Yang Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool. In intrapulmonary airways, these cells are maintained immature to adulthood in bronchi, establishing a rare p63+Krt5- progenitor cell population that responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury. Intriguingly, this pool includes a CC10 lineage-labeled p63+Krt5- cell subpopulation required for a full H1N1-response. These data elucidate key aspects in the establishment of regionally distinct adult stem cell pools in the respiratory system, potentially with relevance to other organs.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA HL006151-02(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA112403()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA193455()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R35 HL135834()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272201400008C()

Immune or Genetic-Mediated Disruption of CASPR2 Causes Pain Hypersensitivity Due to Enhanced Primary Afferent Excitability.

  • Dawes JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2-/- mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS18400(United States)

Gq activity- and β-arrestin-1 scaffolding-mediated ADGRG2/CFTR coupling are required for male fertility.

  • Zhang DL
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that β-arrestin-1 acts as a scaffold for ADGRG2/CFTR complex formation in apical membranes, whereas specific residues of ADGRG2 confer coupling specificity for different G protein subtypes, this specificity is critical for male fertility. Therefore, manipulation of the signaling components of the ADGRG2-Gq/β-arrestin-1/CFTR complex by small molecules may be an effective therapeutic strategy for male infertility.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH049428(United States)

Opposing expression gradients of calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in type II afferent neurons of the mouse cochlea.

  • Wu JS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are small caliber, unmyelinated afferents that extend dendritic arbors hundreds of microns along the cochlear spiral, contacting many outer hair cells (OHCs). Despite these many contacts, type II afferents are insensitive to sound and only weakly depolarized by glutamate release from OHCs. Recent studies suggest that type II afferents may be cochlear nociceptors, and can be excited by ATP released during tissue damage, by analogy to somatic pain-sensing C-fibers. The present work compares the expression patterns among cochlear type II afferents of two genes found in C-fibers: calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα), specific to pain-sensing C-fibers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), specific to low-threshold mechanoreceptive C-fibers, which was shown previously to be a selective biomarker of type II versus type I cochlear afferents (Vyas et al., ). Whole-mount cochlear preparations from 3-week- to 2-month-old CGRPα-EGFP (GENSAT) mice showed expression of Cgrpα in a subset of SGNs with type II-like peripheral dendrites extending beneath OHCs. Double labeling with other molecular markers confirmed that the labeled SGNs were neither type I SGNs nor olivocochlear efferents. Cgrpα starts to express in type II SGNs before hearing onset, but the expression level declines in the adult. The expression patterns of Cgrpα and Th formed opposing gradients, with Th being preferentially expressed in apical and Cgrpα in basal type II afferent neurons, indicating heterogeneity among type II afferent neurons. The expression of Th and Cgrpα was not mutually exclusive and co-expression could be observed, most abundantly in the middle cochlear turn.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006476()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011741()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012957()

Reconstruction of the Human Colon Epithelium In Vivo.

  • Sugimoto S
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genetic lineage tracing has revealed that Lgr5+ murine colon stem cells (CoSCs) rapidly proliferate at the crypt bottom. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of human CoSCs in vivo have remained experimentally intractable. Here we established an orthotopic xenograft system for normal human colon organoids, enabling stable reconstruction of the human colon epithelium in vivo. Xenografted organoids were prone to displacement by the remaining murine crypts, and this could be overcome by complete removal of the mouse epithelium. Xenografted organoids formed crypt structures distinctively different from surrounding mouse crypts, reflecting their human origin. Lineage tracing using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer an LGR5-CreER knockin allele demonstrated self-renewal and multipotency of LGR5+ CoSCs. In contrast to the rapidly cycling properties of mouse Lgr5+ CoSCs, human LGR5+ CoSCs were slow-cycling in vivo. This organoid-based orthotopic xenograft model enables investigation of the functional behaviors of human CoSCs in vivo, with potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 5T32 GM 7288-37(United States)

Establishment and characterization of a human embryonic stem cell line, NERCe002-A-3, with inducible 14-3-3ζ overexpression.

  • He J
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

NERCe002-A-3 cells were generated from the normal human embryonic stem cell line NERCe002-A. NERCe002-A-3 cells overexpressed 14-3-3ζ after exposure to doxycycline. 14-3-3ζ protein have the ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signalling proteins. The NERCe002-A-3 cell line is considered a model for functional studies of the 14-3-3ζ protein in hESC self-renewal and cell differentiation. Doxycycline-treated NERCe002-A-3 cells showed a>27-fold increase in relative expression of 14-3-3ζ as compared with un-induced cells. Characterization assays proved that NERCe002-A-3 cells express typical markers of pluripotency and have the ability to form the three germ layers in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32AI60573(United States)

Generation of a human embryonic stem cell line, NERCe003-A-1, with lentivirus vector-mediated inducible CTNNB1 overexpression.

  • Wang Y
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Feb 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line NERCe003-A-1 was generated by introducing lentiviral-vector-mediated tetracycline-inducible β-catenin expression into a normal hESC line, NERCe003-A. The resulting cell line can overexpress the β-catenin protein, encoded by the CTNNB1 gene, after exposure to doxycycline (Dox). CTNNB1 gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunofluorescence assays. Further characterization confirmed that the NERCe003-A-1 cell line expresses typical pluripotency markers and has the ability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - A12788(United Kingdom)

Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-41) from a Parkinson's disease patient carrying a p.G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene.

  • Marote A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) p.G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line CSC-41 was generated from a 75-year old patient diagnosed with PD caused by a p.G2019S mutation in LRRK2. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using a non-integrating Sendai virus-based technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The generated iPSC line exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, differentiates into the three germ layers and has a normal karyotype. The iPSC line can be used to explore the association between LRRK2 mutation and PD.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA121852(United States)

Chromatin Modification and Global Transcriptional Silencing in the Oocyte Mediated by the mRNA Decay Activator ZFP36L2.

  • Dumdie JN
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Global transcriptional silencing is a highly conserved mechanism central to the oocyte-to-embryo transition. We report the unexpected discovery that global transcriptional silencing in oocytes depends on an mRNA decay activator. Oocyte-specific loss of ZFP36L2 an RNA-binding protein that promotes AU-rich element-dependent mRNA decay prevents global transcriptional silencing and causes oocyte maturation and fertilization defects, as well as complete female infertility in the mouse. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that ZFP36L2 downregulates mRNAs encoding transcription and chromatin modification regulators, including a large group of mRNAs for histone demethylases targeting H3K4 and H3K9, which we show are bound and degraded by ZFP36L2. Oocytes lacking Zfp36l2 fail to accumulate histone methylation at H3K4 and H3K9, marks associated with the transcriptionally silent, developmentally competent oocyte state. Our results uncover a ZFP36L2-dependent mRNA decay mechanism that acts as a developmental switch during oocyte growth, triggering wide-spread shifts in chromatin modification and global transcription.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - K12 HD001259()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118069()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R33MH083521(United States)

Loss of functional BAP1 augments sensitivity to TRAIL in cancer cells.

  • Kolluri KK
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is poorly responsive to systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and invariably fatal. Here we describe a screen of 94 drugs in 15 exome-sequenced MM lines and the discovery of a subset defined by loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinase BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) that demonstrate heightened sensitivity to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). This association is observed across human early passage MM cultures, mouse xenografts and human tumour explants. We demonstrate that BAP1 deubiquitinase activity and its association with ASXL1 to form the Polycomb repressive deubiquitinase complex (PR-DUB) impacts TRAIL sensitivity implicating transcriptional modulation as an underlying mechanism. Death receptor agonists are well-tolerated anti-cancer agents demonstrating limited therapeutic benefit in trials without a targeting biomarker. We identify BAP1 loss-of-function mutations, which are frequent in MM, as a potential genomic stratification tool for TRAIL sensitivity with immediate and actionable therapeutic implications.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - A17341()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS043915(United States)
  • Wellcome - WT097452MA()
  • Wellcome Trust - 106555/Z/14/Z()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT107963AIA()

Spatial Information in a Non-retinotopic Visual Cortex.

  • Fournier J
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Turtle dorsal cortex (dCx), a three-layered cortical area of the reptilian telencephalon, receives inputs from the retina via the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus and constitutes the first cortical stage of visual processing. The receptive fields of dCx neurons usually occupy the entire contralateral visual field. Electrophysiological recordings in awake and anesthetized animals reveal that dCx is sensitive to the spatial structure of natural images, that dCx receptive fields are not entirely uniform across space, and that adaptation to repeated stimulation is position specific. Hence, spatial information can be found both at the single-neuron and population scales. Anatomical data are consistent with the absence of a clear retinotopic mapping of thalamocortical projections. The mapping and representation of visual space in this three-layered cortex thus differ from those found in mammalian primary visual cortex. Our results support the notion that dCx performs a global, rather than local, analysis of the visual scene.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA127003(United States)

Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (EURACi001-A, EURACi002-A, EURACi003-A) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three patients carrying mutations in the CAV3 gene.

  • Meraviglia V
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Caveolinopathies are a heterogeneous family of genetic pathologies arising from alterations of the caveolin-3 gene (CAV3), encoding for the isoform specifically constituting muscle caveolae. Here, by reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three patients carrying the ΔYTT deletion, T78K and W101C missense mutations in caveolin-3. iPSCs displayed normal karyotypes and all the features of pluripotent stem cells in terms of morphology, specific marker expression and ability to differentiate in vitro into the three germ layers. These lines thus represent a human cellular model to study the molecular basis of caveolinopathies. Resource table.

