X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 594

RRID:AB_10562717

Antibody ID

AB_2534079

Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed rabbit

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11012, RRID:AB_2534079)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: IF (2 µg/mL), ICC (2 µg/mL), Flow (1-10 µg/mL). This product was originally offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen) RRID:AB_141359.

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Dmrt5, a Novel Neurogenic Factor, Reciprocally Regulates Lhx2 to Control the Neuron-Glia Cell-Fate Switch in the Developing Hippocampus.

  • Muralidharan B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of the neuron-glia cell-fate switch is a critical step in the development of the CNS. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of Dmrt5/Dmrta2 as a neurogenic factor in the developing hippocampus. We show that Dmrt5, as well as known neurogenic factors Neurog2 and Pax6, can each not only mimic Lhx2 overexpression, but also can compensate for loss of Lhx2 to different extents. We further uncover a reciprocal regulatory relationship between Dmrt5 and Lhx2, such that each can compensate for loss of the other. Dmrt5 and Lhx2 also have opposing regulatory control on Pax6 and Neurog2, indicating a complex bidirectionally regulated network that controls the neuron-glia cell-fate switch.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We identify Dmrt5 as a novel regulator of the neuron-glia cell-fate switch in the developing hippocampus. We demonstrate Dmrt5 to be neurogenic, and reciprocally regulated by Lhx2: loss of either factor promotes gliogenesis; overexpression of either factor suppresses gliogenesis and promotes neurogenesis; each can substitute for loss of the other. Furthermore, each factor has opposing effects on established neurogenic genes Neurog2 and Pax6 Dmrt5 is known to suppress their expression, and we show that Lhx2 is required to maintain it. Our study reveals a complex regulatory network with bidirectional control of a fundamental feature of CNS development, the control of the production of neurons versus astroglia in the developing hippocampus.Finally, we confirm that Lhx2 binds a highly conserved putative enhancer of Dmrt5, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved regulatory relationship between these factors. Our findings uncover a complex network that involves Lhx2, Dmrt5, Neurog2, and Pax6, and that ensures the appropriate amount and timing of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis.

  • Chandra A
  • FASEB J.
  • 2017 Sep 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone atrophy and its related fragility fractures are frequent, late side effects of radiotherapy in cancer survivors and have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. In another study, we showed that parathyroid hormone 1-34 and anti-sclerostin antibody attenuates radiation-induced bone damage by accelerating DNA repair in osteoblasts. DNA damage responses are partially regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In the current study, we examined whether proteasome inhibitors have similar bone-protective effects against radiation damage. MG132 treatment greatly reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured osteoblastic cells. This survival effect was owing to accelerated DNA repair as revealed by γH2AX foci and comet assays and to the up-regulation of Ku70 and DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, essential DNA repair proteins in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Administration of bortezomib (Bzb) reversed the loss of trabecular bone structure and strength in mice at 4 wk after focal radiation. Histomorphometry revealed that Bzb significantly increased the number of osteoblasts and activity in the irradiated area and suppressed the number and activity of osteoclasts, regardless of irradiation. Two weeks of Bzb treatment accelerated DNA repair in bone-lining osteoblasts and thus promoted their survival. Meanwhile, it also inhibited bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel role of proteasome inhibitors in treating radiation-induced osteoporosis.-Chandra, A., Wang, L., Young, T., Zhong, L., Tseng, W.-J., Levine, M. A., Cengel, K., Liu, X. S., Zhang, Y., Pignolo, R. J., Qin, L. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA087971()

Unconventional role of voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) in regulation of microglial ROS production.

  • Kawai T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Sep 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. ) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. ). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. ). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia. Extracellular ROS production was lower in neutrophils of Hvcn1-/- mice than WT mice as reported. In contrast, it was drastically enhanced in isolated Hvcn1-/- microglia as compared with cells from WT mice. Actin dynamics was altered in Hvcn1-/- microglia and intracellular distribution of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit, p67, was changed. When expression levels of oxidative stress responsive antioxidant genes were compared between WT and Hvcn1-/- in cerebral cortex at different ages of animals, they were slightly decreased in Hvcn1-/- mice at younger stage (1 day, 5 days, 3 weeks old), but drastically increased at aged stage (6 months old), suggesting that the regulation of microglial ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is age-dependent. We also performed brain ischemic stroke experiments and found that the neuroprotective effect of VSOP/Hv1deficiency on infarct volume depended on the age of animals. Taken together, regulation of ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is more complex than previously thought and significance of VSOP/Hv1 in microglial ROS production depends on age.

