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VGlut1 neurotransmitter transporter antibody

RRID:AB_10673111

Antibody ID

AB_10673111

Target Antigen

VGlut1 neurotransmitter transporter null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-066, RRID:AB_10673111)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (ND).

Clone ID

N28/9

Host Organism

mouse

Differential Regulation of Evoked and Spontaneous Release by Presynaptic NMDA Receptors.

  • Abrahamsson T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) control synaptic release, but it is not well understood how. Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) provide scaffolding at presynaptic active zones and are involved in vesicle priming. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in regulation of spontaneous release. We demonstrate that, at connected layer 5 pyramidal cell pairs of developing mouse visual cortex, Mg2+-sensitive preNMDAR signaling upregulates replenishment of the readily releasable vesicle pool during high-frequency firing. In conditional RIM1αβ deletion mice, preNMDAR upregulation of vesicle replenishment was abolished, yet preNMDAR control of spontaneous release was unaffected. Conversely, JNK2 blockade prevented Mg2+-insensitive preNMDAR signaling from regulating spontaneous release, but preNMDAR control of evoked release remained intact. We thus discovered that preNMDARs signal differentially to control evoked and spontaneous release by independent and non-overlapping mechanisms. Our findings suggest that preNMDARs may sometimes signal metabotropically and support the emerging principle that evoked and spontaneous release are distinct processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

BACE1 Deficiency Causes Abnormal Neuronal Clustering in the Dentate Gyrus.

  • Hou H
  • Stem Cell Reports
  • 2017 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACE1 is validated as Alzheimer's β-secretase and a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In examining BACE1-null mice, we discovered that BACE1 deficiency develops abnormal clusters of immature neurons, forming doublecortin-positive neuroblasts, in the developing dentate gyrus, mainly in the subpial zone (SPZ). Such clusters were rarely observed in wild-type SPZ and not reported in other mouse models. To understand their origins and fates, we examined how neuroblasts in BACE1-null SPZ mature and migrate during early postnatal development. We show that such neuroblasts are destined to form Prox1-positive granule cells in the dentate granule cell layer, and mainly mature to form excitatory neurons, but not inhibitory neurons. Mechanistically, higher levels of reelin potentially contribute to abnormal neurogenesis and timely migration in BACE1-null SPZ. Altogether, we demonstrate that BACE1 is a critical regulator in forming the dentate granule cell layer through timely maturation and migration of SPZ neuroblasts.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046929()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS074256()

Analysis of synaptic gene expression in the neocortex of primates reveals evolutionary changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  • Muntané G
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2015 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased relative brain size characterizes the evolution of primates, suggesting that enhanced cognition plays an important part in the behavioral adaptations of this mammalian order. In addition to changes in brain anatomy, cognition can also be regulated by molecular changes that alter synaptic function, but little is known about modifications of synapses in primate brain evolution. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression patterns and evolution of 20 synaptic genes from the prefrontal cortex of 12 primate species. The genes investigated included glutamate receptors, scaffolding proteins, synaptic vesicle components, as well as factors involved in synaptic vesicle release and structural components of the nervous system. Our analyses revealed that there have been significant changes during primate brain evolution in the components of the glutamatergic signaling pathway in terms of gene expression, protein expression, and promoter sequence changes. These results could entail functional modifications in the regulation of specific genes related to processes underlying learning and memory.

Mosaic synaptopathy and functional defects in Cav1.4 heterozygous mice and human carriers of CSNB2.

