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Caspr antibody

RRID:AB_10671175

Antibody ID

AB_10671175

Target Antigen

Caspr null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-001, RRID:AB_10671175)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

K65/35

Host Organism

mouse

Purification and Characterization of Schwann Cells from Adult Human Skin and Nerve.

  • Stratton JA
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite its modest capacity for regeneration, peripheral nervous system injury often results in significant long-term disability. Supplementing peripheral nervous system injury with autologous Schwann cells (SCs) may serve to rejuvenate the postinjury environment to enhance regeneration and ultimately improve functional outcomes. However, human nerve-derived SC (hN-SC) collection procedures require invasive surgical resection. Here, we describe the characterization of SCs from adult human skin (hSk-SCs) of four male donors ranging between 27 and 46 years old. Within five weeks of isolating and culturing adherent mixed skin cells, we were able to obtain 3-5 million purified SCs. We found that hSk-SCs appeared transcriptionally indistinguishable from hN-SCs with both populations exhibiting expression of SC genes including: SOX10, SOX9, AP2A1, CDH19, EGR1, ETV5, PAX3, SOX2, CX32, DHH, NECL4, NFATC4, POU3F1, S100B, and YY1. Phenotypic analysis of hSk-SCs and hN-SCs cultures revealed highly enriched populations of SCs indicated by the high percentage of NES+ve, SOX10+ve, s100+ve and p75+ve cells, as well as the expression of a battery of other SC-associated proteins (PAX3, CDH19, ETV5, SOX2, POU3F1, S100B, EGR2, and YY1). We further show that both hSk-SCs and hN-SCs are capable of promoting axonal growth to similar degrees and that a subset of both associate with regenerating axons and form myelin following transplantation into the injured mouse sciatic nerve. Interestingly, although the majority of both hSk-SCs and hN-SCs maintained SOX10 immunoreactivity following transplant, only a subset of each activated the promyelinating factor, POU3F1, and were able to myelinate. Taken together, we demonstrate that adult hSk-SCs are genetically and phenotypically indistinguishable to hN-SCs.

Heterogeneity of astrocyte and NG2 cell insertion at the node of ranvier.

  • Serwanski DR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes. However, the prevalence of the two types of glia at the node has remained unknown. We have used specific cell surface markers to examine the association of NG2 cells and astrocytes with the nodes of Ranvier in the optic nerve, corpus callosum, and spinal cord of young adult mice or rats. We show that more than 95% of the nodes in all three regions contained astrocyte processes, while 33-49% of nodes contained NG2 cell processes. NG2 cell processes were associated more frequently with larger nodes. A few nodes were devoid of glial apposition. Electron microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of dual glial insertion at some nodes and further revealed that NG2 cell processes contacted the nodal membrane at discrete points, while astrocytes had broader processes that surrounded the nodes. The study provides the first systematic quantitative analysis of glial cell insertions at central nodes of Ranvier. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:535-552, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

  • Battefeld A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048425(United States)

Neuronal expression of GalNAc transferase is sufficient to prevent the age-related neurodegenerative phenotype of complex ganglioside-deficient mice.

  • Yao D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gangliosides are widely expressed sialylated glycosphingolipids with multifunctional properties in different cell types and organs. In the nervous system, they are highly enriched in both glial and neuronal membranes. Mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to targeted ablation of the B4galnt1 gene that encodes β-1,4-N-acetylegalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAc-transferase; GalNAcT(-/-)) develop normally before exhibiting an age-dependent neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by marked behavioral abnormalities, central and peripheral axonal degeneration, reduced myelin volume, and loss of axo-glial junction integrity. The cell biological substrates underlying this neurodegeneration and the relative contribution of either glial or neuronal gangliosides to the process are unknown. To address this, we generated neuron-specific and glial-specific GalNAcT rescue mice crossed on the global GalNAcT(-/-) background [GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial)] and analyzed their behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological phenotype. Complex gangliosides, as assessed by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, GalNAcT enzyme activity, and anti-ganglioside antibody (AgAb) immunohistology, were restored in both neuronal and glial GalNAcT rescue mice. Behaviorally, GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) retained a normal "wild-type" (WT) phenotype throughout life, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) resembled GalNAcT(-/-) mice, exhibiting progressive tremor, weakness, and ataxia with aging. Quantitative electron microscopy demonstrated that GalNAcT(-/-) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) nerves had significantly increased rates of axon degeneration and reduced myelin volume, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and WT appeared normal. The increased invasion of the paranode with juxtaparanodal Kv1.1, characteristically seen in GalNAcT(-/-) and attributed to a breakdown of the axo-glial junction, was normalized in GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) but remained present in GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) mice. These results indicate that neuronal rather than glial gangliosides are critical to the age-related maintenance of nervous system integrity.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UH3DK083993(United States)