Generation of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-43) from a patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease.

  • Marote A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43) exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.

Generation of a GDE heterozygous mutation human embryonic stem cell line WAe001-A-14 by CRISPR/Cas9 editing.

  • Xu G
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) plays a critical role in glycogenolysis. Mutations in the GDE gene are associated with a metabolic disease known as glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII). We generated a mutant GDE human embryonic stem cell line, WAe001-A-14, using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. This cell line contains a 24-nucleotide deletion within exon-13 of GDE, resulting in 8 amino acids (TRLGISSL) missing of the GDE protein from amino acid position 567 to 575. The WAe001-A-14 cell line maintains typical stem cell morphology, pluripotency and in vitro differentiation potential, and a normal karyotype.

The genome of the Hi5 germ cell line from Trichoplusia ni, an agricultural pest and novel model for small RNA biology.

  • Fu Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

We report a draft assembly of the genome of Hi5 cells from the lepidopteran insect pest, Trichoplusia ni, assigning 90.6% of bases to one of 28 chromosomes and predicting 14,037 protein-coding genes. Chemoreception and detoxification gene families reveal T. ni-specific gene expansions that may explain its widespread distribution and rapid adaptation to insecticides. Transcriptome and small RNA data from thorax, ovary, testis, and the germline-derived Hi5 cell line show distinct expression profiles for 295 microRNA- and >393 piRNA-producing loci, as well as 39 genes encoding small RNA pathway proteins. Nearly all of the W chromosome is devoted to piRNA production, and T. ni siRNAs are not 2´-O-methylated. To enable use of Hi5 cells as a model system, we have established genome editing and single-cell cloning protocols. The T. ni genome provides insights into pest control and allows Hi5 cells to become a new tool for studying small RNAs ex vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21-MH099812(United States)

Radial Glial Fibers Promote Neuronal Migration and Functional Recovery after Neonatal Brain Injury.

  • Jinnou H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK082659(United States)

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-40) from a Parkinson's disease patient with a PINK1 p.Q456X mutation.

  • Russ K
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with unknown etiology. Here we show the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, named CSC-40, from dermal fibroblasts obtained from a 59-year-old male patient with a homozygous p.Q456X mutation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK/PARK6) gene and a confirmed diagnosis of PD, which could be used to model familial PD. A non-integrating Sendai virus-based delivery of the reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was employed. The CSC-40 cell line showed normal karyotyping and fingerprinting following transduction as well as sustained expression of several pluripotency markers and the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers.

Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-44) from a Parkinson's disease patient carrying a compound heterozygous mutation (c.823C>T and EX6 del) in the PARK2 gene.

  • Marote A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in the PARK2 gene, which encodes PARKIN, are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 78-year-old patient carrying a compound heterozygous mutation (c.823C>T and EX6del) in the PARK2 gene. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line CSC-44 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into the three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to explore the association between PARK2 mutations and PD.

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-42) from a patient with sporadic form of Parkinson's disease.

  • Savchenko E
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD). The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.

Generation of FHL2 homozygous knockout lines from human embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation.

  • Chang CW
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Mutations in the FHL2 (Four and a half LIM domains protein 2) gene are associated with cardiomyopathy in patients. Here, we generated two homozygous knockout lines using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation in a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) WA09 line. These knockout lines exhibit a normal karyotype without expressing FHL2 protein, while maintaining pluripotency and differentiation properties. These isogenic mutation lines will be provided as a disease model for cardiomyopathy studies and drug screening.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10RR027926(United States)

Generation of an ASS1 heterozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line, WAe001-A-13, using CRISPR/Cas9.

  • Yuan F
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ASS1 gene encodes argininosuccinate synthetase-1, a cytosolic enzyme with a critical role in the urea cycle. Mutations are found in all ASS1 exons and cause the autosomal recessive disorder citrullinemia. Using CRISPR/Cas9-editing, we established the WAe001-A-13 cell line, which was heterozygous for an ASS1 mutation, from the human embryonic stem cell line H1. The WAe001-A-13 cell line maintained the pluripotent phenotype, the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers and a normal karyotype.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM079431(United States)

Generation of a SMO homozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line WAe001-A-16 by CRISPR/Cas9 editing.

  • Wu F
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human SMO protein encoded by the smoothened (SMO) gene acts as a positive mediator for Hedgehog signaling. This pathway regulates many cellular activities, developmental morphogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to edit human embryonic stem cell line WA01 (H1), we established a SMO mutant cell line (WAe001-A-16). This cell line has a 40bp homozygous deletion in exon 2 of SMO leading to a shift in the open reading frame and early termination at amino acid position 287. WAe001-A-16 maintains a normal karyotype, parental cell morphology, pluripotency markers, and the capacity to differentiate into all three germline layers.

Zebrafish Regulatory T Cells Mediate Organ-Specific Regenerative Programs.

  • Hui SP
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The attenuation of ancestral pro-regenerative pathways may explain why humans do not efficiently regenerate damaged organs. Vertebrate lineages that exhibit robust regeneration, including the teleost zebrafish, provide insights into the maintenance of adult regenerative capacity. Using established models of spinal cord, heart, and retina regeneration, we discovered that zebrafish Treg-like (zTreg) cells rapidly homed to damaged organs. Conditional ablation of zTreg cells blocked organ regeneration by impairing precursor cell proliferation. In addition to modulating inflammation, infiltrating zTreg cells stimulated regeneration through interleukin-10-independent secretion of organ-specific regenerative factors (Ntf3: spinal cord; Nrg1: heart; Igf1: retina). Recombinant regeneration factors rescued the regeneration defects associated with zTreg cell depletion, whereas Foxp3a-deficient zTreg cells infiltrated damaged organs but failed to express regenerative factors. Our data delineate organ-specific roles for Treg cells in maintaining pro-regenerative capacity that could potentially be harnessed for diverse regenerative therapies.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ES016005(United States)

Establishment of human iPSC line NCCSi003-A from CD34+cells of peripheral blood collected during apheresis of healthy donor from Indian ethnicity.

  • Fernandes S
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

We present generation of iPSCs from CD34+ cells isolated from peripheral blood, collected during apheresis of a healthy female individual. We nucleofected the CD34+cells by episomal vectors containing Oct4, Sox2, L-Myc, Lin28, Klf4 and p53DD (dominant negative mutation in p53). The resultant colonies showed cobble-stone appearance and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. The colonies demonstrated presence of pluripotency markers by immunofluorescence, flow-cytometry and PCR. The plasmids were lost from cells subsequently during passages as assessed by PCR. Karyotype analysis demonstrated a stable genome. The cells had capability to differentiate to cells from all three-germ lineages in vitro.

Derivation of human iPSC line NCCSi002-A from umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD34+cells of donor from Indian ethnicity.

  • Fernandes S
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

We discuss the reprogramming of CD34+ cells isolated from UCB of a healthy female child of Indian ethnicity. The CD34+cells were nucleofected using episomal vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, L-Myc, Klf4, Lin28 and p53DD (negative mutation in p53). The colonies were stained for alkaline phosphatase and evaluated for pluripotency marker expression by PCR, immunofluorescence and flow-cytometry. The safety of cells was confirmed by absence of plasmid in subsequent passages by PCR. G-banded karyotype demonstrated a stable genome. The ability of tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific marker expression by immunofluorescence invitro and teratoma formation invivo.

System-wide Benefits of Intermeal Fasting by Autophagy.

  • Martinez-Lopez N
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy failure is associated with metabolic insufficiency. Although caloric restriction (CR) extends healthspan, its adherence in humans is poor. We established an isocaloric twice-a-day (ITAD) feeding model wherein ITAD-fed mice consume the same food amount as ad libitum controls but at two short windows early and late in the diurnal cycle. We hypothesized that ITAD feeding will provide two intervals of intermeal fasting per circadian period and induce autophagy. We show that ITAD feeding modifies circadian autophagy and glucose/lipid metabolism that correlate with feeding-driven changes in circulating insulin. ITAD feeding decreases adiposity and, unlike CR, enhances muscle mass. ITAD feeding drives energy expenditure, lowers lipid levels, suppresses gluconeogenesis, and prevents age/obesity-associated metabolic defects. Using liver-, adipose-, myogenic-, and proopiomelanocortin neuron-specific autophagy-null mice, we mapped the contribution of tissue-specific autophagy to system-wide benefits of ITAD feeding. Our studies suggest that consuming two meals a day without CR could prevent the metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA013330()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG031782()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG038072()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG043517()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG018381()
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32 AG023475()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020541()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK026687()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK041296()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK033823()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK105441()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH096890(United States)

Continuous tamoxifen delivery improves locomotor recovery 6h after spinal cord injury by neuronal and glial mechanisms in male rats.

