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IRDye 680RD Donkey anti-Rabbit IgG (H + L), 0.5 mg antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

IRDye 680RD Donkey anti-Rabbit IgG (H + L) 0.5 mg

Proper Citation

(LI-COR Biosciences Cat# 926-68073, RRID:AB_10954442)




manufacturer recommendations:


LI-COR Biosciences

Cat Num


Cancer Lipid Metabolism Confers Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

  • Iwamoto H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Intrinsic and evasive antiangiogenic drug (AAD) resistance is frequently developed in cancer patients, and molecular mechanisms underlying AAD resistance remain largely unknown. Here we describe AAD-triggered, lipid-dependent metabolic reprogramming as an alternative mechanism of AAD resistance. Unexpectedly, tumor angiogenesis in adipose and non-adipose environments is equally sensitive to AAD treatment. AAD-treated tumors in adipose environment show accelerated growth rates in the presence of a minimal number of microvessels. Mechanistically, AAD-induced tumor hypoxia initiates the fatty acid oxidation metabolic reprogramming and increases uptake of free fatty acid (FFA) that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1) significantly compromises the FFA-induced cell proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of CPT1 function sensitizes AAD therapeutic efficacy and enhances its anti-tumor effects. Together, we propose an effective cancer therapy concept by combining drugs that target angiogenesis and lipid metabolism.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - G0802266(United Kingdom)

CARM1 Is Essential for Myeloid Leukemogenesis but Dispensable for Normal Hematopoiesis.

  • Greenblatt SM
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Chromatin-modifying enzymes, and specifically the protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), have emerged as important targets in cancer. Here, we investigated the role of CARM1 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Using conditional knockout mice, we show that loss of CARM1 has little effect on normal hematopoiesis. Strikingly, knockout of Carm1 abrogates both the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) driven by oncogenic transcription factors. We show that CARM1 knockdown impairs cell-cycle progression, promotes myeloid differentiation, and ultimately induces apoptosis. Finally, we utilize a selective, small-molecule inhibitor of CARM1 to validate the efficacy of CARM1 inhibition in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, this work suggests that targeting CARM1 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AML.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - A11961(United Kingdom)

The cellular prion protein promotes olfactory sensory neuron survival and axon targeting during adult neurogenesis.

  • Parrie LE
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been associated with diverse biological processes including cell signaling, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection, but its physiological function(s) remain ambiguous. Here we determine the role of PrPC in adult neurogenesis using the olfactory system model in transgenic mice. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the olfactory sensory epithelium (OSE) undergo neurogenesis, integration, and turnover even into adulthood. The neurogenic processes of proliferation, differentiation/maturation, and axon targeting were evaluated in wild type, PrP-overexpressing, and PrP-null transgenic mice. Our results indicate that PrPC plays a role in maintaining mature OSNs within the epithelium: overexpression of PrPC resulted in greater survival of mitotically active cells within the OSE, whereas absence of prion protein resulted in fewer cells being maintained over time. These results are supported by both quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression and protein analysis characteristic of OSN differentiation. Finally, evaluation of axon migration determined that OSN axon targeting in the olfactory bulb is PrPC dose-dependent. Together, these findings provide new mechanistic insight into the neuroprotective role for PrPC in adult OSE neurogenesis, whereby more mature neurons are stably maintained in animals expressing PrPC.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI81789(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS096662(United States)

Modulation of LIN28B/Let-7 Signaling by Propranolol Contributes to Infantile Hemangioma Involution.

  • Mong EF
  • Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
  • 2018 May 5

Literature context:


OBJECTIVE: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy, characterized by a rapid growth phase followed by a spontaneous involution, or triggered by propranolol treatment by poorly understood mechanisms. LIN28/let-7 axis plays a central role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. However, the role of LIN28B/let-7 signaling in IH pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: LIN28B is highly expressed in proliferative IH and is less expressed in involuted and in propranolol-treated IH samples as measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative RT-PCR. Small RNA sequencing analysis of IH samples revealed a decrease in microRNAs that target LIN28B, including let-7, and an increase in microRNAs in the mir-498(46) cistron. Overexpression of LIN28B in HEK293 cells induced the expression of miR-516b in the mir-498(46) cistron. Propranolol treatment of induced pluripotent stem cells, which express mir-498(46) endogenously, reduced the expression of both LIN28B and mir-498(46) and increased the expression of let-7. Furthermore, propranolol treatment reduced the proliferation of induced pluripotent stem cells and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: This work uncovers the role of the LIN28B/let-7 switch in IH pathogenesis and provides a novel mechanism by which propranolol induces IH involution. Furthermore, it provides therapeutic implications for cancers in which the LIN28/let-7 pathway is imbalanced.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - A6689(United Kingdom)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL109133(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL128411(United States)