Transplantation reveals regional differences in oligodendrocyte differentiation in the adult brain.

  • Viganò F
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

To examine the role of gray and white matter niches for oligodendrocyte differentiation, we used homo- and heterotopic transplantations into the adult mouse cerebral cortex. White matter-derived cells differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes in both niches with equal efficiency, whereas gray matter-derived cells did not. Thus, white matter promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation, and cells from this niche differentiate more easily, even in the less supportive gray matter environment.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103527(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH076136(United States)

Spontaneous optic nerve compression in the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse: a novel model of myelination failure.

  • Kondo Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

We report a focal disturbance in myelination of the optic nerve in the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse, which results from a spontaneous compression of the nerve resulting from stenosis of the optic canal. The growth of the op/op optic nerve was significantly affected, being maximally suppressed at postnatal day 30 (P30; 33% of age matched control). Myelination of the nerve in the optic canal was significantly delayed at P15, and myelin was almost completely absent at P30. The size of nerves and myelination were conserved both in the intracranial and intraorbital segments at P30, suggesting that the axons in the compressed site are spared in all animals at P30. Interestingly, we observed recovery both in the nerve size and the density of myelinated axons at 7 months in almost half of the optic nerves examined, although some nerves lost axons and became atrophic. In vivo and ex vivo electrophysiological examinations of P30 op/op mice showed that nerve conduction was significantly delayed but not blocked with partial recovery in some mice by 7 months. Transcardial perfusion of FITC-labeled albumin suggested that local ischemia was at least in part the cause of this myelination failure. These results suggest that the primary abnormality is dysmyelination of the optic nerve in early development. This noninvasive model system will be a valuable tool to study the effects of nerve compression on the function and survival of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells/oligodendrocytes and axons and to explore the mechanism of redistribution of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells with compensatory myelination.

Neutralization of inhibitory molecule NG2 improves synaptic transmission, retrograde transport, and locomotor function after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

  • Petrosyan HA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 belongs to the family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are major inhibitory factors restricting the growth of fibers after SCI. Neutralization of NG2's inhibitory effect on axon growth by anti-NG2 monoclonal antibodies (NG2-Ab) has been reported. In addition, recent studies show that exogenous NG2 induces a block of axonal conduction. In this study, we demonstrate that acute intraspinal injections of NG2-Ab prevented an acute block of conduction by NG2. Chronic intrathecal infusion of NG2-Ab improved the following deficits induced by chronic midthoracic lateral hemisection (HX) injury: (1) synaptic transmission to lumbar motoneurons, (2) retrograde transport of fluororuby anatomical tracer from L5 to L1, and (3) locomotor function assessed by automated CatWalk gait analysis. We collected data in an attempt to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the NG2-Ab-induced improvement of synaptic transmission in HX-injured spinal cord. These data showed the following: (1) that chronic NG2-Ab infusion improved conduction and axonal excitability in chronically HX-injured rats, (2) that antibody treatment increased the density of serotonergic axons with ventral regions of spinal segments L1-L5, (3) and that NG2-positive processes contact nodes of Ranvier within the nodal gap at the location of nodal Na(+) channels, which are known to be critical for propagation of action potentials along axons. Together, these results demonstrate that treatment with NG2-Ab partially improves both synaptic and anatomical plasticity in damaged spinal cord and promotes functional recovery after HX SCI. Neutralizing antibodies against NG2 may be an excellent way to promote axonal conduction after SCI.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 095598(United Kingdom)

DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic plasticity in the adult brain.