  • Michalakis S
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2014 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in CACNA1F encoding the α1-subunit of the retinal Cav1.4 L-type calcium channel have been linked to Cav1.4 channelopathies including incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2A (CSNB2), Åland Island eye disease (AIED) and cone-rod dystrophy type 3 (CORDX3). Since CACNA1F is located on the X chromosome, Cav1.4 channelopathies are typically affecting male patients via X-chromosomal recessive inheritance. Occasionally, clinical symptoms have been observed in female carriers, too. It is currently unknown how these mutations lead to symptoms in carriers and how the retinal network in these females is affected. To investigate these clinically important issues, we compared retinal phenotypes in Cav1.4-deficient and Cav1.4 heterozygous mice and in human female carrier patients. Heterozygous Cacna1f carrier mice have a retinal mosaic consistent with differential X-chromosomal inactivation, characterized by adjacent vertical columns of affected and non-affected wild-type-like retinal network. Vertical columns in heterozygous mice are well comparable to either the wild-type retinal network of normal mice or to the retina of homozygous mice. Affected retinal columns display pronounced rod and cone photoreceptor synaptopathy and cone degeneration. These changes lead to vastly impaired vision-guided navigation under dark and normal light conditions and reduced retinal electroretinography (ERG) responses in Cacna1f carrier mice. Similar abnormal ERG responses were found in five human CACNA1F carriers, four of which had novel mutations. In conclusion, our data on Cav1.4 deficient mice and human female carriers of mutations in CACNA1F are consistent with a phenotype of mosaic CSNB2.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - R01KD064842-07(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Structural organization and function of mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses involve the immunoglobulin protein synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1.

  • Ribic A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the CNS, which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We show here by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7) but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Furthermore, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice, and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM076547(United States)

Ouabain-induced cochlear nerve degeneration: synaptic loss and plasticity in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy.

  • Yuan Y
  • J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.
  • 2014 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ouabain application to the round window can selectively destroy type-I spiral ganglion cells, producing an animal model of auditory neuropathy. To assess the long-term effects of this deafferentation on synaptic organization in the organ of Corti and cochlear nucleus, and to ask whether surviving cochlear neurons show any post-injury plasticity in the adult, we quantified the peripheral and central synapses of type-I neurons at posttreatment times ranging from 1 to 3 months. Measures of normal DPOAEs and greatly reduced auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) confirmed the neuropathy phenotype. Counts of presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptor patches in the inner hair cell area decreased with post-exposure time, as did counts of cochlear nerve terminals in the cochlear nucleus. Although these counts provided no evidence of new synapse formation via branching from surviving neurons, the regular appearance of ectopic neurons in the inner hair cell area suggested that neurite extension is not uncommon. Correlations between pathophysiology and histopathology showed that ABR thresholds are very insensitive to even massive neural degeneration, whereas the amplitude of ABR wave 1 is a better metric of synaptic degeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM19351(United States)

P-Rex2, a Rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is expressed selectively in ribbon synaptic terminals of the mouse retina.

  • Sherry DM
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2013 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate-dependent Rac Exchanger 2 (P-Rex2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates Rac GTPases, important regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. P-Rex2 is known to modulate cerebellar Purkinje cell architecture and function, but P-Rex2 expression and function elsewhere in the central nervous system is unclear. To better understand potential roles for P-Rex2 in neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling and function, we performed widefield and confocal microscopy of specimens double immunolabeled for P-Rex2 and cell- and synapse-specific markers in the mouse retina. RESULTS: P-Rex2 was restricted to the plexiform layers of the retina and colocalized extensively with Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 (VGluT1), a specific marker for photoreceptor and bipolar cell terminals. Double labeling for P-Rex2 and peanut agglutinin, a cone terminal marker, confirmed that P-Rex2 was present in both rod and cone terminals. Double labeling with markers for specific bipolar cell types showed that P-Rex2 was present in the terminals of rod bipolar cells and multiple ON- and OFF-cone bipolar cell types. In contrast, P-Rex2 was not expressed in the processes or conventional synapses of amacrine or horizontal cells. CONCLUSIONS: P-Rex2 is associated specifically with the glutamatergic ribbon synaptic terminals of photoreceptors and bipolar cells that transmit visual signals vertically through the retina. The Rac-GEF function of P-Rex2 implies a specific role for P-Rex2 and Rac-GTPases in regulating the actin cytoskeleton in glutamatergic ribbon synaptic terminals of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells and appears to be ideally positioned to modulate the adaptive plasticity of these terminals.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Retinal input regulates the timing of corticogeniculate innervation.