  • Colón JM
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

No treatment is available for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients often arrive to the hospital hours after SCI suggesting the need of a therapy that can be used on a clinically relevant window. Previous studies showed that Tamoxifen (TAM) treatment 24h after SCI benefits locomotor recovery in female rats. Tamoxifen exerts beneficial effects in male and female rodents but a gap of knowledge exists on: the therapeutic window of TAM, the spatio-temporal mechanisms activated and if this response is sexually dimorphic. We hypothesized that TAM will favor locomotor recovery when administered up-to 24h after SCI in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received a thoracic (T10) contusion using the MACSIS impactor followed by placebo or TAM (15mg/21days) pellets in a therapeutic window of 0, 6, 12, or 24h. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, 28 or 35days post injury (DPI) to study the molecular and cellular changes in the acute and chronic stages. Immediate or delayed therapy (t=6h) improved locomotor function, increased white matter spared tissue, and neuronal survival. TAM reduced reactive gliosis during chronic stages and increased the expression of Olig-2. A significant difference was observed in estrogen receptor alpha between male and female rodents from 2 to 28 DPI suggesting a sexually dimorphic characteristic that could be related to the behavioral differences observed in the therapeutic window of TAM. This study supports the use of TAM in the SCI setting due to its neuroprotective effects but with a significant sexually dimorphic therapeutic window.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103642()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM061838()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T34 GM007821()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - G12 MD007600()

Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length.

  • Lee JK
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2+/- mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK080805(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036193()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075124()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036193()

Deciphering caveolar functions by syndapin III KO-mediated impairment of caveolar invagination.

  • Seemann E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae. The membrane-shaping protein syndapin III is crucial for caveolar invagination and KO rendered the cells sensitive to membrane tensions. Consistent with this physiological role of caveolae in counterpoising membrane tensions, syndapin III KO skeletal muscles showed pathological parameters upon physical exercise that are also found in CAVEOLIN3 mutation-associated muscle diseases.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL095590(United States)

Neuroplastin and Basigin Are Essential Auxiliary Subunits of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPases and Key Regulators of Ca2+ Clearance.

  • Schmidt N
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs), a family of P-type ATPases, extrude Ca2+ ions from the cytosol to the extracellular space and are considered to be key regulators of Ca2+ signaling. Here we show by functional proteomics that native PMCAs are heteromeric complexes that are assembled from two pore-forming PMCA1-4 subunits and two of the single-span membrane proteins, either neuroplastin or basigin. Contribution of the two Ig domain-containing proteins varies among different types of cells and along postnatal development. Complex formation of neuroplastin or basigin with PMCAs1-4 occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and is obligatory for stability of the PMCA proteins and for delivery of PMCA complexes to the surface membrane. Knockout and (over)-expression of both neuroplastin and basigin profoundly affect the time course of PMCA-mediated Ca2+ transport, as well as submembraneous Ca2+ concentrations under steady-state conditions. Together, these results establish neuroplastin and basigin as obligatory auxiliary subunits of native PMCAs and key regulators of intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

α-Synuclein-Dependent Calcium Entry Underlies Differential Sensitivity of Cultured SN and VTA Dopaminergic Neurons to a Parkinsonian Neurotoxin.

  • Lieberman OJ
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Nov 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulated α-synuclein (aSyn) expression are postulated to play a role in PD pathogenesis, it is still debated why neurons of the SN are targeted while neighboring dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are spared. Using electrochemical and imaging approaches, we investigated metabolic changes in cultured primary mouse midbrain dopaminergic neurons exposed to a parkinsonian neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). We demonstrate that the higher level of neurotoxicity in SN than VTA neurons was due to SN neuron-specific toxin-induced increase in cytosolic dopamine (DA) and Ca2+, followed by an elevation of mitochondrial Ca2+, activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and mitochondrial oxidation. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was not caused by MPP+-induced oxidative stress, but rather depended on the activity of both L-type calcium channels and aSyn expression, suggesting that these two established pathogenic factors in PD act in concert.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA CL002119-04(United States)

Down-regulation of NTPDase2 and ADP-sensitive P2 Purinoceptors Correlate with Severity of Symptoms during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

  • Jakovljevic M
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2017 Nov 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study explores tissue and cellular distribution of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and the gene and protein expression in rat spinal cord during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Given that NTPDase2 hydrolyzes ATP with a transient accumulation of ADP, the expression of ADP-sensitive P2 purinoceptors was analyzed as well. The autoimmune disease was actively induced in Dark Agouti female rats and the changes were analyzed 10, 15 and 29 days after the induction. These selected time points correspond to the onset ( Eo ), peak ( Ep ) and recovery ( Er ) from EAE. In control animals, NTPDase2 was confined in the white matter, in most of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (ir) astrocytes and in a considerable number of nestin-ir cells, while the other cell types were immunonegative. Immunoreactivity corresponding to NTPDase2 decreased significantly at Eo and Ep and then returned to the baseline levels at Er . The preservation of the proportion of GFAP single-labeled and GFAP/NTPDase2 double-labeled elements along the course of EAE indicated that changes in NTPDase2-ir occurred at fibrous astrocytes that typically express NTPDase2 in normal conditions. Significant downregulation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor proteins at Eo and several-fold induction of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptor proteins at Ep and/or Er were observed implying that the pathophysiological process in EAE may be linked to ADP signaling. Cell-surface expression of NTPDase2, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN/CD73) was analyzed in CD4+ T cells of a draining lymph node by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The induction of EAE was associated with a transient decrease in a number of CD4+ NTPDase2+ T cells in a draining lymph node, whereas the recovery was characterized by an increase in NTPDase2+ cells in both CD4+ and CD4- cell populations. The opposite was found for NTPDase1/CD39+ and eN/CD73+ cells, which slightly increased in number with progression of the disease, particularly in CD4- cells, and then decreased in the recovery. Finally, CD4+ NTPDase2+ cells were never observed in the spinal cord parenchyma. Taken together, our results suggest that the process of neuroinflammation in EAE may be associated with altered ADP signaling.

An optogenetic mouse model of rett syndrome targeting on catecholaminergic neurons.

  • Zhang S
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple functions, including the norepinephrine (NE) system. In the CNS, NE is produced mostly by neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), where defects in intrinsic neuronal properties, NE biosynthetic enzymes, neuronal CO2 sensitivity, and synaptic currents have been reported in mouse models of RTT. LC neurons in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (Mecp2) null mice show a high rate of spontaneous firing, although whether such hyperexcitability might increase or decrease the NE release from synapses is unknown. To activate the NEergic axonal terminals selectively, we generated an optogenetic mouse model of RTT in which NEergic neuronal excitability can be manipulated with light. Using commercially available mouse breeders, we produced a new strain of double-transgenic mice with Mecp2 knockout and channelrhodopsin (ChR) knockin in catecholaminergic neurons. Several RTT-like phenotypes were found in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ChR-Mecp2(-/Y) mice, including hypoactivity, low body weight, hindlimb clasping, and breathing disorders. In brain slices, optostimulation produced depolarization and an increase in the firing rate of LC neurons from TH-ChR control mice. In TH-ChR control mice, optostimulation of presynaptic NEergic neurons augmented the firing rate of hypoglossal neurons (HNs), which was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Such optostimulation of NEergic terminals had almost no effect on HNs from two or three TH-ChR-Mecp2(-/Y) mice, indicating that excessive excitation of presynaptic neurons does not benefit NEergic modulation in mice with Mecp2 disruption. These results also demonstrate the feasibility of generating double-transgenic mice for studies of RTT with commercially available mice, which are inexpensive, labor/time efficient, and promising for cell-specific stimulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008326(United States)

ESRP1 Mutations Cause Hearing Loss due to Defects in Alternative Splicing that Disrupt Cochlear Development.

  • Rohacek AM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1-/- mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification. Transcriptome analysis revealed impaired expression and splicing of genes with essential roles in cochlea development and auditory function. Aberrant splicing of Fgfr2 blocked stria vascularis formation due to erroneous ligand usage, which was corrected by reducing Fgf9 gene dosage. These findings implicate mutations in ESRP1 as a cause of SNHL and demonstrate the complex interplay between alternative splicing, inner ear development, and auditory function.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG006546()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046544()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014647()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006254()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE024749()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008216()

Autophagosomal Content Profiling Reveals an LC3C-Dependent Piecemeal Mitophagy Pathway.

  • Le Guerroué F
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy allows the degradation of cytosolic endogenous and exogenous material in the lysosome. Substrates are engulfed by double-membrane vesicles, coined autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Depending on the involvement of specific receptor proteins, autophagy occurs in a selective or nonselective manner. While this process is well understood at the level of bulky cargo such as mitochondria and bacteria, we know very little about individual proteins and protein complexes that are engulfed and degraded by autophagy. In contrast to the critical role of autophagy in balancing proteostasis, our current knowledge of the autophagic degradome is very limited. Here, we combined proximity labeling with quantitative proteomics to systematically map the protein inventory of autophagosomes. Using this strategy, we uncovered a basal, housekeeping mitophagy pathway that involves piecemeal degradation of mitochondrial proteins in a LC3C- and p62-dependent manner and contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis maintenance when cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - K02 DA026990(United States)

Detecting Activated Cell Populations Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

  • Wu YE
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Single-cell RNA sequencing offers a promising opportunity for probing cell types mediating specific behavioral functions and the underlying molecular programs. However, this has been hampered by a long-standing issue in transcriptional profiling of dissociated cells, specifically the transcriptional perturbations that are artificially induced during conventional whole-cell dissociation procedures. Here, we develop Act-seq, which minimizes artificially induced transcriptional perturbations and allows for faithful detection of both baseline transcriptional profiles and acute transcriptional changes elicited by behavior/experience-driven activity. Using Act-seq, we provide the first detailed molecular taxonomy of distinct cell types in the amygdala. We further show that Act-seq robustly detects seizure-induced acute gene expression changes in multiple cell types, revealing cell-type-specific activation profiles. Furthermore, we find that acute stress preferentially activates neuronal subpopulations that express the neuropeptide gene Cck. Act-seq opens the way for linking physiological stimuli with acute transcriptional dynamics in specific cell types in diverse complex tissues.