  • Horn KE
  • Cell Rep
  • 2013 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transmembrane protein deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and its ligand, netrin-1, regulate synaptogenesis during development, but their function in the mature central nervous system is unknown. Given that DCC promotes cell-cell adhesion, is expressed by neurons, and activates proteins that signal at synapses, we hypothesized that DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. We report that DCC is enriched in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice, and we demonstrate that selective deletion of DCC from neurons in the adult forebrain results in the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP), intact long-term depression, shorter dendritic spines, and impaired spatial and recognition memory. LTP induction requires Src activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function. DCC deletion severely reduced Src activation. We demonstrate that enhancing NMDAR function or activating Src rescues LTP in the absence of DCC. We conclude that DCC activation of Src is required for NMDAR-dependent LTP and certain forms of learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR15253(United States)

The antiaging protein Klotho enhances oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination of the CNS.

  • Chen CD
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jan 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously shown that myelin abnormalities characterize the normal aging process of the brain and that an age-associated reduction in Klotho is conserved across species. Predominantly generated in brain and kidney, Klotho overexpression extends life span, whereas loss of Klotho accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes. Although the function of Klotho in brain is unknown, loss of Klotho expression leads to cognitive deficits. We found significant effects of Klotho on oligodendrocyte functions, including induced maturation of rat primary oligodendrocytic progenitor cells (OPCs) in vitro and myelination. Phosphoprotein analysis indicated that Klotho's downstream effects involve Akt and ERK signal pathways. Klotho increased OPC maturation, and inhibition of Akt or ERK function blocked this effect on OPCs. In vivo studies of Klotho knock-out mice and control littermates revealed that knock-out mice have a significant reduction in major myelin protein and gene expression. By immunohistochemistry, the number of total and mature oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in Klotho knock-out mice. Strikingly, at the ultrastructural level, Klotho knock-out mice exhibited significantly impaired myelination of the optic nerve and corpus callosum. These mice also displayed severe abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier. To decipher the mechanisms by which Klotho affects oligodendrocytes, we used luciferase pathway reporters to identify the transcription factors involved. Together, these studies provide novel evidence for Klotho as a key player in myelin biology, which may thus be a useful therapeutic target in efforts to protect brain myelin against age-dependent changes and promote repair in multiple sclerosis.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01HG005209-02(United States)

Isoflurane-induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the neonatal primate brain.

  • Brambrink AM
  • Ann. Neurol.
  • 2012 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Previously we reported that exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane for 5 hours triggers a robust neuroapoptosis response in developing brain. We have also observed (unpublished data) that isoflurane causes apoptosis of cellular profiles in the white matter that resemble glia. We analyzed the cellular identity of the apoptotic white matter profiles and determined the magnitude of this cell death response to isoflurane. METHODS: Neonatal (P6) rhesus macaques were exposed for 5 hours to isoflurane anesthesia according to current clinical standards in pediatric anesthesia. Brains were collected 3 hours later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze apoptotic neuronal and glial death. RESULTS: Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed significant apoptosis in both the white and gray matter throughout the central nervous system. Approximately 52% of the dying cells were glia, and 48% were neurons. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) engaged in myelinogenesis were selectively vulnerable, in contrast to OL progenitors, astrocytes, microglia, and interstitial neurons. When adjusted for control rates of OL apoptosis, the percentage of OLs that degenerated in the forebrain white matter of the isoflurane-treated group was 6.3% of the total population of myelinating OLs. INTERPRETATION: Exposure of the infant rhesus macaque brain to isoflurane for 5 hours is sufficient to cause widespread apoptosis of neurons and OLs throughout the developing brain. Deletion of OLs at a stage when they are just beginning to myelinate axons could potentially have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences that might be additive to the potential consequences of isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/C509566/1(United Kingdom)

Benefits and pitfalls of secondary antibodies: why choosing the right secondary is of primary importance.

  • Manning CF
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40-RR17072(United States)

An ankyrinG-binding motif is necessary and sufficient for targeting Nav1.6 sodium channels to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier.