Notch Signaling Regulates Differentiation and Steroidogenesis in Female Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

  • Prasasya RD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


The Notch pathway is a highly conserved juxtacrine signaling mechanism that is important for many cellular processes during development, including differentiation and proliferation. Although Notch is important during ovarian follicle formation and early development, its functions during the gonadotropin-dependent stages of follicle development are largely unexplored. We observed positive regulation of Notch activity and expression of Notch ligands and receptors following activation of the luteinizing hormone-receptor in prepubertal mouse ovary. JAG1, the most abundantly expressed Notch ligand in mouse ovary, revealed a striking shift in localization from oocytes to somatic cells following hormone stimulation. Using primary cultures of granulosa cells, we investigated the functions of Jag1 using small interfering RNA knockdown. The loss of JAG1 led to suppression of granulosa cell differentiation as marked by reduced expression of enzymes and factors involved in steroid biosynthesis, and in steroid secretion. Jag1 knockdown also resulted in enhanced cell proliferation. These phenotypes were replicated, although less robustly, following knockdown of the obligate canonical Notch transcription factor RBPJ. Intracellular signaling analysis revealed increased activation of the mitogenic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways following Notch knockdown, with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor blocking the enhanced proliferation observed in Jag1 knockdown granulosa cells. Activation of YB-1, a known regulator of granulosa cell differentiation genes, was suppressed by Jag1 knockdown. Overall, this study reveals a role of Notch signaling in promoting the differentiation of preovulatory granulosa cells, adding to the diverse functions of Notch in the mammalian ovary.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R56 AG016379(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD021921(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P50 HD028934(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008061(United States)

Transient and Permanent Reconfiguration of Chromatin and Transcription Factor Occupancy Drive Reprogramming.

  • Knaupp AS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induces changes in genome architecture reflective of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) state. However, only a small minority of cells typically transition to pluripotency, which has limited our understanding of the process. Here, we characterize the DNA regulatory landscape during reprogramming by time-course profiling of isolated sub-populations of intermediates poised to become iPSCs. Widespread reconfiguration of chromatin states and transcription factor (TF) occupancy occurs early during reprogramming, and cells that fail to reprogram partially retain their original chromatin states. A second wave of reconfiguration occurs just prior to pluripotency acquisition, where a majority of early changes revert to the somatic cell state and many of the changes that define the pluripotent state become established. Our comprehensive characterization of reprogramming-associated molecular changes broadens our understanding of this process and sheds light on how TFs access and change the chromatin during cell-fate transitions.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP119606(Canada)

A Genetic Tool to Track Protein Aggregates and Control Prion Inheritance.

  • Newby GA
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many diseases but also underlies a wide range of positive cellular functions. This phenomenon has been difficult to study because of a lack of quantitative and high-throughput cellular tools. Here, we develop a synthetic genetic tool to sense and control protein aggregation. We apply the technology to yeast prions, developing sensors to track their aggregation states and employing prion fusions to encode synthetic memories in yeast cells. Utilizing high-throughput screens, we identify prion-curing mutants and engineer "anti-prion drives" that reverse the non-Mendelian inheritance pattern of prions and eliminate them from yeast populations. We extend our technology to yeast RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) by tracking their propensity to aggregate, searching for co-occurring aggregates, and uncovering a group of coalescing RBPs through screens enabled by our platform. Our work establishes a quantitative, high-throughput, and generalizable technology to study and control diverse protein aggregation processes in cells.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - DP2 AI131083()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056350()

Inhibition of IRE1α-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage by XBP1 reveals a novel regulatory process during the unfolded protein response.

