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Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Antibody, Alexa Fluor ?? 594 Conjugated

RRID:AB_141359

Antibody ID

AB_141359

Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG (H+L) rabbit

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-11012, RRID:AB_141359)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher: RRID:AB_2534079

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Molecular Probes

Spatial Fold Change of FGF Signaling Encodes Positional Information for Segmental Determination in Zebrafish.

  • Simsek MF
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signal gradients encode instructive information for numerous decision-making processes during embryonic development. A striking example of precise, scalable tissue-level patterning is the segmentation of somites-the precursors of the vertebral column-during which the fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wnt, and retinoic acid (RA) pathways establish spatial gradients. Despite decades of studies proposing roles for all three pathways, the dynamic feature of these gradients that encodes instructive information determining segment sizes remained elusive. We developed a non-elongating tail explant system, integrated quantitative measurements with computational modeling, and tested alternative models to show that positional information is encoded solely by spatial fold change (SFC) in FGF signal output. Neighboring cells measure SFC to accurately position the determination front and thus determine segment size. The SFC model successfully recapitulates results of spatiotemporal perturbation experiments on both explants and intact embryos, and it shows that Wnt signaling acts permissively upstream of FGF signaling and that RA gradient is dispensable.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R15GM94732-1 A1(United States)

Regional chemoarchitecture of the brain of lungfishes based on calbindin D-28K and calretinin immunohistochemistry.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates, and their neuroanatomical organization is particularly relevant for deducing the neural traits that have been conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. The immunohistochemical localization of calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) provides a powerful method for discerning segregated neuronal populations, fiber tracts, and neuropils and is here applied to the brains of Neoceratodus and Protopterus, representing the two extant orders of lungfishes. The results showed abundant cells containing these proteins in pallial and subpallial telencephalic regions, with particular distinct distribution in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, and septum. Similarly, the distribution of CB and CR containing cells supports the division of the hypothalamus of lungfishes into neuromeric regions, as in tetrapods. The dense concentrations of CB and CR positive cells and fibers highlight the extent of the thalamus. As in other vertebrates, the optic tectum is characterized by numerous CB positive cells and fibers and smaller numbers of CR cells. The so-called cerebellar nucleus contains abundant CB and CR cells with long ascending axons, which raises the possibility that it could be homologized to the secondary gustatory nucleus of other vertebrates. The corpus of the cerebellum is devoid of CB and CR and cells positive for both proteins are found in the cerebellar auricles and the octavolateralis nuclei. Comparison with other vertebrates reveals that lungfishes share most of their features of calcium binding protein distribution with amphibians, particularly with salamanders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32CA154274(United States)

The Drosophila Immune Deficiency Pathway Modulates Enteroendocrine Function and Host Metabolism.

  • Kamareddine L
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are interspersed between enterocytes and stem cells in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium. Like enterocytes, EEs express components of the immune deficiency (IMD) innate immune pathway, which activates transcription of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides. The discovery of large lipid droplets in intestines of IMD pathway mutants prompted us to investigate the role of the IMD pathway in the host metabolic response to its intestinal microbiota. Here we provide evidence that the short-chain fatty acid acetate is a microbial metabolic signal that activates signaling through the enteroendocrine IMD pathway in a PGRP-LC-dependent manner. This, in turn, increases transcription of the gene encoding the endocrine peptide Tachykinin (Tk), which is essential for timely larval development and optimal lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. Our findings suggest innate immune pathways not only provide the first line of defense against infection but also afford the intestinal microbiota control over host development and metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI019018(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI071147()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI109436()

A hemorrhagic transformation model of mechanical stroke therapy with acute hyperglycemia in mice.