  • Gasser A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons are highly polarized cells with functionally distinct axonal and somatodendritic compartments. Voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.6 are highly enriched at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, where they are necessary for generation and propagation of action potentials. Previous studies using reporter proteins in unmyelinated cultured neurons suggest that an ankyrinG-binding motif within intracellular loop 2 (L2) of sodium channels is sufficient for targeting these channels to the AIS, but mechanisms of channel targeting to nodes remain poorly understood. Using a CD4-Na(v)1.2/L2 reporter protein in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron-Schwann cell myelinating cocultures, we show that the ankyrinG-binding motif is sufficient for protein targeting to nodes of Ranvier. However, reporter proteins cannot capture the complexity of full-length channels. To determine how native, full-length sodium channels are clustered in axons, and to show the feasibility of studying these channels in vivo, we constructed fluorescently tagged and functional mouse Na(v)1.6 channels for in vivo analysis using in utero brain electroporation. We show here that wild-type tagged-Na(v)1.6 channels are efficiently clustered at nodes and AISs in vivo. Furthermore, we show that mutation of a single invariant glutamic acid residue (E1100) within the ankyrinG-binding motif blocked Na(v)1.6 targeting in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we show that caseine kinase phosphorylation sites within this motif, while not essential for targeting, can modulate clustering at the AIS. Thus, the ankyrinG-binding motif is both necessary and sufficient for the clustering of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier and the AIS.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002787-19(United States)

Substrate Micropatterning as a New in Vitro Cell Culture System to Study Myelination.

  • Liazoghli D
  • ACS Chem Neurosci
  • 2012 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination is a highly regulated developmental process whereby oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system ensheathe axons with a multilayered concentric membrane. Axonal myelination increases the velocity of nerve impulse propagation. In this work, we present a novel in vitro system for coculturing primary dorsal root ganglia neurons along with myelinating cells on a highly restrictive and micropatterned substrate. In this new coculture system, neurons survive for several weeks, extending long axons on defined Matrigel tracks. On these axons, myelinating cells can achieve robust myelination, as demonstrated by the distribution of compact myelin and nodal markers. Under these conditions, neurites and associated myelinating cells are easily accessible for studies on the mechanisms of myelin formation and on the effects of axonal damage on the myelin sheath.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA06516(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS16333(United States)

MRI characterization of paranodal junction failure and related spinal cord changes in mice.

  • Takano M
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The paranodal junction is a specialized axon-glia contact zone that is important for normal neuronal activity and behavioral locomotor function in the central nervous system (CNS). Histological examination has been the only method for detecting pathological paranodal junction conditions. Recently, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) has been used to detect microstructural changes in various CNS diseases. This study was conducted to determine whether MRI and DTI could detect structural changes in the paranodal junctions of the spinal cord in cerebroside sulfotransferase knock-out (CST-KO) mice. Here, we showed that high-resolution MRI and DTI characteristics can reflect paranodal junction failure in CST-KO mice. We found significantly lower T1 times and significantly higher T2 times in the spinal cord MRIs of CST-KO mice as compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Spinal cord DTI showed significantly lower axial diffusivity and significantly higher radial diffusivity in CST-KO mice as compared to WT mice. In contrast, the histological differences in the paranodal junctions of WT and CST-KO mice were so subtle that electron microscopy or immunohistological analyses were necessary to detect them. We also measured gait disturbance in the CST-KO mice, and determined the conduction latency by electrophysiology. These findings demonstrate the potential of using MRI and DTI to evaluate white matter disorders that involve paranodal junction failure.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL076248(United States)

Characterization of the axon initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS and a juxtapara-AIS, organized by protein 4.1B.