Generation of human erythroblast-derived iPSC line using episomal reprogramming system.

  • Varga E
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured to a pure pro-EBL population and reprogrammed using episomal plasmids. The pluripotency of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was verified by the expression of pluripotency-associated markers and by in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. The iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Peripheral blood is a non-invasive easy accessible cell source and combined with EBL outgrowth in vitro, a routine process obtaining sufficient amount of homogenous cells can be obtained within a week. Using episomal delivery, pro-EBLs can be reprogrammed in a transgene-free, cost effective system.

Chromatin and Single-Cell RNA-Seq Profiling Reveal Dynamic Signaling and Metabolic Transitions during Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell Development.

  • Guo J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human adult spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) must balance self-renewal and differentiation. To understand how this is achieved, we profiled DNA methylation and open chromatin (ATAC-seq) in SSEA4+ hSSCs, analyzed bulk and single-cell RNA transcriptomes (RNA-seq) in SSEA4+ hSSCs and differentiating c-KIT+ spermatogonia, and performed validation studies via immunofluorescence. First, DNA hypomethylation at embryonic developmental genes supports their epigenetic "poising" in hSSCs for future/embryonic expression, while core pluripotency genes (OCT4 and NANOG) were transcriptionally and epigenetically repressed. Interestingly, open chromatin in hSSCs was strikingly enriched in binding sites for pioneer factors (NFYA/B, DMRT1, and hormone receptors). Remarkably, single-cell RNA-seq clustering analysis identified four cellular/developmental states during hSSC differentiation, involving major transitions in cell-cycle and transcriptional regulators, splicing and signaling factors, and glucose/mitochondria regulators. Overall, our results outline the dynamic chromatin/transcription landscape operating in hSSCs and identify crucial molecular pathways that accompany the transition from quiescence to proliferation and differentiation.

Generation and characterization of a human iPSC line SANi005-A containing the gray platelet associated heterozygous mutation p.Q287* in GFI1B.

  • Hansen M
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Oct 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from an individual harboring a heterozygous c.859C→T p.Q287* mutation in GFI1B, causing an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder, platelet type, 17 (BDPLT17). PBMCs were differentiated to erythroblasts and reprogrammed by lentiviral delivery of a self-silencing hOKSM polycistronic vector. Pluripotency of iPSC line was confirmed by expression of associated markers and by in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Normal karyotype confirmed the genomic integrity of iPSCs and the presence of disease causing mutation was shown by Sanger sequencing. The generated iPSCs can be used to study BDPLT17 pathophysiology and basic functions of GFI1B.

Establishment of an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell line from dermal fibroblasts of an asymptomatic patient with dominant PRPF31 mutation.

  • Terray A
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

A human iPS cell line was generated from fibroblasts of a phenotypically unaffected patient from a family with PRPF31-associated retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The transgene-free iPS cells were generated with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. iPS cells contained the expected c.709-734dup substitution in exon 8 of PRPF31, expressed the expected pluripotency markers, displayed in vivo differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had normal karyotype. This cellular model will provide a powerful tool to study the unusual pattern of inheritance of PRPF31-associated RP.

Channel Nucleoporins Recruit PLK-1 to Nuclear Pore Complexes to Direct Nuclear Envelope Breakdown in C. elegans.

  • Martino L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD. We identify the central channel nucleoporins NPP-1/Nup58, NPP-4/Nup54, and NPP-11/Nup62 as the critical factors anchoring PLK-1 to the NE in C. elegans. In particular, NPP-1, NPP-4, and NPP-11 primed at multiple Polo-docking sites by Cdk1 and PLK-1 itself physically interact with the PLK-1 PBD. We conclude that nucleoporins play an unanticipated regulatory role in NEBD, by recruiting PLK-1 to the NE thereby facilitating phosphorylation of critical downstream targets.

Inter-dependent apical microtubule and actin dynamics orchestrate centrosome retention and neuronal delamination.

  • Kasioulis I
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Detachment of newborn neurons from the neuroepithelium is required for correct neuronal architecture and functional circuitry. This process, also known as delamination, involves adherens-junction disassembly and acto-myosin-mediated abscission, during which the centrosome is retained while apical/ciliary membranes are shed. Cell-biological mechanisms mediating delamination are, however, poorly understood. Using live-tissue and super-resolution imaging, we uncover a centrosome-nucleated wheel-like microtubule configuration, aligned with the apical actin cable and adherens-junctions within chick and mouse neuroepithelial cells. These microtubules maintain adherens-junctions while actin maintains microtubules, adherens-junctions and apical end-foot dimensions. During neuronal delamination, acto-myosin constriction generates a tunnel-like actin-microtubule configuration through which the centrosome translocates. This movement requires inter-dependent actin and microtubule activity, and we identify drebrin as a potential coordinator of these cytoskeletal dynamics. Furthermore, centrosome compromise revealed that this organelle is required for delamination. These findings identify new cytoskeletal configurations and regulatory relationships that orchestrate neuronal delamination and may inform mechanisms underlying pathological epithelial cell detachment.

MYC Controls Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Fate Decisions through Regulation of Metabolic Flux.

  • Cliff TS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

As human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) exit pluripotency, they are thought to switch from a glycolytic mode of energy generation to one more dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. Here we show that, although metabolic switching occurs during early mesoderm and endoderm differentiation, high glycolytic flux is maintained and, in fact, essential during early ectoderm specification. The elevated glycolysis observed in hPSCs requires elevated MYC/MYCN activity. Metabolic switching during endodermal and mesodermal differentiation coincides with a reduction in MYC/MYCN and can be reversed by ectopically restoring MYC activity. During early ectodermal differentiation, sustained MYCN activity maintains the transcription of "switch" genes that are rate-limiting for metabolic activity and lineage commitment. Our work, therefore, shows that metabolic switching is lineage-specific and not a required step for exit of pluripotency in hPSCs and identifies MYC and MYCN as developmental regulators that couple metabolism to pluripotency and cell fate determination.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027097()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM085354()

Generation and characterization of human iPSC lines SANi001-A and SANi002-A from mobilized peripheral blood derived megakaryoblasts.

  • Hansen M
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Oct 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34+ cells were differentiated to CD34+/CD41+ megakaryoblasts. Cells were sorted to obtain a pure megakaryoblast population which was reprogrammed with a hOKSM self-silencing polycistronic lentiviral vector. Resulting iPSC showed normal karyotype and expression of pluripotency associated markers and in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers confirmed pluripotency of iPSC lines. Besides normal iPSC applications, these lines can be used as a control line for other megakaryoid origin iPSC and could be applied for epigenetic based research.

Dopamine Regulation of GABAA Receptors Contributes to Light/Dark Modulation of the ON-Cone Bipolar Cell Receptive Field Surround in the Retina.

  • Chaffiol A
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cone bipolar cells are interneurons that receive synaptic input from cone photoreceptor cells and provide the output of the first synaptic layer of the retina. These cells exhibit center-surround receptive fields, a prototype of lateral inhibition between neighboring sensory cells in which stimulation of the receptive field center excites the cell whereas stimulation of the surrounding region laterally inhibits the cell. This fundamental sensory coding mechanism facilitates spatial discrimination and detection of stimulus edges. However, although it is well established that the receptive field surround is strongest when ambient or background illumination is most intense, e.g., at midday, and that the surround is minimal following maintained darkness, the synaptic mechanisms that produce and modulate the surround have not been resolved. Using electrical recording of bipolar cells under experimental conditions in which the cells exhibited surround light responses, and light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, we show in the rabbit retina that bright-light-induced activation of dopamine D1 receptors located on ON-center cone bipolar cell dendrites increases the expression and activity of GABAA receptors on the dendrites of the cells and that surround light responses depend on endogenous GABAA receptor activation. We also show that maintained darkness and D1 receptor blockade following maintained illumination and D1 receptor activation result in minimal GABAA receptor expression and activity and greatly diminished surrounds. Modulation of the D1/GABAA receptor signaling pathway of ON-cBC dendrites by the ambient light level facilitates detection of spatial details on bright days and large dim objects on moonless nights.

Cerebral Vein Malformations Result from Loss of Twist1 Expression and BMP Signaling from Skull Progenitor Cells and Dura.

  • Tischfield MA
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Inactivation of Bmp2 and Bmp4 in preosteoblasts and periosteal dura causes skull and CV malformations, similar to humans harboring TWIST1 mutations. Notably, arterial development appears normal, suggesting that morphogens from the skull and dura establish optimal venous networks independent from arterial influences. Collectively, our work establishes a paradigm whereby CV malformations result from primary or secondary loss of paracrine BMP signaling from preosteoblasts and dura, highlighting unique cellular interactions that influence tissue-specific angiogenesis in mammals.

Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction.

  • Hurtado E
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI) is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB) in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min). Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1) protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

  • Basu R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022073()

A Brucella Type IV Effector Targets the COG Tethering Complex to Remodel Host Secretory Traffic and Promote Intracellular Replication.

