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GFAP antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

GFAP null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-240, RRID:AB_10672299)


monoclonal antibody


Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID


Host Organism



UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Go To Vendor

Cat Num


Increased neuronal expression of neurokinin-1 receptor and stimulus-evoked internalization of the receptor in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat after peripheral inflammatory injury.

  • Hamity MV
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Sep 1

Literature context:


This study examined possible mechanisms by which Substance P (Sub P) assumes a pronociceptive role in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) under conditions of peripheral inflammatory injury, in this case produced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In saline- and CFA-treated rats, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactivity was localized to neurons in the RVM. Four days after ipl injection of CFA, the number of NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in the RVM was increased by 30%, and there was a concomitant increase in NK1R-immunoreactive processes in CFA-treated rats. Although NK1R immunoreactivity was increased, tachykinin-1 receptor (Tacr1) mRNA was not increased in the RVM of CFA-treated rats. To assess changes in Sub P release, the number of RVM neurons that exhibited NK1R internalization was examined in saline- and CFA-treated rats following noxious heat stimulation of the hind paws. Only CFA-treated rats that experienced noxious heat stimulation exhibited a significant increase in the number of neurons showing NK1R internalization. These data suggest that tonic Sub P release is not increased as a simple consequence of peripheral inflammation, but that phasic or evoked release of Sub P in the RVM is increased in response to noxious peripheral stimulation in a persistent inflammatory state. These data support the proposal that an upregulation of the NK1R in the RVM, as well as enhanced release of Sub P following noxious stimulation, underlie the pronociceptive role of Sub P under conditions of persistent inflammatory injury.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA190775(United States)

Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals novel region-specific markers in the adult mouse brain.

  • Dagley LF
  • Proteomics
  • 2014 Feb 4

Literature context:


Despite major advances in neuroscience, a comprehensive understanding of the structural and functional components of the adult brain compartments remains to be fully elucidated at a quantitative molecular level. Indeed, over half of the soluble- and membrane-annotated proteins are currently unmapped within online digital brain atlases. In this study, two complementary approaches were used to assess the unique repertoire of proteins enriched within select regions of the adult mouse CNS, including the brain stem, cerebellum, and remaining brain hemispheres. Of the 1200 proteins visualized by 2D-DIGE, approximately 150 (including cytosolic and membrane proteins) were found to exhibit statistically significant changes in relative abundance thus representing putative region-specific brain markers. In addition to using a high-precision (18) O-labeling strategy for the quantitative LC-MS/MS mapping of membrane proteins isolated from myelin-enriched fractions, we have identified over 1000 proteins that have yet to be described in any other mammalian myelin proteome. A comparison of our myelin proteome was made to an existing transcriptome database containing mRNA abundance profiles during oligodendrocyte differentiation and has confirmed statistically significant abundance changes for ∼500 of these newly mapped proteins, thus revealing new roles in oligodendrocyte and myelin biology. These data offer a resource for the neuroscience community studying the molecular basis for specialized neuronal activities in the CNS and myelin-related disorders. The MS proteomics data associated with this manuscript have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD000327 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000327).

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01-NS060120(United States)

Deficits in adult neurogenesis, contextual fear conditioning, and spatial learning in a Gfap mutant mouse model of Alexander disease.

  • Hagemann TL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Nov 20

Literature context:


Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54 GM088491(United States)

Targeting of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2, VPAC2, a secretin family G-protein coupled receptor, to primary cilia.

  • Soetedjo L
  • Biol Open
  • 2013 Jul 15

Literature context:


Primary cilia protrude from the cell surface of many cell types in the human body and function as cellular antennae via ciliary membrane localized receptors. Neurons and glial cells in the brain possess primary cilia, and the malfunction of primary cilia may contribute to neurological deficits present in many cilia-associated disorders. Several rhodopsin family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are specifically localized to a subset of neuronal primary cilia. However, whether other family GPCRs target to neuronal cilia and whether glial primary cilia harbor any GPCRs are not known. We conducted a screening of GPCRs to determine their ability to target to primary cilia, and identified a secretin family member, Vasoactive Intestinal Receptor 2 (VPAC2), as a novel ciliary GPCR. Here, we show that endogenous VPAC2 targets to primary cilia in various brain regions, including the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the thalamus. Surprisingly, VPAC2 not only localizes to neuronal cilia but also to glial cilia. In addition, we show that VPAC2's C-terminus is both necessary and sufficient for its ciliary targeting and we define a novel ciliary targeting signal: the tetrapeptide RDYR motif in the C-terminus of VPAC2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that VPAC2 ciliary targeting is dependent on Tubby, the BBSome (a complex of Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins) and the BBSome targeting factor, Arl6.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41 EB015897(United States)