The Vascular Niche Regulates Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Lodgment and Expansion via klf6a-ccl25b.

  • Xue Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammals, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) rapidly expand in the fetal liver (FL), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we characterize zebrafish caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) and identify an important cellular and molecular mechanism of HSPC expansion. Time-lapse imaging showed that HSPCs localize adjacent to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), and their migration and expansion display caudal vein-specific orientation in the CHT. RNA sequencing and functional analysis identified that an EC-expressed transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 6a (Klf6a), is essential for the CHT niche. We further demonstrated that Klf6a directly regulates the expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25b to modulate HSPC lodgment and proliferation. Ex vivo culture results support the conserved role of Ccl21/Ccr7 signaling in promoting HSPC expansion in mammals. Together, we identify the Klf6a-Ccl25b/Ccr7 axis in controlling the complex HSPC-CHT niche interaction, which may be applicable to in vitro expansion or engraftment of HSPCs after transplantation.

Disrupting IGF Signaling in Adult Mice Conditions Leanness, Resilient Energy Metabolism, and High Growth Hormone Pulses.

  • François JC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF) promote aging and age-related pathologies. Inhibiting this pathway by targeting IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is a promising strategy to extend life span, alleviate age-related diseases, and reduce tumor growth. Although anti-IGF-1R agents are being developed, long-term effects of IGF-1R blockade remain unknown. In this study, we used ubiquitous inducible IGF-1R knockout (UBIKOR) to suppress signaling in all adult tissues and screened health extensively. Surprisingly, UBIKOR mice showed no overt defects and presented with rather inconspicuous health, including normal cognition. Endocrine GH and IGF-1 were strongly upregulated without causing acromegaly. UBIKOR mice were strikingly lean with coordinate changes in body composition and organ size. They were insulin resistant but preserved physiological energy expenditure and displayed enhanced fasting metabolic flexibility. Thus, long-term IGF-1R blockade generated beneficial effects on aging-relevant metabolism, but exposed to high GH. This needs to be considered when targeting IGF-1R to protect from neurodegeneration, retard aging, or fight cancer.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY 015387(United States)

Neuroprotection and Blood-Brain Barrier Restoration by Salubrinal After a Cortical Stab Injury.

  • Barreda-Manso MA
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival, and the initiation of the healing process. Salubrinal is a small molecule with neuroprotective properties in different animal models of stroke and trauma to the CNS. Here, we show that salubrinal increased neuronal survival in the neighbourhood of a cerebral cortex stab injury. Moreover, salubrinal reduced cortical blood leakage into the parenchyma of injured animals compared with injured controls. Adjacent to the site of injury, salubrinal induced immunoreactivity for platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B), a specific mitogenic factor for mesenchymal cells. This effect might be responsible for the increased immunoreactivity for fibronectin and the decreased activation of microglia and macrophages in injured mice treated with salubrinal, compared with injured controls. The immunoreactivity for PDGF-B colocalized with neuronal nuclei (NeuN), suggesting that cortical neurons in the proximity of the injury were the main source of PDGF-B. Our results suggest that after an injury, neurons play an important role in both, the healing process and the restoration of the BBB integrity. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1501-1510, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 102645(United Kingdom)

Epididymal CYP2E1 plays a critical role in acrylamide-induced DNA damage in spermatozoa and paternally mediated embryonic resorptions†.

  • Katen AL
  • Biol. Reprod.
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acrylamide is a ubiquitous toxicant in human lives, due to its formation in many food products. Acrylamide induces dominant lethal mutations with administration of 25 mg/kg bw/day for 5 days in male mice. Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E, polypeptide 1 (CYP2E1) is responsible for this dominant lethality. CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for the conversion of acrylamide to the highly reactive metabolite glycidamide, which forms adducts with DNA. CYP2E1 is present predominantly in the liver, as well as the brain, kidney, intestines, and spleen. Within the male mouse reproductive tract, CYP2E1 localizes to spermatocytes. However, embryo resorptions have been demonstrated to occur only with exposure of the late stages of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa. It was determined that CYP2E1 is additionally expressed within the mouse epididymal epithelium, and this localization is responsible for acrylamide-induced dominant lethality. Further, an equivalent profile of CYP2E1 expression was identified in the human reproductive tract. While spermatozoa of both species were also established to possess CYP2E1, this did not contribute to acrylamide-induced DNA damage. In vitro studies strengthened these findings further, revealing that acrylamide exposure only induces DNA damage in human and mouse spermatozoa following metabolism by the mouse epididymal epithelial cell line (mECap18) to glycidamide. These findings emphasize, for the first time, the vital role of the epididymis in the reproductive toxicity associated with acute acrylamide exposure.