  • Miller CN
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many intracellular pathogens exploit host secretory trafficking to support their intracellular cycle, but knowledge of these pathogenic processes is limited. The bacterium Brucella abortus uses a type IV secretion system (VirB T4SS) to generate a replication-permissive Brucella-containing vacuole (rBCV) derived from the host ER, a process that requires host early secretory trafficking. Here we show that the VirB T4SS effector BspB contributes to rBCV biogenesis and Brucella replication by interacting with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex, a major coordinator of Golgi vesicular trafficking, thus remodeling Golgi membrane traffic and redirecting Golgi-derived vesicles to the BCV. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates COG-dependent trafficking via delivery of a T4SS effector to promote rBCV biogenesis and intracellular proliferation, providing mechanistic insight into how bacterial exploitation of host secretory functions promotes pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI129992()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI112649()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007025()

Differential neuronal and glial expression of nuclear factor I proteins in the cerebral cortex of adult mice.

  • Chen KS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of nuclear factor IA (NFIA), nuclear factor IB (NFIB), or nuclear factor IX (NFIX) results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB, and NFIX is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of each NFI protein shows a distinct laminar pattern in the adult mouse neocortex and that their cell type-specific expression differs depending on the family member. NFIA expression was more frequently observed in astrocytes and oligodendroglia, whereas NFIB expression was predominantly localized to astrocytes and neurons. NFIX expression was most commonly observed in neurons. The NFI proteins were equally distributed within microglia, and the ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the brain expressed all three proteins. In the hippocampus, the NFI proteins were expressed during all stages of neural stem cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus, with higher expression intensity in neuroblast cells as compared to quiescent stem cells and mature granule neurons. These findings suggest that the NFI proteins may play distinct roles in cell lineage specification or maintenance, and establish the basis for further investigation of their function in the adult brain and their emerging role in disease.

ARX polyalanine expansion mutations lead to migration impediment in the rostral cortex coupled with a developmental deficit of calbindin-positive cortical GABAergic interneurons.

  • Lee K
  • Neuroscience
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is indispensable for interneuron development. Patients with ARX polyalanine expansion mutations of the first two tracts (namely PA1 and PA2) suffer from intellectual disability of varying severity, with seizures a frequent comorbidity. The impact of PA1 and PA2 mutations on the brain development is unknown, hindering the search for therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized the disturbances to cortical interneuron development in mice modeling the two most common ARX polyalanine expansion mutations in human. We found a consistent ∼40-50% reduction of calbindin-positive interneurons, but not Stt+ or Cr+ interneurons, within the cortex of newborn hemizygous mice (p=0.024) for both mutant strains compared to wildtype (p=0.011). We demonstrate that this was a consequence of calbindin precursor cells being arrested or delayed at the ventral subpallium en route of tangential migration. Ex-vivo assay validated this migration deficit in PA1 cells (p=0.0002) suggesting that the defect is contributed by intrinsic loss of Arx function within migrating cells. Both humans and mice with PA1 mutations present with severe clinical features, including intellectual disability and infantile spasms. Our data further demonstrated the pathogenic mechanism was robustly shared between PA1 and PA2 mutations, as previously reported including Arx protein reduction and overlapping transcriptome profiles within the developing mouse brains. Data from our study demonstrated that cortical calbindin interneuron development and migration is negatively affected by ARX polyalanine expansion mutations. Understanding the cellular pathogenesis contributing to disease manifestation is necessary to screen efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions.

Spin infection enables efficient gene delivery to muscle stem cells.

  • Kodaka Y
  • BioTechniques
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Viral vector-mediated foreign gene expression in cultured cells has been extensively used in stem cell studies to explore gene function. However, it is difficult to obtain high-quality stem cells and primary cells after viral vector infection. Here, we describe a new protocol for high-efficiency retroviral infection of primary muscle stem cell (satellite cell) cultures. We compared multiple commercially available transfection reagents to determine which was optimal for retroviral infections of primary myoblasts. Centrifugation force was also tested, and a spin infection protocol with centrifugation at 2800 × g for 90 min had the highest infection efficiency for primary myoblasts. We confirmed that infected muscle stem cells maintain cell proliferation and the capacity for in vitro and in vivo myogenic differentiation. Our new, efficient retroviral infection protocol for muscle stem cells can be applied to molecular biology experiments as well as translational studies.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR062142()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21 AR070319()

Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

  • Aguilar JI
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content.

Sexually selected size differences and conserved sexual monomorphism of genital cortex.

  • Lauer SM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian somatosensory cortex shows marked species-specific differences. How evolution in general and sexual selection in particular shape the somatosensory cortical body representation has not been delineated, however. Here we address this issue by a comparative analysis of genital cortex. Genitals are unique body parts in that they show sexual dimorphism, major changes in puberty and typically more pronounced species differences than other body parts (Hosken & Stockley, 2004). To study the evolution of genital cortex we flattened cortical hemispheres and assembled 104 complete body maps, revealed by cytochrome-oxidase activity in layer 4 of 8 rodent and 1 lagomorph species. In two species, we also performed antibody stainings against vesicular glutamate transporter-2, which suggested that cytochrome-oxidase maps closely mirror thalamic innervation. We consistently observed a protrusion between hindlimb and forelimb representation, which in rats (Lenschow et al., 2016) corresponds to the penis representation in males and the clitoris representation in females. Consistent with the idea that this protrusion corresponds to genital cortex, we observed a size increase of this protrusion during puberty. Species differed in external genital sexual dimorphism, but we observed a sexual monomorphism of the putative genital protrusion in all species, similar to previous observations in rats. The relative size of the putative genital protrusion varied more than 3-fold between species ranging from 0.5% of somatosensory cortex area in chipmunks to 1.7% in rats. This relative size of the genital protrusion co-varied with relative testicle size, an indicator of sperm competition and sexual selection.

Basement Membrane Manipulation in Drosophila Wing Discs Affects Dpp Retention but Not Growth Mechanoregulation.

  • Ma M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Basement membranes (BMs) are extracellular matrix polymers basally underlying epithelia, where they regulate cell signaling and tissue mechanics. Constriction by the BM shapes Drosophila wing discs, a well-characterized model of tissue growth. Recently, the hypothesis that mechanical factors govern wing growth has received much attention, but it has not been definitively tested. In this study, we manipulated BM composition to cause dramatic changes in tissue tension. We found that increased tissue compression when perlecan was knocked down did not affect adult wing size. BM elimination, decreasing compression, reduced wing size but did not visibly affect Hippo signaling, widely postulated to mediate growth mechanoregulation. BM elimination, in contrast, attenuated signaling by bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor β ligand Dpp, which was not efficiently retained within the tissue and escaped to the body cavity. Our results challenge mechanoregulation of wing growth, while uncovering a function of BMs in preserving a growth-promoting tissue environment.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK076233-01(United States)

Involvement of microglia in early axoglial alterations of the optic nerve induced by experimental glaucoma.

  • Bordone MP
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve (ON) damage. Cumulative evidence suggests glial cell involvement in the degeneration of the ON and RGCs. We analyzed the contribution of microglial reactivity to early axoglial alterations of the ON in an induced model of ocular hypertension. For this purpose, vehicle or chondroitin sulfate (CS) were weekly injected into the eye anterior chamber from Wistar rats for different intervals. The amount of Brn3a(+) RGC significantly decreased in CS-injected eyes for 10 and 15 (but not 6) weeks. A reduction in anterograde transport of β-subunit cholera toxin was observed in the superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus contralateral to CS-injected eyes for 6 and 15 weeks. A disruption of cholera toxin β-subunit transport was observed at the proximal myelinated ON. A significant decrease in phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain immunoreactivity, an increase in ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1(+), ED1(+) (microglial markers), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes) (+) area, and decreased luxol fast blue staining were observed in the ON at 6 and 15 weeks of ocular hypertension. Microglial reactivity involvement was examined through a daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks, after 4 weeks of ocular hypertension. Minocycline prevented the increase in ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1(+), ED-1(+), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) area, the decrease in phosphorylated neurofilament heavy-chain immunoreactivity and luxol fast blue staining, and the deficit in anterograde transport induced by 6 weeks of ocular hypertension. Thus, targeting microglial reactivity might prevent early axoglial alterations in the glaucomatous ON. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13807.

Costorage of Enteroendocrine Hormones Evaluated at the Cell and Subcellular Levels in Male Mice.

  • Fothergill LJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone coexpression within enteroendocrine cells (EECs), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EECs. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or the neuroendocrine protein chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, coexpression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, and glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semiautomated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements. We investigated whether relative numbers of cells with colocalized hormones analyzed at a cell level matched the numbers revealed by examination of individual storage vesicles within cells. CgA and 5-HT were frequently expressed in EECs that contained combinations of GLP-1, ghrelin, secretin, and CCK. Separate subcellular stores of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 were identified. In some cases, high-resolution analysis revealed small numbers of immunoreactive vesicles in cells dominated by a different hormone. Thus the observed incidence of cells with colocalized hormones is greater when analyzed at a subcellular, compared with a cellular, level. Subcellular analysis also showed that relative numbers of vesicles differ considerably between cells. Thus separate packaging of hormones that are colocalized is a general feature of EECs, and EECs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, including the colocalization of hormones that were formerly thought to be in cells of different lineages.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY020533(United States)

Transcriptional Dynamics of Cultured Human Villous Cytotrophoblasts.