Monoacylglycerol lipase is a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  • Chen R
  • Cell Rep
  • 2012 Nov 29

Literature context:


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among older people. There are no effective medications currently available to prevent and treat AD and halt disease progression. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the primary enzyme metabolizing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain. We show here that inactivation of MAGL robustly suppressed production and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) associated with reduced expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in a mouse model of AD. MAGL inhibition also prevented neuroinflammation, decreased neurodegeneration, maintained integrity of hippocampal synaptic structure and function, and improved long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial learning, and memory in AD animals. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by MAGL inhibition remain to be determined, our results suggest that MAGL, which regulates endocannabinoid and prostaglandin signaling, contributes to pathogenesis and neuropathology of AD, and thus is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM070923(United States)

Pain in experimental autoimmune encephalitis: a comparative study between different mouse models.

  • Lu J
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2012 Oct 6

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Pain can be one of the most severe symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and develops with varying levels and time courses. MS-related pain is difficult to treat, since very little is known about the mechanisms underlying its development. Animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimic many aspects of MS and are well-suited to study underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Yet, to date very little is known about the sensory abnormalities in different EAE models. We therefore aimed to thoroughly characterize pain behavior of the hindpaw in SJL and C57BL/6 mice immunized with PLP139-151 peptide or MOG35-55 peptide respectively. Moreover, we studied the activity of pain-related molecules and plasticity-related genes in the spinal cord and investigated functional changes in the peripheral nerves using electrophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed thermal and mechanical sensitivity of the hindpaw in both EAE models during the whole disease course. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of pain-related molecules and plasticity-related genes was performed on spinal cord sections at different timepoints during the disease course. Moreover, we investigated functional changes in the peripheral nerves using electrophysiology. RESULTS: Mice in both EAE models developed thermal hyperalgesia during the chronic phase of the disease. However, whereas SJL mice developed marked mechanical allodynia over the chronic phase of the disease, C57BL/6 mice developed only minor mechanical allodynia over the onset and peak phase of the disease. Interestingly, the magnitude of glial changes in the spinal cord was stronger in SJL mice than in C57BL/6 mice and their time course matched the temporal profile of mechanical hypersensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Diverse EAE models bearing genetic, clinical and histopathological heterogeneity, show different profiles of sensory and pathological changes and thereby enable studying the mechanistic basis and the diversity of changes in pain perception that are associated with distinct types of MS.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250342(International)
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Benefits and pitfalls of secondary antibodies: why choosing the right secondary is of primary importance.

  • Manning CF
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40-RR17072(United States)

Impaired NMDA receptor transmission alters striatal synapses and DISC1 protein in an age-dependent manner.

  • Ramsey AJ
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2011 Apr 5

Literature context:


NMDA receptors are key regulators of synaptic plasticity, and their hypofunction is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. Furthermore, NMDA receptors participate in the formation, maintenance, and elimination of synapses. The consequences of NMDA receptor hypofunction on synapse biology were explored in a genetic mouse model, in which the levels of NMDA receptors are reduced to 10% of normal levels (i.e., NR1-knockdown mice). In these mice, synapse number is reduced in an age-dependent manner; reductions are observed at the postpubertal age of 6 wk, but normal at 2 wk of age. Efforts to uncover the biochemical underpinnings of this phenomenon reveal synapse-specific reductions in 14-3-3ε protein and in Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), two schizophrenia susceptibility factors that have been implicated in the regulation of spine density. Subchronic administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, produces similar synaptic reductions in both spine density and DISC1, indicating that synaptic levels of DISC1 are regulated by NMDA receptor function. The synaptic reduction of DISC1 and 14-3-3ε is developmentally correlated with the age-dependent decrease in striatal spine density.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM74688(United States)