  • Couret D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clinical benefit for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in stroke was recently demonstrated in multiple large prospective studies. Acute hyperglycemia (HG) is an important risk factor of poor outcome in stroke patients, including those that underwent MT. The aim of this therapy is to achieve a complete reperfusion in a short time, given that reperfusion damage is dependent on the duration of ischemia. Here, we investigated the effects of acute HG in a mouse model of ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Hyperglycemic (intraperitoneal [ip] injection of glucose) and control (ip saline injection) 10-week male C57BL6 mice were subjected to MCAO (30, 90, and 180 min) followed by reperfusion obtained by withdrawal of the monofilament. Infarct volume, hemorrhagic transformation (HT), neutrophil infiltration, and neurological scores were assessed at 24 hr by performing vital staining, ELISA immunofluorescence, and behavioral test, respectively. Glucose injection led to transient HG (blood glucose = 250-390 mg/dL) that significantly increased infarct volume, HT, and worsened neurological outcome. In addition, we report that HG promoted blood-brain barrier disruption as shown by hemoglobin accumulation in the brain parenchyma and tended to increase neutrophil extravasation within the infarcted area. Acute HG increased neurovascular damage for all MCAO durations tested. HTs were observed as early as 90 min after ischemia under hyperglycemic conditions. This model mimics MT ischemia/reperfusion and allows the exploration of brain injury in hyperglycemic conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K01-CA096555(United States)

Nubbin isoform antagonism governs Drosophila intestinal immune homeostasis.

  • Lindberg BG
  • PLoS Pathog.
  • 2018 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila. Global transcriptional profiling of adult flies overexpressing Nub-PB in immunocompetent tissues revealed that this form is a strong transcriptional activator of a large set of immune genes. Further genetic analyses showed that Nub-PB is sufficient to drive expression both independently and in conjunction with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), JNK and JAK/STAT pathways. Similar overexpression of Nub-PD did, conversely, repress expression of the same targets. Strikingly, isoform co-overexpression normalized immune gene transcription, suggesting antagonistic activities. RNAi-mediated knockdown of individual nub transcripts in enterocytes confirmed antagonistic regulation by the two isoforms and that both are necessary for normal immune gene transcription in the midgut. Furthermore, enterocyte-specific Nub-PB expression levels had a strong impact on gut bacterial load as well as host lifespan. Overexpression of Nub-PB enhanced bacterial clearance of ingested Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15. Nevertheless, flies quickly succumbed to the infection, suggesting a deleterious immune response. In line with this, prolonged overexpression promoted a proinflammatory signature in the gut with induction of JNK and JAK/STAT pathways, increased apoptosis and stem cell proliferation. These findings highlight a novel regulatory mechanism of host-microbe interactions mediated by antagonistic transcription factor isoforms.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - PN1 EY016586(United States)

CCPG1 Is a Non-canonical Autophagy Cargo Receptor Essential for ER-Phagy and Pancreatic ER Proteostasis.

  • Smith MD
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms of selective autophagy of the ER, known as ER-phagy, require molecular delineation, particularly in vivo. It is unclear how these events control ER proteostasis and cellular health. Here, we identify cell-cycle progression gene 1 (CCPG1), an ER-resident protein with no known physiological role, as a non-canonical cargo receptor that directly binds to core autophagy proteins via an LIR motif to mammalian ATG8 proteins and, independently and via a discrete motif, to FIP200. These interactions facilitate ER-phagy. The CCPG1 gene is inducible by the unfolded protein response and thus directly links ER stress to ER-phagy. In vivo, CCPG1 protects against ER luminal protein aggregation and consequent unfolded protein response hyperactivation and tissue injury of the exocrine pancreas. Thus, via identification of this autophagy protein, we describe an unexpected molecular mechanism of ER-phagy and provide evidence that this may be physiologically relevant in ER luminal proteostasis.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD068256(United States)

Prenatal High Estradiol Exposure Induces Sex-Specific and Dietarily Reversible Insulin Resistance Through Decreased Hypothalamic INSR.