  • Chalmers F
  • Wellcome Open Res
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Background: The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuously adapts to the cellular secretory load by the activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR).  This stress response results in expansion of the ER, upregulation of proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, and attenuation of protein synthesis.  The response is orchestrated by three signalling pathways each activated by a specific signal transducer, either inositol requiring enzyme α (IRE1α), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) or activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).  Activation of IRE1α results in its oligomerisation, autophosphorylation and stimulation of its ribonuclease activity.  The ribonuclease initiates the splicing of an intron from mRNA encoding the transcription factor, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as degradation of specific mRNAs and microRNAs. Methods: To investigate the consequence of expression of exogenous XBP1, we generated a stable cell-line expressing spliced XBP1 mRNA under the control of an inducible promotor. Results: Following induction of expression, high levels of XBP1 protein were detected, which allowed upregulation of target genes in the absence of induction of the UPR.  Remarkably under stress conditions, the expression of exogenous XBP1 repressed splicing of endogenous XBP1 mRNA without repressing the activation of PERK. Conclusions: These results illustrate that a feedback mechanism exists to attenuate Ire1α ribonuclease activity in the presence of XBP1.

Loss of CDKL5 in Glutamatergic Neurons Disrupts Hippocampal Microcircuitry and Leads to Memory Impairment in Mice.

  • Tang S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, severe intellectual disability, and autistic features. Mice lacking CDKL5 display multiple behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of the disorder, but the cellular origins of these phenotypes remain unclear. Here, we find that ablating CDKL5 expression specifically from forebrain glutamatergic neurons impairs hippocampal-dependent memory in male conditional knock-out mice. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons lacking CDKL5 show decreased dendritic complexity but a trend toward increased spine density. This morphological change is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and interestingly, miniature IPSCs. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging to interrogate the evoked response of the CA1 microcircuit, we find that CA1 pyramidal neurons lacking CDKL5 show hyperexcitability in their dendritic domain that is constrained by elevated inhibition in a spatially and temporally distinct manner. These results suggest a novel role for CDKL5 in the regulation of synaptic function and uncover an intriguing microcircuit mechanism underlying impaired learning and memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the CDKL5 gene. Although Cdkl5 constitutive knock-out mice have recapitulated key aspects of human symptomatology, the cellular origins of CDKL5 deficiency-related phenotypes are unknown. Here, using conditional knock-out mice, we show that hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits in CDKL5 deficiency have origins in glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain and that loss of CDKL5 results in the enhancement of synaptic transmission and disruptions in neural circuit dynamics in a spatially and temporally specific manner. Our findings demonstrate that CDKL5 is an important regulator of synaptic function in glutamatergic neurons and serves a critical role in learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD083185()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD086984()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007170()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH017168()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F30 NS100433()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS038572()

A Versatile Tool for Live-Cell Imaging and Super-Resolution Nanoscopy Studies of HIV-1 Env Distribution and Mobility.

  • Sakin V
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of HIV-1 mediate cell entry through fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. Intramembrane mobility and clustering of Env trimers at the viral budding site are essential for its function. Previous live-cell and super-resolution microscopy studies were limited by lack of a functional fluorescent Env derivative, requiring antibody labeling for detection. Introduction of a bio-orthogonal amino acid by genetic code expansion, combined with click chemistry, offers novel possibilities for site-specific, minimally invasive labeling. Using this approach, we established efficient incorporation of non-canonical amino acids within HIV-1 Env in mammalian cells. The engineered protein retained plasma membrane localization, glycosylation, virion incorporation, and fusogenic activity, and could be rapidly and specifically labeled with synthetic dyes. This strategy allowed us to revisit Env dynamics and nanoscale distribution at the plasma membrane close to its native state, applying fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching and STED nanoscopy, respectively.

An Approach to Spatiotemporally Resolve Protein Interaction Networks in Living Cells.

  • Lobingier BT
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Cells operate through protein interaction networks organized in space and time. Here, we describe an approach to resolve both dimensions simultaneously by using proximity labeling mediated by engineered ascorbic acid peroxidase (APEX). APEX has been used to capture entire organelle proteomes with high temporal resolution, but its breadth of labeling is generally thought to preclude the higher spatial resolution necessary to interrogate specific protein networks. We provide a solution to this problem by combining quantitative proteomics with a system of spatial references. As proof of principle, we apply this approach to interrogate proteins engaged by G-protein-coupled receptors as they dynamically signal and traffic in response to ligand-induced activation. The method resolves known binding partners, as well as previously unidentified network components. Validating its utility as a discovery pipeline, we establish that two of these proteins promote ubiquitin-linked receptor downregulation after prolonged activation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA186568()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM082250()

The novel SH3 domain protein Dlish/CG10933 mediates fat signaling in Drosophila by binding and regulating Dachs.

  • Zhang Y
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007516(United States)