  • Seabrook TA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in layer VI of visual cortex represent one of the largest sources of nonretinal input to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and play a major role in modulating the gain of thalamic signal transmission. However, little is known about how and when these descending projections arrive and make functional connections with dLGN cells. Here we used a transgenic mouse to visualize corticogeniculate projections to examine the timing of cortical innervation in dLGN. Corticogeniculate innervation occurred at postnatal ages and was delayed compared with the arrival of retinal afferents. Cortical fibers began to enter dLGN at postnatal day 3 (P3) to P4, a time when retinogeniculate innervation is complete. However, cortical projections did not fully innervate dLGN until eye opening (P12), well after the time when retinal inputs from the two eyes segregate to form nonoverlapping eye-specific domains. In vitro thalamic slice recordings revealed that newly arriving cortical axons form functional connections with dLGN cells. However, adult-like responses that exhibited paired pulse facilitation did not fully emerge until 2 weeks of age. Finally, surgical or genetic elimination of retinal input greatly accelerated the rate of corticogeniculate innervation, with axons invading between P2 and P3 and fully innervating dLGN by P8 to P10. However, recordings in genetically deafferented mice showed that corticogeniculate synapses continued to mature at the same rate as controls. These studies suggest that retinal and cortical innervation of dLGN is highly coordinated and that input from retina plays an important role in regulating the rate of corticogeniculate innervation.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG004517(United States)

A local, periactive zone endocytic machinery at photoreceptor synapses in close vicinity to synaptic ribbons.

  • Wahl S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Photoreceptor ribbon synapses are continuously active synapses with large active zones that contain synaptic ribbons. Synaptic ribbons are anchored to the active zones and are associated with large numbers of synaptic vesicles. The base of the ribbon that is located close to L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is a hotspot of exocytosis. The continuous exocytosis at the ribbon synapse needs to be balanced by compensatory endocytosis. Recent analyses indicated that vesicle recycling at the synaptic ribbon is also an important determinant of synaptic signaling at the photoreceptor synapse. To get insights into mechanisms of vesicle recycling at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse, we performed super-resolution structured illumination microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy to localize major components of the endocytotic membrane retrieval machinery in the photoreceptor synapse of the mouse retina. We found dynamin, syndapin, amphiphysin, and calcineurin, a regulator of activity-dependent endocytosis, to be highly enriched around the active zone and the synaptic ribbon. We present evidence for two clathrin heavy chain variants in the photoreceptor terminal; one is enriched around the synaptic ribbon, whereas the other is localized in the entry region of the terminal. The focal enrichment of endocytic proteins around the synaptic ribbon is consistent with a focal uptake of endocytic markers at that site. This endocytic activity functionally depends on dynamin. These data propose that the presynaptic periactive zone surrounding the synaptic ribbon complex is a hotspot of endocytosis in photoreceptor ribbon synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH067880(United States)

Hijacking the neuronal NMDAR signaling circuit to promote tumor growth and invasion.

  • Li L
  • Cell
  • 2013 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamate and its receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been associated with cancer, although their functions are not fully understood. Herein, we implicate glutamate-driven NMDAR signaling in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis (PNET) and in selected human cancers. NMDAR was upregulated at the periphery of PNET tumors, particularly invasive fronts. Moreover, elevated coexpression of NMDAR and glutamate exporters correlated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Treatment of a tumor-derived cell line with NMDAR antagonists impaired cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Flow conditions mimicking interstitial fluid pressure induced autologous glutamate secretion, activating NMDAR and its downstream MEK-MAPK and CaMK effectors, thereby promoting invasiveness. Congruently, pharmacological inhibition of NMDAR in mice with PNET reduced tumor growth and invasiveness. Therefore, beyond its traditional role in neurons, NMDAR may be activated in human tumors by fluid flow consequent to higher interstitial pressure, inducing an autocrine glutamate signaling circuit with resultant stimulation of malignancy.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD046236-06(United States)

Selective corticospinal tract injury in the rat induces primary afferent fiber sprouting in the spinal cord and hyperreflexia.