  • Duflocq A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2011 Sep 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, as well as its length and localization determine the neuron's spiking properties. Some neurons are able to modulate their AIS length or distance from the soma in order to adapt their excitability properties to their activity level. It is therefore crucial to characterize all these parameters and determine where the myelin sheath begins in order to assess a neuron's excitability properties and ability to display such plasticity mechanisms. If the myelin sheath starts immediately after the AIS, another question then arises as to how would the axon be organized at its first myelin attachment site; since AISs are different from nodes of Ranvier, would this particular axonal region resemble a hemi-node of Ranvier? RESULTS: We have characterized the AIS of mouse somatic motor neurons. In addition to constant determinants of excitability properties, we found heterogeneities, in terms of AIS localization and Nav composition. We also identified in all α motor neurons a hemi-node-type organization, with a contactin-associated protein (Caspr)+ paranode-type, as well as a Caspr2+ and Kv1+ juxtaparanode-type compartment, referred to as a para-AIS and a juxtapara (JXP)-AIS, adjacent to the AIS, where the myelin sheath begins. We found that Kv1 channels appear in the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS concomitantly with myelination and are progressively excluded from the para-AIS. Their expression in the AIS and JXP-AIS is independent from transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1)/Caspr2, in contrast to juxtaparanodes, and independent from PSD-93. Data from mice lacking the cytoskeletal linker protein 4.1B show that this protein is necessary to form the Caspr+ para-AIS barrier, ensuring the compartmentalization of Kv1 channels and the segregation of the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS. CONCLUSIONS: α Motor neurons have heterogeneous AISs, which underlie different spiking properties. However, they all have a para-AIS and a JXP-AIS contiguous to their AIS, where the myelin sheath begins, which might limit some AIS plasticity. Protein 4.1B plays a key role in ensuring the proper molecular compartmentalization of this hemi-node-type region.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA173903(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 2R01 GM063891(United States)

Alterations of action potentials and the localization of Nav1.6 sodium channels in spared axons after hemisection injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

  • Hunanyan AS
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2011 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previously, we reported a pronounced reduction in transmission through surviving axons contralateral to chronic hemisection (HX) of adult rat spinal cord. To examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this diminished transmission, we recorded intracellularly from lumbar lateral white matter axons in deeply anesthetized adult rats in vivo and measured the propagation of action potentials (APs) through rubrospinal/reticulospinal tract (RST/RtST) axons contralateral to chronic HX at T10. We found decreased excitability in these axons, manifested by an increased rheobase to trigger APs and longer latency for AP propagation passing the injury level, without significant differences in axonal resting membrane potential and input resistance. These electrophysiological changes were associated with altered spatial localization of Nav1.6 sodium channels along axons: a subset of axons contralateral to the injury exhibited a diffuse localization (>10 μm spread) of Nav1.6 channels, a pattern characteristic of demyelinated axons (Craner MJ, Newcombe J, Black JA, Hartle C, Cuzner ML, Waxman SG. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 8168-8173, 2004b). This result was substantiated by ultrastructural changes seen with electron microscopy, in which an increased number of large-caliber, demyelinated RST axons were found contralateral to the chronic HX. Therefore, an increased rheobase, pathological changes in the distribution of Nav1.6 sodium channels, and the demyelination of contralateral RST axons are likely responsible for their decreased conduction chronically after HX and thus may provide novel targets for strategies to improve function following incomplete spinal cord injury.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01HL0981(United States)

Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation.

  • Huff TB
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2011 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin in live spinal tissues in real time. Paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation. Retraction was seen to begin minutes after the onset of stimulation and continue for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased, but was found to reverse after a 2 h recovery period. The myelin retraction resulted in exposure of Kv 1.2 potassium channels visualized by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, treating the stimulated tissue with a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, led to the appearance of a shoulder peak in the compound action potential curve. Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBSB16542(United Kingdom)

Genetically induced adult oligodendrocyte cell death is associated with poor myelin clearance, reduced remyelination, and axonal damage.