  • Wang HH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An adverse intrauterine environment may induce adult disease in offspring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported that fresh embryo transfer (ET) in assisted reproductive technology leads to high maternal estradiol (E2), and prenatal high E2 exposure increases the risk of organ disorders in later life. We found that male newborns and children of fresh ET showed elevated fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) scores. Male mice with high prenatal estradiol exposure (HE) grew heavier than control mice and developed insulin resistance; they also showed increased food intake, with increased orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. The hypothalamic insulin receptor (INSR) was decreased in male HE mice, associated with elevated promoter methylation. Chronic food restriction (FR) in HE mice reversed insulin resistance and rescued hypothalamic INSR expression by correcting the elevated Insr promoter methylation. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to high E2 may induce sex-specific metabolic disorders in later life through epigenetic programming of hypothalamic Insr promoter, and dietary intervention may reverse insulin resistance by remodeling its methylation pattern.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008497(United States)

Directional migration of mesenchymal stem cells under an SDF-1α gradient on a microfluidic device.

  • Park S
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homing of peripheral stem cells is regulated by one of the most representative homing factors, stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α), which specifically binds to the plasma membrane receptor CXCR4 of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to initiate the signaling pathways that lead to directional migration and homing of stem cells. This complex homing process and directional migration of stem cells have been mimicked on a microfluidic device that is capable of generating a chemokine gradient within the collagen matrix and embedding endothelial cell (EC) monolayers to mimic blood vessels. On the microfluidic device, stem cells showed directional migration toward the higher concentration of SDF-1α, whereas treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 caused loss of directionality of stem cells. Furthermore, inhibition of stem cell's main migratory signaling pathways, Rho-ROCK and Rac pathways, caused blockage of actomyosin and lamellipodia formation, decreasing the migration distance but maintaining directionality. Stem cell homing regulated by SDF-1α caused directional migration of stem cells, while the migratory ability was affected by the activation of migration-related signaling pathways.

Thalamic Spindles Promote Memory Formation during Sleep through Triple Phase-Locking of Cortical, Thalamic, and Hippocampal Rhythms.

  • Latchoumane CV
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep. Whereas optogenetically stimulated spindles were as efficient as spontaneous spindles in nesting hippocampal ripples within their excitable troughs, stimulation in-phase with the slow oscillation up-state increased spindle co-occurrence and frontal spindle-ripple co-occurrence, eventually resulting in increased triple coupling of slow oscillation-spindle-ripple events. In-phase optogenetic suppression of thalamic spindles impaired hippocampus-dependent memory. Our results suggest a causal role for thalamic sleep spindles in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, conveyed through triple coupling of slow oscillations, spindles, and ripples.

A Class of Environmental and Endogenous Toxins Induces BRCA2 Haploinsufficiency and Genome Instability.

  • Tan SLW
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations truncating a single copy of the tumor suppressor, BRCA2, cause cancer susceptibility. In cells bearing such heterozygous mutations, we find that a cellular metabolite and ubiquitous environmental toxin, formaldehyde, stalls and destabilizes DNA replication forks, engendering structural chromosomal aberrations. Formaldehyde selectively depletes BRCA2 via proteasomal degradation, a mechanism of toxicity that affects very few additional cellular proteins. Heterozygous BRCA2 truncations, by lowering pre-existing BRCA2 expression, sensitize to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency induced by transient exposure to natural concentrations of formaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, an alcohol catabolite detoxified by ALDH2, precipitates similar effects. Ribonuclease H1 ameliorates replication fork instability and chromosomal aberrations provoked by aldehyde-induced BRCA2 haploinsufficiency, suggesting that BRCA2 inactivation triggers spontaneous mutagenesis during DNA replication via aberrant RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). These findings suggest a model wherein carcinogenesis in BRCA2 mutation carriers can be incited by compounds found pervasively in the environment and generated endogenously in certain tissues with implications for public health.

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

Single-Cell 5-Formylcytosine Landscapes of Mammalian Early Embryos and ESCs at Single-Base Resolution.