  • Tan AM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The corticospinal tract (CST) has dense contralateral and sparse ipsilateral spinal cord projections that converge with proprioceptive afferents on common spinal targets. Previous studies in adult rats indicate that the loss of dense contralateral spinal CST connections after unilateral pyramidal tract section (PTx), which models CST loss after stroke or spinal cord injury, leads to outgrowth from the spared side into the affected, ipsilateral, spinal cord. The reaction of proprioceptive afferents after this CST injury, however, is not known. Knowledge of proprioceptive afferent responses after loss of the CST could inform mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity in spinal sensorimotor circuits after injury. Here, we hypothesize that the loss of the contralateral CST results in a reactive increase in muscle afferents from the impaired limb and enhancement of their physiological actions within the cervical spinal cord. We found that 10 d after PTx, proprioceptive afferents sprout into cervical gray matter regions denervated by the loss of CST terminations. Furthermore, VGlut1-positive boutons, indicative of group 1A afferent terminals, increased on motoneurons. PTx also produced an increase in microglial density within the gray matter regions where CST terminations were lost. These anatomical changes were paralleled by reduction in frequency-dependent depression of the H-reflex, suggesting hyperreflexia. Our data demonstrate for the first time that selective CST injury induces maladaptive afferent fiber plasticity remote from the lesion. Our findings suggest a novel structural reaction of proprioceptive afferents to the loss of CST terminations and provide insight into mechanisms underlying spasticity.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM05773(United States)

Signaling defects in iPSC-derived fragile X premutation neurons.

  • Liu J
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2012 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a leading monogenic neurodegenerative disorder affecting premutation carriers of the fragile X (FMR1) gene. To investigate the underlying cellular neuropathology, we produced induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from isogenic subclones of primary fibroblasts of a female premutation carrier, with each subclone bearing exclusively either the normal or the expanded (premutation) form of the FMR1 gene as the active allele. We show that neurons harboring the stably-active, expanded allele (EX-Xa) have reduced postsynaptic density protein 95 protein expression, reduced synaptic puncta density and reduced neurite length. Importantly, such neurons are also functionally abnormal, with calcium transients of higher amplitude and increased frequency than for neurons harboring the normal-active allele. Moreover, a sustained calcium elevation was found in the EX-Xa neurons after glutamate application. By excluding the individual genetic background variation, we have demonstrated neuronal phenotypes directly linked to the FMR1 premutation. Our approach represents a unique isogenic, X-chromosomal epigenetic model to aid the development of targeted therapeutics for FXTAS, and more broadly as a model for the study of common neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Parkinsonism, dementias) disorders.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24RR024790(United States)

Functional and anatomical identification of a vesicular transporter mediating neuronal ATP release.

  • Larsson M
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2012 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATP is known to be coreleased with glutamate at certain central synapses. However, the nature of its release is controversial. Here, we demonstrate that ATP release from cultured rat hippocampal neurons is sensitive to RNAi-mediated knockdown of the recently identified vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT or SLC17A9). In the intact brain, light microscopy showed particularly strong VNUT immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex, the olfactory bulb, and the hippocampus. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found VNUT immunoreactivity colocalized with synaptic vesicles in excitatory and inhibitory terminals in the hippocampal formation. Moreover, VNUT immunolabeling, unlike that of the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1, was enriched in preterminal axons and present in postsynaptic dendritic spines. Immunoisolation of synaptic vesicles indicated presence of VNUT in a subset of VGLUT1-containing vesicles. Thus, we conclude that VNUT mediates transport of ATP into synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons, thereby conferring a purinergic phenotype to these cells.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - U01 DE024427(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH086928(United States)

The cerebellar component of Friedreich's ataxia.

  • Koeppen AH
  • Acta Neuropathol.
  • 2011 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lack of frataxin in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) causes a complex neurological and pathological phenotype. Progressive atrophy of the dentate nucleus (DN) is a major intrinsic central nervous system lesion. Antibodies to neuron-specific enolase (NSE), calbindin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGluT1, VGluT2) allowed insight into the disturbed synaptic circuitry of the DN. The available case material included autopsy specimens of 24 patients with genetically defined FRDA and 14 normal controls. In FRDA, the cerebellar cortex revealed intact Purkinje cell somata and dendrites as assessed by calbindin immunoreactivity. The DN, however, displayed severe loss of large NSE-reactive neurons. Small neurons remained intact. Labeling of Purkinje cells, basket fibers, Golgi neurons, and Golgi axonal plexuses with antibodies to GAD indicated normal intrinsic circuitry of the cerebellar cortex involving γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In contrast, the DN displayed severe loss of GABA-ergic terminals and formation of GAD- and calbindin-reactive grumose degeneration. The surviving small GAD-positive DN neurons provided normal GABA-ergic terminals to intact inferior olivary nuclei. The olives also received normal glutamatergic terminals as shown by VGluT2-reactivity. VGluT1-immunocytochemistry of the cerebellar cortex confirmed normal glutamatergic input to the molecular layer by parallel fibers and the granular layer by mossy fibers. VGluT2-immunoreactivity visualized normal climbing fibers and mossy fiber terminals. The DN, however, showed depletion of VGluT1- and VGluT2-reactive terminals arising from climbing and mossy fiber collaterals. The main functional deficit underlying cerebellar ataxia in FRDA is defective processing of inhibitory and excitatory impulses that converge on the large neurons of the DN. The reason for the selective vulnerability of these nerve cells remains elusive.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - Z01 ES065073(United States)

Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

  • Tsetsenis T
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2011 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rab3B, similar to other Rab3 isoforms, is a synaptic vesicle protein that interacts with the Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM) isoforms RIM1α and RIM2α as effector proteins in a GTP-dependent manner. Previous studies showed that at excitatory synapses, Rab3A and RIM1α are essential for presynaptically expressed long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas at inhibitory synapses RIM1α is required for endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (referred to as "i-LTD"). However, it remained unknown whether i-LTD also involves a Rab3 isoform and whether i-LTD, similar to other forms of long-term plasticity, is important for learning and memory. Here we show that Rab3B is highly enriched in inhibitory synapses in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute slices, we demonstrate that knockout (KO) of Rab3B does not alter the strength or short-term plasticity of excitatory or inhibitory synapses but does impair i-LTD significantly without changing classical NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. Behaviorally, we found that Rab3B KO mice exhibit no detectable changes in all basic parameters tested, including the initial phase of learning and memory. However, Rab3B KO mice did display a selective enhancement in reversal learning, as measured using Morris water-maze and fear-conditioning assays. Our data support the notion that presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity at excitatory and inhibitory synapses generally are mediated by a common Rab3/RIM-dependent pathway, with various types of synapses using distinct Rab3 isoforms. Moreover, our results suggest that i-LTD contributes to learning and memory, presumably by stabilizing circuits established in previous learning processes.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000004(United States)

Postsynaptic TrkC and presynaptic PTPσ function as a bidirectional excitatory synaptic organizing complex.

  • Takahashi H
  • Neuron
  • 2011 Jan 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (Trks) have well-defined trophic roles in nervous system development through kinase activation by neurotrophins. Yet Trks have typical cell-adhesion domains and express noncatalytic isoforms, suggesting additional functions. Here we discovered noncatalytic TrkC in an unbiased hippocampal neuron-fibroblast coculture screen for proteins that trigger differentiation of neurotransmitter release sites in axons. All TrkC isoforms, but not TrkA or TrkB, function directly in excitatory glutamatergic synaptic adhesion by neurotrophin-independent high-affinity trans binding to axonal protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTPσ. PTPσ triggers and TrkC mediates clustering of postsynaptic molecules in dendrites, indicating bidirectional synaptic organizing functions. Effects of a TrkC-neutralizing antibody that blocks TrkC-PTPσ interaction and TrkC knockdown in culture and in vivo reveal essential roles of TrkC-PTPσ in glutamatergic synapse formation. Thus, postsynaptic TrkC trans interaction with presynaptic PTPσ generates bidirectional adhesion and recruitment essential for excitatory synapse development and positions these signaling molecules at the center of synaptic pathways.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 077200/Z/05/Z(United Kingdom)

Protein quantification at the single vesicle level reveals that a subset of synaptic vesicle proteins are trafficked with high precision.