  • Pohl HB
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jan 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of oligodendrocytes is a feature of many demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis. Here, we have established and characterized a novel model of genetically induced adult oligodendrocyte death. Specific primary loss of adult oligodendrocytes leads to a well defined and highly reproducible course of disease development that can be followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging. Histological and ultrastructural analyses revealed progressive myelin vacuolation, in parallel to disease development that includes motor deficits, tremor, and ataxia. Myelin damage and clearance were associated with induction of oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, albeit with some regional differences. Remyelination was present in the mildly affected corpus callosum. Consequences of acutely induced cell death of adult oligodendrocytes included secondary axonal damage. Microglia were activated in affected areas but without significant influx of B-cells, T-helper cells, or T-cytotoxic cells. Analysis of the model on a RAG-1 (recombination activating gene-1)-deficient background, lacking functional lymphocytes, did not change the observed disease and pathology compared with immune-competent mice. We conclude that this model provides the opportunity to study the consequences of adult oligodendrocyte death in the absence of primary axonal injury and reactive cells of the adaptive immune system. Our results indicate that if the blood-brain barrier is not disrupted, myelin debris is not removed efficiently, remyelination is impaired, and axonal integrity is compromised, likely as the result of myelin detachment. This model will allow the evaluation of strategies aimed at improving remyelination to foster axon protection.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - PG/09/013/26885(United Kingdom)
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01RR025030(United States)

Oestrogen receptor beta ligand: a novel treatment to enhance endogenous functional remyelination.

  • Crawford DK
  • Brain
  • 2010 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. Therapeutic strategies that induce effective neuroprotection and enhance intrinsic repair mechanisms are central goals for future therapy of multiple sclerosis. Oestrogens and oestrogen receptor ligands are promising treatments to prevent multiple sclerosis-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study we investigated the capacity of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment to affect callosal axon demyelination and stimulate endogenous myelination in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using electrophysiology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and tract-tracing methods. Oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice prevented both histopathological and functional abnormalities of callosal axons despite the presence of inflammation. Specifically, there were fewer demyelinated, damaged axons and more myelinated axons with intact nodes of Ranvier in oestrogen receptor β ligand-treated mice. In addition, oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment caused an increase in mature oligodendrocyte numbers, a significant increase in myelin sheath thickness and axon transport. Functional analysis of callosal axon conduction showed a significant improvement in compound action potential amplitudes, latency and in axon refractoriness. These findings show a direct neuroprotective effect of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment on oligodendrocyte differentiation, myelination and axon conduction during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB006494-04S1(United States)

Oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein does not influence node of ranvier structure or assembly.

  • Chang KJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is expressed by both neurons and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. It has been implicated in growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition by signaling through the Nogo receptor and paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB). OMgp was also reported to be an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein surrounding CNS nodes of Ranvier and proposed to function as (1) an inhibitor of nodal collateral sprouting and (2) an important contributor to proper nodal and paranodal architecture. However, we show here that the anti-OMgp antiserum used in previous studies to define the functions of OMgp at nodes is not specific. Among all reported nodal ECM components, the antiserum exhibited strong cross-reactivity against versican V2 isoform, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Furthermore, the OMgp antiserum labeled OMgp-null nodes, but not nodes from versican V2-deficient mice, and preadsorption of the OMgp antiserum with recombinant versican V2 blocked nodal labeling. Analysis of CNS nodes in OMgp-null mice failed to reveal any nodal or paranodal defects, or increased nodal collateral sprouting, indicating that OMgp does not participate in CNS node of Ranvier assembly or maintenance. We successfully identified a highly specific anti-OMgp antibody and observed OMgp staining in white matter only after initiation of myelination. OMgp immunoreactivity decorated the surface of mature myelinated axons, but was excluded from compact myelin and nodes. Together, our results strongly argue against the nodal localization of OMgp and its proposed functions at nodes, and reveal OMgp's authentic localization relative to nodes and myelin.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG003008(United States)

Role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in axonal conduction in Mammalian spinal cord.

  • Hunanyan AS
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Jun 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic unilateral hemisection (HX) of the adult rat spinal cord diminishes conduction through intact fibers in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) contralateral to HX. This is associated with a partial loss of myelination from fibers in the VLF (Arvanian et al., 2009). Here, we again measured conduction through the VLF using electrical stimulation while recording the resulting volley and synaptic potentials in target motoneurons. We found that intraspinal injection of chondroitinase-ABC, known to digest chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), prevented the decline of axonal conduction through intact VLF fibers across from chronic T10 HX. Chondroitinase treatment was also associated with behavior suggestive of an improvement of locomotor function after chronic HX. To further study the role of CSPGs in axonal conduction, we injected three purified CSPGs, NG2 and neurocan, which increase in the vicinity of a spinal injury, and aggrecan, which decreases, into the lateral column of the uninjured cord at T10 in separate experiments. Intraspinal injection of NG2 acutely depressed axonal conduction through the injected region in a dose-dependent manner. Similar injections of saline, aggrecan, or neurocan had no significant effect. Immunofluorescence staining experiments revealed the presence of endogenous and exogenous NG2 at some nodes of Ranvier. These results identify a novel acute action of CSPGs on axonal conduction in the spinal cord and suggest that antagonism of proteoglycans reverses or prevents the decline of axonal conduction, in addition to stimulating axonal growth.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U54 RR025216(United States)