A molecular mechanism for the topographic alignment of convergent neural maps.

  • Savier E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory processing requires proper alignment of neural maps throughout the brain. In the superficial layers of the superior colliculus of the midbrain, converging projections from retinal ganglion cells and neurons in visual cortex must be aligned to form a visuotopic map, but the basic mechanisms mediating this alignment remain elusive. In a new mouse model, ectopic expression of ephrin-A3 (Efna3) in a subset of retinal ganglion cells, quantitatively altering the retinal EFNAs gradient, disrupts cortico-collicular map alignment onto the retino-collicular map, creating a visuotopic mismatch. Genetic inactivation of ectopic EFNA3 restores a wild-type cortico-collicular map. Theoretical analyses using a new mapping algorithm model both map formation and alignment, and recapitulate our experimental observations. The algorithm is based on an initial sensory map, the retino-collicular map, which carries intrinsic topographic information, the retinal EFNAs, to the superior colliculus. These EFNAs subsequently topographically align ingrowing visual cortical axons to the retino-collicular map.

Loss of Frataxin activates the iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway in mammals.

  • Chen K
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors. Here, we show that loss of Fxn in the nervous system in mice also activates an iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway, indicating that the mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, sphingolipid levels and PDK1 activity are also increased in hearts of FRDA patients, suggesting that a similar pathway is affected in FRDA.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)

Disruption of insulin signaling in Myf5-expressing progenitors leads to marked paucity of brown fat but normal muscle development.

  • Lynes MD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin exerts pleiotropic effects on cell growth, survival, and metabolism, and its role in multiple tissues has been dissected using conditional knockout mice; however, its role in development has not been studied. Lineage tracing experiments have demonstrated that interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from a Myf5-positive lineage shared with skeletal muscle and distinct from the majority of white adipose tissue (WAT) precursors. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of impaired insulin signaling in the Myf5-expressing precursor cells by deleting the insulin receptor gene. Mice lacking insulin receptor in the Myf5 lineage (Myf5IRKO) have a decrease of interscapular BAT mass; however, muscle development appeared normal. Histologically, the residual BAT had decreased cell size but appeared mature and potentially functional. Expression of adipogenic inhibitors preadipocyte factor-1, Necdin, and wingless-type MMTV integration site member 10a in the residual BAT tissue was nonetheless increased compared with controls, and there was an enrichment of progenitor cells with impaired adipogenic differentiation capacity, suggesting a suppression of adipogenesis in BAT. Surprisingly, when cold challenged, Myf5IRKO mice did not show impaired thermogenesis. This resistance to cold could be attributed to an increased presence of uncoupling protein 1-positive brown adipocytes in sc WAT as well as increased expression of lipolytic activity in BAT. These data suggest a critical role of insulin signaling in the development of interscapular BAT from Myf5-positive progenitor cells, but it appears to be dispensable for muscle development. They also underscore the importance of compensatory browning of sc WAT in the absence of BAT for thermoregulation.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG031782(United States)

Use of a mouse in vitro fertilization model to understand the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

  • Feuer SK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice. We demonstrate that IVF and embryo culture, even under conditions considered optimal for mouse embryo culture, alter postnatal growth trajectory, fat accumulation, and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Unbiased metabolic profiling in serum and microarray analysis of pancreatic islets and insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) revealed broad changes in metabolic homeostasis, characterized by systemic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adopting a candidate approach, we identify thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key molecule involved in integrating cellular nutritional and oxidative states with metabolic response, as a marker for preimplantation stress and demonstrate tissue-specific epigenetic and transcriptional TXNIP misregulation in selected adult tissues. Importantly, dysregulation of TXNIP expression is associated with enrichment for H4 acetylation at the Txnip promoter that persists from the blastocyst stage through adulthood in adipose tissue. Our data support the vulnerability of preimplantation embryos to environmental disturbance and demonstrate that conception by IVF can reprogram metabolic homeostasis through metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms with lasting effects for adult growth and fitness. This study has wide clinical relevance and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of IVF-conceived offspring.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK084171(United States)