  • Zhu C
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Active DNA demethylation in mammals involves ten-eleven translocation (TET) family protein-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC). However, base-resolution landscapes of 5-formylcytosine (5fC) (an oxidized derivative of 5mC) at the single-cell level remain unexplored. Here, we present "CLEVER-seq" (chemical-labeling-enabled C-to-T conversion sequencing), which is a single-cell, single-base resolution 5fC-sequencing technology, based on biocompatible, selective chemical labeling of 5fC and subsequent C-to-T conversion during amplification and sequencing. CLEVER-seq shows intrinsic 5fC heterogeneity in mouse early embryos, Epi stem cells (EpiSCs), and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). CLEVER-seq of mouse early embryos also reveals the highly patterned genomic distribution and parental-specific dynamics of 5fC during mouse early pre-implantation development. Integrated analysis demonstrates that promoter 5fC production precedes the expression upregulation of a clear set of developmentally and metabolically critical genes. Collectively, our work reveals the dynamics of active DNA demethylation during mouse pre-implantation development and provides an important resource for further functional studies of epigenetic reprogramming in single cells.

The mesencephalic locomotor region sends a bilateral glutamatergic drive to hindbrain reticulospinal neurons in a tetrapod.

  • Ryczko D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In vertebrates, stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) on one side evokes symmetrical locomotor movements on both sides. How this occurs was previously examined in detail in a swimmer using body undulations (lamprey), but in tetrapods the downstream projections from the MLR to brainstem neurons are not fully understood. Here we examined the brainstem circuits from the MLR to identified reticulospinal neurons in the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens. Using neural tracing, we show that the MLR sends bilateral projections to the middle reticular nucleus (mRN, rostral hindbrain) and the inferior reticular nucleus (iRN, caudal hindbrain). Ca(2+) imaging coupled to electrophysiology in in vitro isolated brains revealed very similar responses in reticulospinal neurons on both sides to a unilateral MLR stimulation. As the strength of MLR stimulation was increased, the responses increased in size in reticulospinal neurons of the mRN and iRN, but the responses in the iRN were smaller. Bath-application or local microinjections of glutamatergic antagonists markedly reduced reticulospinal neuron responses, indicating that the MLR sends glutamatergic inputs to reticulospinal neurons. In addition, reticulospinal cells responded to glutamate microinjections and the size of the responses paralleled the amount of glutamate microinjected. Immunofluorescence coupled with anatomical tracing confirmed the presence of glutamatergic projections from the MLR to reticulospinal neurons. Overall, we show that the brainstem circuits activated by the MLR in the salamander are organized similarly to those previously described in lampreys, indicating that the anatomo-physiological features of the locomotor drive are well conserved in vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1361-1383, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Localization of genes encoding metallothionein-like protein (mt2 and smtb) in the brain of zebrafish.

  • Teoh SL
  • J. Chem. Neuroanat.
  • 2015 Dec 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metallothionein (MT) is a small cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding protein involved in metal homeostasis, detoxification and free radical-scavenging. MT is ubiquitously expressed in several tissues, but its role in the central nervous system is not well understood. In this study, we identified two MT homologous genes (mt2 and smtb) in the zebrafish. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed the expression of mt2 and smtb genes in the ventricular layers in the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, most of which are cell proliferating regions in the brain of zebrafish. Cellular characteristics of MT genes expressing cells were examined by double-labelling with markers for neurons (HuC/D) and astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP and S100 protein) and cell proliferation marker (PCNA). mt2 and smtb mRNAs are expressed in neurons and not in astrocytes, and they were co-localized with PCNA. These results suggest that mt2 and smtb may play an important role in neurogenesis and neuroprotection.

Role of gabra2, GABAA receptor alpha-2 subunit, in CNS development.