Myelin, DIGs, and membrane rafts in the central nervous system.

  • Dupree JL
  • Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
  • 2010 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Over the past 40 years our understanding of the organization of cell membranes has changed dramatically. Membranes are no longer viewed as a homogenous sea of phospholipids studded with randomly positioned islands of proteins. Our current view of the membrane involves the formation of small lipid clusters, comprised mainly of cholesterol and sphingolipids, known as membrane rafts. These lipid clusters apparently include and exclude specific proteins leading to the hypothesis that these domains (1) regulate cellular polarity and compartmentalization through trafficking and sorting, (2) provide platforms for cellular signaling and adhesion, and (3) function as cellular gate keepers. Tremendous controversy surrounds the concept of membrane rafts primarily because these small, highly dynamic entities are too small to be observed with traditional microscopic methods and the most utilized approach for raft analysis relies on poorly quantified, inconsistent biochemical extractions. New analytical approaches are being developed and applied to the study of membrane rafts and these techniques provide great promise for furthering our understanding of these enigmatic domains. In this review we will provide a brief summary of the current understanding of membrane rafts, utilizing the CNS myelin literature for illustrative purposes, and present caveats that should be considered when studying these domains.

Functional recovery of callosal axons following demyelination: a critical window.

  • Crawford DK
  • Neuroscience
  • 2009 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal dysfunction as a result of persistent demyelination has been increasingly appreciated as a cause of functional deficit in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the ultimate causes of ongoing axonal dysfunction and find effective measures to prevent axon loss. Our findings related to functional deficit and functional recovery of axons from a demyelinating insult are important preliminary steps towards understanding this issue. Cuprizone diet for 3-6 wks triggered extensive corpus callosum (CC) demyelination, reduced axon conduction, and resulted in loss of axon structural integrity including nodes of Ranvier. Replacing cuprizone diet with normal diet led to regeneration of myelin, but did not fully reverse the conduction and structural deficits. A shorter 1.5 wk cuprizone diet also caused demyelination of the CC, with minimal loss of axon structure and nodal organization. Switching to normal diet led to remyelination and restored callosal axon conduction to normal levels. Our findings suggest the existence of a critical window of time for remyelination, beyond which demyelinated axons become damaged beyond the point of repair and permanent functional loss follows. Moreover, initiating remyelination early within the critical period, before prolonged demyelination-induced axon damage ensues, will improve functional axon recovery and inhibit disease progression.

The lysosomal sialic acid transporter sialin is required for normal CNS myelination.

  • Prolo LM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Dec 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Salla disease and infantile sialic acid storage disease are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in the gene encoding sialin, a membrane protein that transports free sialic acid out of the lysosome after it is cleaved from sialoglycoconjugates undergoing degradation. Accumulation of sialic acid in lysosomes defines these disorders, and the clinical phenotype is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects, including severe CNS hypomyelination. In this study, we used a sialin-deficient mouse to address how loss of sialin leads to the defect in myelination. Behavioral analysis of the sialin(-/-) mouse demonstrates poor coordination, seizures, and premature death. Analysis by histology, electron microscopy, and Western blotting reveals a decrease in myelination of the CNS but normal neuronal cytoarchitecture and normal myelination of the PNS. To investigate potential mechanisms underlying CNS hypomyelination, we studied myelination and oligodendrocyte development in optic nerves. We found reduced numbers of myelinated axons in optic nerves from sialin(-/-) mice, but the myelin that was present appeared grossly normal. Migration and density of oligodendrocyte precursor cells were normal; however, a marked decrease in the number of postmitotic oligodendrocytes and an associated increase in the number of apoptotic cells during the later stages of myelinogenesis were observed. These findings suggest that a defect in maturation of cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage leads to increased apoptosis and underlies the myelination defect associated with sialin loss.