  • Robinson JF
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

During human pregnancy, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) play key roles in uterine invasion, vascular remodeling, and anchoring of the feto-placental unit. Due to the challenges associated with studying human placentation in utero, cultured primary villous CTBs are used as a model of the differentiation pathway that leads to invasion of the uterine wall. In vitro, CTBs emulate in vivo cell behaviors, such as migration, aggregation, and substrate penetration. Although some of the molecular features related to these cell behaviors have been described, the underlying mechanisms, at a global level, remain undefined at midgestation. Thus, in this study, we characterized second-trimester CTB differentiation/invasion in vitro, correlating the major morphological transitions with the transcriptional changes that occurred at these steps. After plating on Matrigel as individual cells, CTBs migrated toward each other and formed multicellular aggregates. In parallel, using a microarray approach, we observed differentially expressed (DE) genes across time, which were enriched for numerous functions, including cell migration, vascular remodeling, morphogenesis, cell communication, and inflammatory signaling. DE genes encoded several molecules that we and others previously linked to critical CTB function in vivo, suggesting that the novel DE molecules we discovered played important roles. Immunolocalization confirmed that CTBs in situ gave a signal for two of the most highly expressed genes in vitro. In summary, we characterized, at a global level, the temporal dynamics of primary human CTB gene expression in culture. These data will enable future analyses of various types of in vitro perturbations-for example, modeling disease processes and environmental exposures.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - K99 ES023846()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P01 ES022841()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R00 ES023846()

Human embryonic lung epithelial tips are multipotent progenitors that can be expanded in vitro as long-term self-renewing organoids.

  • Nikolić MZ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The embryonic mouse lung is a widely used substitute for human lung development. For example, attempts to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to lung epithelium rely on passing through progenitor states that have only been described in mouse. The tip epithelium of the branching mouse lung is a multipotent progenitor pool that self-renews and produces differentiating descendants. We hypothesized that the human distal tip epithelium is an analogous progenitor population and tested this by examining morphology, gene expression and in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human tips. These experiments confirm that human and mouse tips are analogous and identify signalling pathways that are sufficient for long-term self-renewal of human tips as differentiation-competent organoids. Moreover, we identify mouse-human differences, including markers that define progenitor states and signalling requirements for long-term self-renewal. Our organoid system provides a genetically-tractable tool that will allow these human-specific features of lung development to be investigated.

Mouse↔rat aggregation chimaeras can develop to adulthood.

  • Bożyk K
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In order to examine interactions between cells originating from different species during embryonic development we constructed interspecific mouse↔rat chimaeras by aggregation of 8-cell embryos. Embryos of both species expressed different fluorescent markers (eGFP and DsRed), which enabled us to follow the fate of both components from the moment of aggregation until adulthood. We revealed that in majority of embryos the blastocyst cavity appeared inside the group of rat cells, while the mouse component was allocated to the deeper layer of the inner cell mass and to the polar trophectoderm. However, due to rearrangement of all cells and selective elimination of rat cells, shortly before implantation all primary lineages became chimaeric. Moreover, despite the fact that rat cells were always present in the mural trophectoderm, majority of mouse↔rat chimaeric blastocysts implanted in mouse uterus, and out of those 46% developed into foetuses and pups, half of which were chimaeric. In contrast to mural trophectoderm, polar trophectoderm derivatives, i.e. the placentae of all chimaeras were exclusively of mouse origin. This strongly suggests that the successful postimplantation development of chimaeras is enabled by gradual elimination of xenogeneic cells from the nascent placenta. The size of chimaeric newborns was within the limits of control mouse neonates. The rat component located preferentially in the anterior part of the body, where it contributed mainly to the neural tube. Our observations indicate that although chimaeric animals were able to reach adulthood, high contribution of rat cells tended to diminish their viability.

Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Promotes Stem Cell Expansion Controlling Environment-Dependent Neurogenesis.

  • Dumitru I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.

Giardia intestinalis mitosomes undergo synchronized fission but not fusion and are constitutively associated with the endoplasmic reticulum.

  • Voleman L
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria of opisthokonts undergo permanent fission and fusion throughout the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the mitosomes, the simplest forms of mitochondria, in the anaerobic protist parasite Giardia intestinalis, a member of the Excavata supergroup of eukaryotes. The mitosomes have abandoned typical mitochondrial traits such as the mitochondrial genome and aerobic respiration and their single role known to date is the formation of iron-sulfur clusters. RESULTS: In live experiments, no fusion events were observed between the mitosomes in G. intestinalis. Moreover, the organelles were highly prone to becoming heterogeneous. This suggests that fusion is either much less frequent or even absent in mitosome dynamics. Unlike in mitochondria, division of the mitosomes was absolutely synchronized and limited to mitosis. The association of the nuclear and the mitosomal division persisted during the encystation of the parasite. During the segregation of the divided mitosomes, the subset of the organelles between two G. intestinalis nuclei had a prominent role. Surprisingly, the sole dynamin-related protein of the parasite seemed not to be involved in mitosomal division. However, throughout the cell cycle, mitosomes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although none of the known ER-tethering complexes was present. Instead, the ER-mitosome interface was occupied by the lipid metabolism enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first report on the dynamics of mitosomes. We show that together with the loss of metabolic complexity of mitochondria, mitosomes of G. intestinalis have uniquely streamlined their dynamics by harmonizing their division with mitosis. We propose that this might be a strategy of G. intestinalis to maintain a stable number of organelles during cell propagation. The lack of mitosomal fusion may also be related to the secondary reduction of the organelles. However, as there are currently no reports on mitochondrial fusion in the whole Excavata supergroup, it is possible that the absence of mitochondrial fusion is an ancestral trait common to all excavates.

Targeted Apoptosis of Senescent Cells Restores Tissue Homeostasis in Response to Chemotoxicity and Aging.

  • Baar MP
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53. In senescent cells, this selectively causes p53 nuclear exclusion and cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Under conditions where it was well tolerated in vivo, this FOXO4 peptide neutralized doxorubicin-induced chemotoxicity. Moreover, it restored fitness, fur density, and renal function in both fast aging XpdTTD/TTD and naturally aged mice. Thus, therapeutic targeting of senescent cells is feasible under conditions where loss of health has already occurred, and in doing so tissue homeostasis can effectively be restored.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG017242()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG009909()

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

Fat2 and Lar Define a Basally Localized Planar Signaling System Controlling Collective Cell Migration.

  • Barlan K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Collective migration of epithelial cells underlies diverse tissue-remodeling events, but the mechanisms that coordinate individual cell migratory behaviors for collective movement are largely unknown. Studying the Drosophila follicular epithelium, we show that the cadherin Fat2 and the receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar function in a planar signaling system that coordinates leading and trailing edge dynamics between neighboring cells. Fat2 signals from each cell's trailing edge to induce leading edge protrusions in the cell behind, in part by stabilizing Lar's localization in these cells. Conversely, Lar signals from each cell's leading edge to stimulate trailing edge retraction in the cell ahead. Fat2/Lar signaling is similar to planar cell polarity signaling in terms of sub-cellular protein localization; however, Fat2/Lar signaling mediates short-range communication between neighboring cells instead of transmitting long-range information across a tissue. This work defines a key mechanism promoting epithelial migration and establishes a different paradigm for planar cell-cell signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM094276()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007183()

5-hydroxymethylcytosine marks postmitotic neural cells in the adult and developing vertebrate central nervous system.

  • Diotel N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a cytosine modification that is abundant in the central nervous system of mammals and which results from 5-methylcytosine oxidation by TET enzymes. Such a mark is suggested to play key roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. However, its precise functions still remain poorly understood and information about its distribution in non-mammalian species is still lacking. Here, the distribution of 5hmC was investigated in the brain of adult zebrafish, African claw frog, and mouse in a comparative manner. We show that zebrafish neurons are endowed with high levels of 5hmC, whereas quiescent or proliferative neural progenitors show low to undetectable levels of the modified cytosine. In the brain of larval and juvenile Xenopus, 5hmC is also detected in neurons, while ventricular proliferative cells do not display this epigenetic mark. Similarly, 5hmC is enriched in neurons compared to neural progenitors of the ventricular zone in the mouse developing cortex. Interestingly, 5hmC colocalized with the methylated DNA binding protein MeCP2 and with the active chromatin histone modification H3K4me2 in mouse neurons. Taken together, our results show an evolutionarily conserved cerebral distribution of 5hmC between fish and tetrapods and reinforce the idea that 5hmC fulfills major functions in the control of chromatin activity in vertebrate neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:478-497, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Centrosome Amplification Is Sufficient to Promote Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in Mammals.

  • Levine MS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of cancer remains unclear. Here, we test the consequence of centrosome amplification by creating mice in which centrosome number can be chronically increased in the absence of additional genetic defects. We show that increasing centrosome number elevated tumor initiation in a mouse model of intestinal neoplasia. Most importantly, we demonstrate that supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive aneuploidy and the development of spontaneous tumors in multiple tissues. Tumors arising from centrosome amplification exhibit frequent mitotic errors and possess complex karyotypes, recapitulating a common feature of human cancer. Together, our data support a direct causal relationship among centrosome amplification, genomic instability, and tumor development.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM029513()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114119()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM029513()

Impaired constitutive and regenerative neurogenesis in adult hyperglycemic zebrafish.