  • Mutch SA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein sorting represents a potential point of regulation in neurotransmission because it dictates the protein composition of synaptic vesicles, the organelle that mediates transmitter release. Although the average number of most vesicle proteins has been estimated using bulk biochemical approaches (Takamori et al., 2006), no information exists on the intervesicle variability of protein number, and thus on the precision with which proteins are sorted to vesicles. To address this, we adapted a single molecule quantification approach (Mutch et al., 2007) and used it to quantify both the average number and variance of seven integral membrane proteins in brain synaptic vesicles. We report that four vesicle proteins, SV2, the proton ATPase, Vglut1, and synaptotagmin 1, showed little intervesicle variation in number, indicating they are sorted to vesicles with high precision. In contrast, the apparent number of VAMP2/synaptobrevin 2, synaptophysin, and synaptogyrin demonstrated significant intervesicle variability. These findings place constraints on models of protein function at the synapse and raise the possibility that changes in vesicle protein expression affect vesicle composition and functioning.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA132744-02(United States)

Amyloid-β induces caspase-dependent loss of PSD-95 and synaptophysin through NMDA receptors.

  • Liu J
  • J. Alzheimers Dis.
  • 2010 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Soluble oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) is thought to induce synaptic dysfunction during early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this report, we show that soluble Aβ downregulates the levels of two synaptic proteins, PSD-95 and synaptophysin, and that this effect can be blocked by MK-801 (NMDAR antagonist) and ifenprodil (NR2B antagonist). Low (1 μM) and high (10 μM) doses of NMDA, respectively, prevented and potentiated the actions of Aβ. Blockade of NR2A or synaptic NMDAR eliminated the protective effect of 1 μM NMDA, while the effects of 10 μM NMDA were only abolished by ifenprodil. Caspase-8, acting upstream of caspase-3, was found to mediate the synaptotoxic actions of Aβ in an ifenprodil-reversible fashion. Thus, Aβ leads to a loss of synaptic proteins by suppression of NR2A function and activation of NR2B function and subsequent induction of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities. The identified novel mechanism through which Aβ initiates synaptic dysfunction suggests that selective enhancement of NR2A activity and/or reduction of NR2B activity can halt the manifestation of a key early-stage event in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI037526(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS051238(United States)

KCNQ5 reaches synaptic endings in the auditory brainstem at hearing onset and targeting maintenance is activity-dependent.

  • Garcia-Pino E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv7.5/KCNQ5, a voltage-dependent potassium channel that generates a subthreshold K+ current (also called M-current), is localized in excitatory endings of auditory brainstem nuclei in the adult rat. Here, we focus on how specific targeting develops from birth to adulthood in the rat. We first analyzed by immunocytochemistry the distribution of KCNQ5 during postnatal development of neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and their targets in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). From postnatal days (P) 0 to 12, KCNQ5 immunoreactivity was restricted to cell bodies, whereas from P13 onward a shift in labeling pattern was seen, with KCNQ5 immunoreactivity becoming confined to synaptic endings in both the AVCN and MNTB. The developmental synaptic targeting was also accompanied by a downregulation of KCNQ5 transcripts in the cochlear nucleus from P13 onward, as seen with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We further tested whether auditory nerve activity at hearing onset (approximately P12) regulates synaptic targeting of the channel. Cochleae were removed at P10, before hearing onset. In the MNTB, 3 days after cochlear ablation, at P13, KCNQ5 immunoreactivity was seen in calyces of Held, as in normal age-matched controls. However, immunolabeling virtually disappeared from MNTB calyces 40 days after cochlear ablation but reappeared in the somata of neurons in AVCN. These findings suggest that synaptic targeting of KCNQ5 in brainstem auditory neurons occurs around the time of hearing onset, regardless of auditory nerve activity. However, long-term synaptic localization after hearing onset depends on peripheral input.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR00165(United States)

Profiling of mouse synaptosome proteome and phosphoproteome by IEF.

  • Filiou MD
  • Electrophoresis
  • 2010 Apr 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synapses play important roles in neurotransmission and neuroplasticity. For an in-depth analysis of the synaptic proteome and phosphoproteome, synaptosomal proteins from whole mouse brain were analyzed by IEF and MS resulting in the largest synaptosome proteome described to date, with 2980 unique proteins identified with two or more peptides. At the same time, 118 synaptosomal phosphoproteins were identified, eight of which are reported for the first time as phosphorylated. Expression of selected proteins in synaptosomes was investigated by Western blot. We demonstrate that IEF is a powerful method to interrogate complex samples such as brain tissue both at the proteome and the phosphoproteome level without the need of additional enrichment for phosphoproteins. The detailed synaptoproteome data set reported here will help to elucidate the molecular complexity of the synapse and contribute to our understanding of synaptic systems biology in health and disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS039050(United States)

Synaptic clustering of PSD-95 is regulated by c-Abl through tyrosine phosphorylation.