  • Gonzalez-Nunez V
  • Biochem Biophys Rep
  • 2015 Aug 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

gabra2 gene codes for the alpha-2 subunit of the GABAA receptor, one of the ionotropic receptors which has been related to anxiety, depression and other behavioural disorders, including drug dependence and schizophrenia. GABAergic signalling also plays a role during development, by promoting neural stem cell maintenance and renewal. To investigate the role of gabra2 in CNS development, gabra2 deficient zebrafish were generated. The pattern of proliferation during the embryonic development was disrupted in morphant embryos, which also displayed an increase in the number of apoptotic nuclei mainly at the mid- and hindbrain regions. The expression of several genes (notch1, pax2, fgf8 and wnt1) known to contribute to the development of the central nervous system was also affected in gabra2 morpholino-injected embryos, although no changes were found for pax6a and shh a expression. The transcriptional activity of neuroD (a proneural gene involved in early neuronal determination) was down-regulated in gabra2 deficient embryos, and the expression pattern of gad1b (GABA-synthesising enzyme GAD67) was clearly reduced in injected fish. I propose that gabra2 might be interacting with those signalling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation and neurogenesis during the embryonic development; thus, gabra2 might be playing a role in the differentiation of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. Given that changes in GABAergic circuits during development have been related to several psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this work might be helpful to understand the role of neurotransmitter systems during CNS development and to assess the developmental effects of several GABAergic drugs.

Adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure: persistence of structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities into adulthood.

  • Risher ML
  • Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • 2015 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Human adolescence is a crucial stage of neurological development during which ethanol (EtOH) consumption is often at its highest. Alcohol abuse during adolescence may render individuals at heightened risk for subsequent alcohol abuse disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or other neurological impairments by irreversibly altering long-term brain function. To test this possibility, we modeled adolescent alcohol abuse (i.e., intermittent EtOH exposure during adolescence [AIE]) in rats to determine whether adolescent exposure to alcohol leads to long-term structural and functional changes that are manifested in adult neuronal circuitry. METHODS: We specifically focused on hippocampal area CA1, a brain region associated with learning and memory. Using electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and neuroanatomical approaches, we measured post-AIE changes in synaptic plasticity, dendritic spine morphology, and synaptic structure in adulthood. RESULTS: We found that AIE-pretreated adult rats manifest robust long-term potentiation, induced at stimulus intensities lower than those required in controls, suggesting a state of enhanced synaptic plasticity. Moreover, AIE resulted in an increased number of dendritic spines with characteristics typical of immaturity. Immunohistochemistry-based analysis of synaptic structures indicated a significant decrease in the number of co-localized pre- and postsynaptic puncta. This decrease is driven by an overall decrease in 2 postsynaptic density proteins, PSD-95 and SAP102. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings reveal that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence results in enduring structural and functional abnormalities in the hippocampus. These synaptic changes in the hippocampal circuits may help to explain learning-related behavioral changes in adult animals preexposed to AIE.

Photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

  • Vlahos LM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Marsupials are believed to be the only non-primate mammals with both trichromatic and dichromatic color vision. The diversity of color vision systems present in marsupials remains mostly unexplored. Marsupials occupy a diverse range of habitats, which may have led to considerable variation in the presence, density, distribution, and spectral sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors. In this study we analyzed the distribution of photoreceptors in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Immunohistochemistry in wholemounts revealed three cone subpopulations recognized within two spectrally distinct cone classes. Long-wavelength sensitive (LWS) single cones were the largest cone subgroup (67-86%), and formed a weak horizontal visual streak (peak density 2,106 ± 435/mm2) across the central retina. LWS double cones were strongly concentrated ventrally (569 ± 66/mm2), and created a "negative" visual streak (134 ± 45/mm2) in the central retina. The strong regionalization between LWS cone topographies suggests differing visual functions. Short-wavelength sensitive (SWS) cones were present in much lower densities (3-10%), mostly located ventrally (179 ± 101/mm2). A minority population of cones (0-2.4%) remained unlabeled by both SWS- and LWS-specific antibodies, and may represent another cone population. Microspectrophotometry of LWS cone and rod visual pigments shows peak spectral sensitivities at 544 nm and 500 nm, respectively. Cone to ganglion cell convergences remain low and constant across the retina, thereby maintaining good visual acuity, but poor contrast sensitivity during photopic vision. Given that brushtail possums are so strongly nocturnal, we hypothesize that their acuity is set by the scotopic visual system, and have minimized the number of cones necessary to serve the ganglion cells for photopic vision.