  • Dorsemans AC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

A growing body of evidence supports hyperglycemia as a putative contributor to several brain dysfunctions observed in diabetes patients, such as impaired memory capacity, neural plasticity, and neurogenic processes. Thanks to the persistence of radial glial cells acting as neural stem cells, the brain of the adult zebrafish constitutes a relevant model to investigate constitutive and injury-induced neurogenesis in adult vertebrates. However, there is limited understanding of the impact of hyperglycemia on brain dysfunction in the zebrafish model. This work aimed at exploring the impact of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on brain homeostasis and neurogenesis. Acute hyperglycemia was shown to promote gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (il1β, il6, il8, and tnfα) in the brain and chronic hyperglycemia to impair expression of genes involved in the establishment of the blood-brain barrier (claudin 5a, zona occludens 1a and b). Chronic hyperglycemia also decreased brain cell proliferation in most neurogenic niches throughout the forebrain and the midbrain. By using a stab wound telencephalic injury model, the impact of hyperglycemia on brain repair mechanisms was investigated. Whereas the initial step of parenchymal cell proliferation was not affected by acute hyperglycemia, later proliferation of neural progenitors was significantly decreased by chronic hyperglycemia in the injured brain of fish. Taken together, these data offer new evidence highlighting the evolutionary conserved adverse effects of hyperglycemia on neurogenesis and brain healing in zebrafish. In addition, our study reinforces the utility of zebrafish as a robust model for studying the effects of metabolic disorders on the central nervous system. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:442-458, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG042511(United States)

Suppression of C9orf72 RNA repeat-induced neurotoxicity by the ALS-associated RNA-binding protein Zfp106.

  • Celona B
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expanded GGGGCC repeats in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene represent the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the mechanisms underlying repeat-induced disease remain incompletely resolved. One proposed gain-of-function mechanism is that repeat-containing RNA forms aggregates that sequester RNA binding proteins, leading to altered RNA metabolism in motor neurons. Here, we identify the zinc finger protein Zfp106 as a specific GGGGCC RNA repeat-binding protein, and using affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we show that Zfp106 interacts with multiple other RNA binding proteins, including the ALS-associated factors TDP-43 and FUS. We also show that Zfp106 knockout mice develop severe motor neuron degeneration, which can be suppressed by transgenic restoration of Zfp106 specifically in motor neurons. Finally, we show that Zfp106 potently suppresses neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of C9orf72 ALS. Thus, these studies identify Zfp106 as an RNA binding protein with important implications for ALS.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX001108()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL089707()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL064658()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG019724()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG023501()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS098516()
  • RRD VA - I01 RX002133()

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling directs cardiomyocyte movement toward the midline during heart tube assembly.

  • Bloomekatz J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse. Timelapse analysis of individual cardiomyocyte trajectories reveals misdirected cells in zebrafish pdgfra mutants, suggesting that PDGF signaling steers cardiomyocytes toward the midline during cardiac fusion. Intriguingly, the ligand pdgfaa is expressed in the endoderm medial to the pdgfra-expressing myocardial precursors. Ectopic expression of pdgfaa interferes with cardiac fusion, consistent with an instructive role for PDGF signaling. Together, these data uncover a novel mechanism through which endodermal-myocardial communication can guide the cell movements that initiate cardiac morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX001407(United States)

Amyloid-like aggregation of provasopressin in diabetes insipidus and secretory granule sorting.

  • Beuret N
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting. RESULTS: Here we identified two sequences responsible for fibrillar aggregation of mutant precursors in the ER: the N-terminal vasopressin nonapeptide and the C-terminal glycopeptide. To test their role in granule sorting, the glycopeptide was deleted and/or vasopressin mutated to inactivate ER aggregation while still permitting precursor folding and ER exit. These mutations strongly reduced sorting into granules and regulated secretion in endocrine AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: The same sequences - vasopressin and the glycopeptide - mediate physiological aggregation of the wild-type hormone precursor into secretory granules and the pathological fibrillar aggregation of disease mutants in the ER. These findings support the amyloid hypothesis for secretory granule biogenesis.

Developmental and adult expression patterns of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR88 in the rat: Establishment of a dual nuclear-cytoplasmic localization.

  • Massart R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GPR88 is a neuronal cerebral orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. However, no extensive description of its localization has been provided so far. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal expression of the GPR88 in prenatal and postnatal rat tissues by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. GPR88 protein was initially detected at embryonic day 16 (E16) in the striatal primordium. From E16-E20 to adulthood, the highest expression levels of both protein and mRNA were observed in striatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and neocortex, whereas in spinal cord, pons, and medulla GPR88 expression remains discrete. We observed an intracellular redistribution of GPR88 during cortical lamination. In the cortical plate of the developing cortex, GPR88 presents a classical GPCR plasma membrane/cytoplasmic localization that shifts, on the day of birth, to nuclei of neurons progressively settling in layers V to II. This intranuclear localization remains throughout adulthood and was also detected in monkey and human cortex as well as in the amygdala and hypothalamus of rats. Apart from the central nervous system, GPR88 was transiently expressed at high levels in peripheral tissues, including adrenal cortex (E16-E21) and cochlear ganglia (E19-P3), and also at moderate levels in retina (E18-E19) and spleen (E21-P7). The description of the GPR88 anatomical expression pattern may provide precious functional insights into this novel receptor. Furthermore, the GRP88 nuclear localization suggests nonclassical GPCR modes of action of the protein that could be relevant for cortical development and psychiatric disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2776-2802, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Molecular Diversity of Midbrain Development in Mouse, Human, and Stem Cells.

  • La Manno G
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinson's disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development. Cell types and gene expression were generally conserved across species, but with clear differences in cell proliferation, developmental timing, and dopaminergic neuron development. Additionally, we developed a method to quantitatively assess the fidelity of dopaminergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells, at a single-cell level. Thus, our study provides insight into the molecular programs controlling human midbrain development and provides a foundation for the development of cell replacement therapies.

Somatostatin in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla: Origins and mechanism of action.

  • Bou Farah L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatostatin (SST) or agonists of the SST-2 receptor (sst2 ) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) lower sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure, and heart rate, or when administered within the Bötzinger region, evoke apneusis. Our aims were to describe the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoinhibitory effects of SST on bulbospinal neurons and to identify likely sources of RVLM SST release. Patch clamp recordings were made from bulbospinal RVLM neurons (n = 31) in brainstem slices prepared from juvenile rat pups. Overall, 58% of neurons responded to SST, displaying an increase in conductance that reversed at -93 mV, indicative of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) mechanism. Blockade of sst2 abolished this effect, but application of tetrodotoxin did not, indicating that the SST effect is independent of presynaptic activity. Fourteen bulbospinal RVLM neurons were recovered for immunohistochemistry; nine were SST-insensitive and did not express sst2a . Three out of five responsive neurons were sst2a -immunoreactive. Neurons that contained preprosomatostatin mRNA and cholera-toxin-B retrogradely transported from the RVLM were detected in: paratrigeminal nucleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area, central nucleus of the amygdala, sublenticular extended amygdala, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure nucleus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Thus, those brain regions are putative sources of endogenous SST release that, when activated, may evoke sympathoinhibitory effects via interactions with subsets of sympathetic premotor neurons that express sst2 .

Projections from the subparaventricular zone define four channels of output from the circadian timing system.

  • Vujovic N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The subparaventricular zone of the hypothalamus (SPZ) is the main efferent target of neural projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and an important relay for the circadian timing system. Although the SPZ is fairly homogeneous cytoarchitecturally and neurochemically, it has been divided into distinct functional and connectional subdivisions. The dorsal subdivision of the SPZ (dSPZ) plays an important role in relaying signals from the SCN controlling body temperature rhythms, while the ventral subdivision (vSPZ) is critical for rhythms of sleep and locomotor activity (Lu et al. [] J Neurosci 21:4864-4874). On the other hand, the medial part of the SPZ receives input mainly from the dorsomedial SCN, whereas the lateral SPZ receives input from the ventrolateral SCN and the retinohypothalamic tract (Leak and Moore [] J Comp Neurol 433:312-334). We therefore investigated whether there are corresponding differences in efferent outputs from these four quadrants of the SPZ (dorsolateral, ventrolateral, dorsomedial, and ventromedial) by a combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing. We found that, while all four subdivisions of the SPZ share a similar backbone of major projection pathways to the septal region, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem, each segment of the SPZ has a specific set of targets where its projections dominate. Furthermore, we observed intra-SPZ projections of varying densities between the four subdivisions. Taken together, this pattern of organization suggests that the circadian timing system may have several parallel neural outflow pathways that provide a road map for understanding how they subserve different functions.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG008728(United States)

Effects of the jimpy mutation on mouse retinal structure and function.

  • Hovhannisyan A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Jimpy mutant mouse has a point mutation in the proteolipid protein gene (plp1). The resulting misfolding of the protein leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin destruction, and failure to produce adequately myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS). It is not known how the absence of normal myelination during development influences neural function. We characterized the Jimpy mouse retina to find out whether lack of myelination in the optic nerve during development has an effect on normal functioning and morphology of the retina. Optokinetic reflex measurements showed that Jimpy mice had, in general, a functional visual system. Both PLP1 antibody staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for plp1 mRNA showed that plp1 is not expressed in the wild-type retina. However, in the optic nerve, plp1 is normally expressed, and consequently, in Jimpy mutant mice, myelination of axons in the optic nerve was mostly absent. Nevertheless, neither axon count nor axon ultrastructure in the optic nerve was affected. Physiological recordings of ganglion cell activity using microelectrode arrays revealed a decrease of stimulus-evoked activity at mesopic light levels. Morphological analysis of the retina did not show any significant differences in the gross morphology, such as thickness of retinal layers or cell number in the inner and outer nuclear layer. The cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer, however, were larger in the peripheral retina of Jimpy mutant mice. Antibody labeling against cell type-specific markers showed that the number of rod bipolar and horizontal cells was increased in Jimpy mice. In conclusion, whereas the Jimpy mutation has dramatic effects on the myelination of retinal ganglion cell axons, it has moderate effects on retinal morphology and function.