SH3TC2/KIAA1985 protein is required for proper myelination and the integrity of the node of Ranvier in the peripheral nervous system.

  • Arnaud E
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2009 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C (CMT4C) is an early-onset, autosomal recessive form of demyelinating neuropathy. The clinical manifestations include progressive scoliosis, delayed age of walking, muscular atrophy, distal weakness, and reduced nerve conduction velocity. The gene mutated in CMT4C disease, SH3TC2/KIAA1985, was recently identified; however, the function of the protein it encodes remains unknown. We have generated knockout mice where the first exon of the Sh3tc2 gene is replaced with an enhanced GFP cassette. The Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) knockout animals develop progressive peripheral neuropathy manifested by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and hypomyelination. We show that Sh3tc2 is specifically expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the plasma membrane and to the perinuclear endocytic recycling compartment, concordant with its possible function in myelination and/or in regions of axoglial interactions. Concomitantly, transcriptional profiling performed on the endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerves isolated from control and Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) animals uncovered changes in transcripts encoding genes involved in myelination and cell adhesion. Finally, detailed analyses of the structures composed of compact and noncompact myelin in the peripheral nerve of Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) animals revealed abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier, a phenotype that we confirmed in CMT4C patient nerve biopsies. The generated Sh3tc2 knockout mice thus present a reliable model of CMT4C neuropathy that was instrumental in establishing a role for Sh3tc2 in myelination and in the integrity of the node of Ranvier, a morphological phenotype that can be used as an additional CMT4C diagnostic marker.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS30888(United States)

Maintenance of axo-oligodendroglial paranodal junctions requires DCC and netrin-1.

  • Jarjour AA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2008 Oct 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Paranodal axoglial junctions are essential for the segregation of myelinated axons into distinct domains and efficient conduction of action potentials. Here, we show that netrin-1 and deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) are enriched at the paranode in CNS myelin. We then address whether netrin-1 signaling influences paranodal adhesion between oligodendrocytes and axons. In the absence of netrin-1 or DCC function, oligodendroglial paranodes initially develop and mature normally but later become disorganized. Lack of DCC or netrin-1 resulted in detachment of paranodal loops from the axonal surface and the disappearance of transverse bands. Furthermore, the domain organization of myelin is compromised in the absence of netrin-1 signaling: K+ channels inappropriately invade the paranodal region, and the normally restricted paranodal distribution of Caspr expands longitudinally along the axon. Our findings identify an essential role for netrin-1 and DCC regulating the maintenance of axoglial junctions.

Nav1.7 expression is increased in painful human dental pulp.

  • Luo S
  • Mol Pain
  • 2008 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal and painful samples. Pulpal sections were labeled with antibodies against: 1) Nav1.7, N52 and PGP9.5, and 2) Nav1.7, caspr (a paranodal protein used to identify nodes of Ranvier), and myelin basic protein (MBP), and a z-series of optically-sectioned images were obtained with the confocal microscope. Nav1.7-immunofluorescence was quantified in N52/PGP9.5-identified nerve fibers with NIH ImageJ software, while Nav1.7 expression in myelinated fibers at caspr-identified nodal sites was evaluated and further characterized as either typical or atypical as based on caspr-relationships. RESULTS: Results show a significant increase in nerve area with Nav1.7 expression within coronal and radicular fiber bundles and increased expression at typical and atypical caspr-identified nodal sites in painful samples. Painful samples also showed an augmentation of Nav1.7 within localized areas that lacked MBP, including those associated with atypical caspr-identified sites, thus identifying NaCh remodeling within demyelinating axons as the basis for a possible pulpal pain mechanism. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the increased axonal expression and augmentation of Nav1.7 at intact and remodeling/demyelinating nodes within the painful human dental pulp where these changes may contribute to constant, increased evoked and spontaneous pain responses that characterize the pain associated with toothache.