  • Perez de Arce K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Mar 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The c-Abl tyrosine kinase is present in mouse brain synapses, but its precise synaptic function is unknown. We found that c-Abl levels in the rat hippocampus increase postnatally, with expression peaking at the first postnatal week. In 14 d in vitro hippocampal neuron cultures, c-Abl localizes primarily to the postsynaptic compartment, in which it colocalizes with the postsynaptic scaffold protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in apposition to presynaptic markers. c-Abl associates with PSD-95, and chemical or genetic inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity reduces PSD-95 tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to reduced PSD-95 clustering and reduced synapses in treated neurons. c-Abl can phosphorylate PSD-95 on tyrosine 533, and mutation of this residue reduces the ability of PSD-95 to cluster at postsynaptic sites. Our results indicate that c-Abl regulates synapse formation by mediating tyrosine phosphorylation and clustering of PSD-95.

Collagen XIX is expressed by interneurons and contributes to the formation of hippocampal synapses.

  • Su J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules contribute to the formation and maintenance of synapses in the mammalian nervous system. We previously discovered a family of nonfibrillar collagens that organize synaptic differentiation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although many NMJ-organizing cues contribute to central nervous system (CNS) synaptogenesis, whether similar roles for collagens exist at central synapses remained unclear. In the present study we discovered that col19a1, the gene encoding nonfibrillar collagen XIX, is expressed by subsets of hippocampal neurons. Colocalization with the interneuron-specific enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 67 (Gad67), but not other cell-type-specific markers, suggests that hippocampal expression of col19a1 is restricted to interneurons. However, not all hippocampal interneurons express col19a1 mRNA; subsets of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, somatostatin (Som)-, and calbindin (Calb)-immunoreactive interneurons express col19a1, but those containing parvalbumin (Parv) or calretinin (Calr) do not. To assess whether collagen XIX is required for the normal formation of hippocampal synapses, we examined synaptic morphology and composition in targeted mouse mutants lacking collagen XIX. We show here that subsets of synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2)-containing hippocampal nerve terminals appear malformed in the absence of collagen XIX. The presence of Syt2 in inhibitory hippocampal synapses, the altered distribution of Gad67 in collagen XIX-deficient subiculum, and abnormal levels of gephyrin in collagen XIX-deficient hippocampal extracts all suggest inhibitory synapses are affected by the loss of collagen XIX. Together, these data not only reveal that collagen XIX is expressed by central neurons, but show for the first time that a nonfibrillar collagen is necessary for the formation of hippocampal synapses.

Role of the Wnt receptor Frizzled-1 in presynaptic differentiation and function.

  • Varela-Nallar L
  • Neural Dev
  • 2009 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The Wnt signaling pathway regulates several fundamental developmental processes and recently has been shown to be involved in different aspects of synaptic differentiation and plasticity. Some Wnt signaling components are localized at central synapses, and it is thus possible that this pathway could be activated at the synapse. RESULTS: We examined the distribution of the Wnt receptor Frizzled-1 in cultured hippocampal neurons and determined that this receptor is located at synaptic contacts co-localizing with presynaptic proteins. Frizzled-1 was found in functional synapses detected with FM1-43 staining and in synaptic terminals from adult rat brain. Interestingly, overexpression of Frizzled-1 increased the number of clusters of Bassoon, a component of the active zone, while treatment with the extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of Frizzled-1 decreased Bassoon clustering, suggesting a role for this receptor in presynaptic differentiation. Consistent with this, treatment with the Frizzled-1 ligand Wnt-3a induced presynaptic protein clustering and increased functional presynaptic recycling sites, and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with the CRD of Frizzled-1. Moreover, in synaptically mature neurons Wnt-3a was able to modulate the kinetics of neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the activation of the Wnt pathway through Frizzled-1 occurs at the presynaptic level, and suggest that the synaptic effects of the Wnt signaling pathway could be modulated by local activation through synaptic Frizzled receptors.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)