Morphology, innervation, and peripheral sensory cells of the siphon of aplysia californica.

  • Carrigan ID
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The siphon of Aplysia californica has several functions, including involvement in respiration, excretion, and defensive inking. It also provides sensory input for defensive withdrawals that have been studied extensively to examine mechanisms that underlie learning. To better understand the neuronal bases of these functions, we used immunohistochemistry to catalogue peripheral cell types and innervation of the siphon in stage 12 juveniles (chosen to allow observation of tissues in whole-mounts). We found that the siphon nerve splits into three major branches, leading ultimately to a two-part FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus and an apparently separate tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive plexus. Putative sensory neurons included four distinct types of tubulin-immunoreactive bipolar cells (one likely also tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) that bore ciliated dendrites penetrating the epithelium. A fifth bipolar neuron type (tubulin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive) occurred deeper in the tissue, associated with part of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus. Our observations emphasize the structural complexity of the peripheral nervous system of the siphon, and the importance of direct tests of the various components to better understand the functioning of the entire organ, including its role in defensive withdrawal responses.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - T32 EY024234(United States)

Intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the heart in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

  • Stoyek MR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the vertebrate heart the intracardiac nervous system is the final common pathway for autonomic control of cardiac output, but the neuroanatomy of this system is not well understood. In this study we investigated the innervation of the heart in a model vertebrate, the zebrafish. We used antibodies against acetylated tubulin, human neuronal protein C/D, choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide to visualize neural elements and their neurotransmitter content. Most neurons were located at the venous pole in a plexus around the sinoatrial valve; mean total number of cells was 197 ± 23, and 92% were choline acetyltransferase positive, implying a cholinergic role. The plexus contained cholinergic, adrenergic, and nitrergic axons and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive terminals, some innervating somata. Putative pacemaker cells near the plexus showed immunoreactivity for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4) and the transcription factor Islet-1 (Isl1). The neurotracer neurobiotin showed that extrinsic axons from the left and right vagosympathetic trunks innervated the sinoatrial plexus proximal to their entry into the heart; some extrinsic axons from each trunk also projected into the medial dorsal plexus region. Extrinsic axons also innervated the atrial and ventricular walls. An extracardiac nerve trunk innervated the bulbus arteriosus and entered the arterial pole of the heart to innervate the proximal ventricle. We have shown that the intracardiac nervous system in the zebrafish is anatomically and neurochemically complex, providing a substrate for autonomic control of cardiac effectors in all chambers.

Moniliform deformation of retinal ganglion cells by formaldehyde-based fixatives.

  • Stradleigh TW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protocols for characterizing cellular phenotypes commonly use chemical fixatives to preserve anatomical features, mechanically stabilize tissue, and stop physiological responses. Formaldehyde, diluted in either phosphate-buffered saline or phosphate buffer, has been widely used in studies of neurons, especially in conjunction with dyes and antibodies. However, previous studies have found that these fixatives induce the formation of bead-like varicosities in the dendrites and axons of brain and spinal cord neurons. We report here that these formaldehyde formulations can induce bead formation in the dendrites and axons of adult rat and rabbit retinal ganglion cells, and that retinal ganglion cells differ from hippocampal, cortical, cerebellar, and spinal cord neurons in that bead formation is not blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists, a voltage-gated Na(+) channel toxin, extracellular Ca(2+) ion exclusion, or temperature shifts. Moreover, we describe a modification of formaldehyde-based fixatives that prevents bead formation in retinal ganglion cells visualized by green fluorescent protein expression and by immunohistochemistry.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY020535(United States)

Spatial distribution and cellular composition of adult brain proliferative zones in the teleost, Gymnotus omarorum.

  • Olivera-Pasilio V
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2014 Sep 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during development provides for the generation of mature cell types in the CNS. While adult brain proliferation is highly restricted in the mammals, it is widespread in teleosts. The extent of adult neural proliferation in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum has not yet been described. To address this, we used double thymidine analog pulse-chase labeling of proliferating cells to identify brain proliferation zones, characterize their cellular composition, and analyze the fate of newborn cells in adult G. omarorum. Short thymidine analog chase periods revealed the ubiquitous distribution of adult brain proliferation, similar to other teleosts, particularly Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Proliferating cells were abundant at the ventricular-subventricular lining of the ventricular-cisternal system, adjacent to the telencephalic subpallium, the diencephalic preoptic region and hypothalamus, and the mesencephalic tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. Extraventricular proliferation zones, located distant from the ventricular-cisternal system surface, were found in all divisions of the rombencephalic cerebellum. We also report a new adult proliferation zone at the caudal-lateral border of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. All proliferation zones showed a heterogeneous cellular composition. The use of short (24 h) and long (30 day) chase periods revealed abundant fast cycling cells (potentially intermediate amplifiers), sparse slow cycling (potentially stem) cells, cells that appear to have entered a quiescent state, and cells that might correspond to migrating newborn neural cells. Their abundance and migration distance differed among proliferation zones: greater numbers and longer range and/or pace of migrating cells were associated with subpallial and cerebellar proliferation zones.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD012246(United States)

HDAC1 and HDAC2 control the specification of neural crest cells into peripheral glia.

  • Jacob C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), originate from multipotent neural crest cells that also give rise to other cells, including neurons, melanocytes, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The transcription factor Sox10 is required for peripheral glia specification. However, all neural crest cells express Sox10 and the mechanisms directing neural crest cells into a specific lineage are poorly understood. We show here that histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) are essential for the specification of neural crest cells into Schwann cell precursors and satellite glia, which express the early determinants of their lineage myelin protein zero (P0) and/or fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7). In neural crest cells, HDAC1/2 induced expression of the transcription factor Pax3 by binding and activating the Pax3 promoter. In turn, Pax3 was required to maintain high Sox10 levels and to trigger expression of Fabp7. In addition, HDAC1/2 were bound to the P0 promoter and activated P0 transcription. Consistently, in vivo genetic deletion of HDAC1/2 in mouse neural crest cells led to strongly decreased Sox10 expression, no detectable Pax3, virtually no satellite glia, and no Schwann cell precursors in dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves. Similarly, in vivo ablation of Pax3 in the mouse neural crest resulted in strongly reduced expression of Sox10 and Fabp7. Therefore, by controlling the expression of Pax3 and the concerted action of Pax3 and Sox10 on their target genes, HDAC1/2 direct the specification of neural crest cells into peripheral glia.

Bmp7 and Lef1 are the downstream effectors of androgen signaling in androgen-induced sex characteristics development in medaka.

  • Ogino Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Androgens play key roles in the morphological specification of male type sex attractive and reproductive organs, whereas little is known about the developmental mechanisms of such secondary sex characters. Medaka offers a clue about sexual differentiation. They show a prominent masculine sexual character for appendage development, the formation of papillary processes in the anal fin, which has been induced in females by exogenous androgen exposure. This current study shows that the development of papillary processes is promoted by androgen-dependent augmentation of bone morphogenic protein 7 (Bmp7) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (Lef1). Androgen receptor (AR) subtypes, ARα and ARβ, are expressed in the distal region of outgrowing bone nodules of developing papillary processes. Development of papillary processes concomitant with the induction of Bmp7 and Lef1 in the distal bone nodules by exposure to methyltestosterone was significantly suppressed by an antiandrogen, flutamide, in female medaka. When Bmp signaling was inhibited in methyltestosterone-exposed females by its inhibitor, dorsomorphin, Lef1 expression was suppressed accompanied by reduced proliferation in the distal bone nodules and retarded bone deposition. These observations indicate that androgen-dependent expressions of Bmp7 and Lef1 are required for the bone nodule outgrowth leading to the formation of these secondary sex characteristics in medaka. The formation of androgen-induced papillary processes may provide insights into the mechanisms regulating the specification of sexual features in vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD007463(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - 1R01 MH084803(United States)

Regional innervation of the heart in the goldfish, Carassius auratus: a confocal microscopy study.

  • Newton CM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intracardiac nervous system represents the final common pathway for autonomic control of the vertebrate heart in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. In teleost fishes, details of the organization of this system are not well understood. Here we investigated innervation patterns in the heart of the goldfish, a species representative of a large group of cyprinids. We used antibodies against the neuronal markers zn-12, acetylated tubulin, and human neuronal protein C/D, as well as choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, nitric oxide synthetase, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) to detect neural elements and their transmitter contents in wholemounts and sections of cardiac tissue. All chambers of the heart were innervated by choline acetyltransferase-positive axons, implying cholinergic regulation; and by tyrosine hydroxylase-containing axons, implying adrenergic regulation. The mean total number of intracardiac neurons was 713 ± 78 (SE), nearly half of which were cholinergic. Neuronal somata were mainly located in a ganglionated plexus around the sinoatrial valves. Somata were contacted by cholinergic, adrenergic, nitrergic, and VIP-positive terminals. Putative pacemaker cells, identified by immunoreactivity for hyperpolarization activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, were located in the base of the sinoatrial valves, and this region was densely innervated by cholinergic and adrenergic terminals. We have shown that the goldfish heart possesses the necessary neuroanatomical substrate for fine, region-by-region autonomic control of the myocardial effectors that are involved in determining cardiac output.