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Purified anti-Tubulin ? 3 (TUBB3) antibody

RRID:AB_10063408

Antibody ID

AB_10063408

Target Antigen

Tubulin beta 3 (TUBB3) See NCBI gene human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(BioLegend Cat# 801202, RRID:AB_10063408)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: IHC-P, WB, ICC, FC

Clone ID

Clone TUJ1

Host Organism

mouse

Th17 Lymphocytes Induce Neuronal Cell Death in a Human iPSC-Based Model of Parkinson's Disease.

  • Sommer A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE019075(United States)

A Translational Repression Complex in Developing Mammalian Neural Stem Cells that Regulates Neuronal Specification.

  • Zahr SK
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms instructing genesis of neuronal subtypes from mammalian neural precursors are not well understood. To address this issue, we have characterized the transcriptional landscape of radial glial precursors (RPs) in the embryonic murine cortex. We show that individual RPs express mRNA, but not protein, for transcriptional specifiers of both deep and superficial layer cortical neurons. Some of these mRNAs, including the superficial versus deep layer neuron transcriptional regulators Brn1 and Tle4, are translationally repressed by their association with the RNA-binding protein Pumilio2 (Pum2) and the 4E-T protein. Disruption of these repressive complexes in RPs mid-neurogenesis by knocking down 4E-T or Pum2 causes aberrant co-expression of deep layer neuron specification proteins in newborn superficial layer neurons. Thus, cortical RPs are transcriptionally primed to generate diverse types of neurons, and a Pum2/4E-T complex represses translation of some of these neuronal identity mRNAs to ensure appropriate temporal specification of daughter neurons.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-111003(Canada)

Opposing expression gradients of calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in type II afferent neurons of the mouse cochlea.

  • Wu JS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are small caliber, unmyelinated afferents that extend dendritic arbors hundreds of microns along the cochlear spiral, contacting many outer hair cells (OHCs). Despite these many contacts, type II afferents are insensitive to sound and only weakly depolarized by glutamate release from OHCs. Recent studies suggest that type II afferents may be cochlear nociceptors, and can be excited by ATP released during tissue damage, by analogy to somatic pain-sensing C-fibers. The present work compares the expression patterns among cochlear type II afferents of two genes found in C-fibers: calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα), specific to pain-sensing C-fibers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), specific to low-threshold mechanoreceptive C-fibers, which was shown previously to be a selective biomarker of type II versus type I cochlear afferents (Vyas et al., ). Whole-mount cochlear preparations from 3-week- to 2-month-old CGRPα-EGFP (GENSAT) mice showed expression of Cgrpα in a subset of SGNs with type II-like peripheral dendrites extending beneath OHCs. Double labeling with other molecular markers confirmed that the labeled SGNs were neither type I SGNs nor olivocochlear efferents. Cgrpα starts to express in type II SGNs before hearing onset, but the expression level declines in the adult. The expression patterns of Cgrpα and Th formed opposing gradients, with Th being preferentially expressed in apical and Cgrpα in basal type II afferent neurons, indicating heterogeneity among type II afferent neurons. The expression of Th and Cgrpα was not mutually exclusive and co-expression could be observed, most abundantly in the middle cochlear turn.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006476()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011741()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012957()

Epitranscriptomic m6A Regulation of Axon Regeneration in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System.

  • Weng YL
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in the adult DRG upon injury. Loss of either m6A methyltransferase complex component Mettl14 or m6A-binding protein Ythdf1 globally attenuates injury-induced protein translation in adult DRGs and reduces functional axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system in vivo. Furthermore, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult central nervous system is attenuated upon Mettl14 knockdown. Our study reveals a critical epitranscriptomic mechanism in promoting injury-induced protein synthesis and axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA84243(United States)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG008935()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS097206()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097370()

Injury Induces Endogenous Reprogramming and Dedifferentiation of Neuronal Progenitors to Multipotency.

  • Lin B
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion. These results suggest that the apparent hierarchy of neuronal differentiation is not irreversible and that lineage commitment can be overridden following severe tissue injury. We elucidate a previously unappreciated pathway for endogenous tissue repair by a highly regenerative neuroepithelium and introduce a system to study the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the OE that can be adapted for other tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F30 DC013962()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014398()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31 DC014637()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC002167()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC015889()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 8 P20 GM103414-10(United States)

Differential expression of microRNAs among cell populations in the regenerating adult mouse olfactory epithelium.

  • Kurtenbach S
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Nov 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite a robust capacity for adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory losses are common. Identification of mechanisms regulating adult OE neurogenesis is, therefore, of interest. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are broadly important in regulating vertebrate neurodevelopment, and are required in embryonic olfactory differentiation. We report here that a panel of miRNAs is differentially expressed by either progenitor or progeny cells in the regenerating mouse OE. Progenitor cells were purified from lesioned OE based on c-Kit expression, and miRNA expression was assayed in c-Kit (+) and c-Kit (-) cell populations. 28 miRNAs were significantly downregulated by at least 4 fold in the c-Kit (+) fraction, which marks the globose basal progenitor cell population. In addition, 10 miRNAs were upregulated in these basal cells. MiR-486, the most strongly downregulated miRNA identified, was further characterized to verify results. MiR-486 expression was confirmed in the c-Kit (-) OE layers using in situ hybridization. As a functional assay, over-expression of miR-486 in purified c-Kit (+) basal cell cultures resulted in a reduction in neurogenesis, consistent with a possible negative feedback regulatory model. Our data provide new insights regarding miRNA expression and function during adult OE neurogenesis, and identify candidate miRNAs warranting further study.

Dissecting LSD1-Dependent Neuronal Maturation in the Olfactory Epithelium.

  • Coleman JH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE) each express a single dominant olfactory receptor (OR) allele from among roughly 1,000 different OR genes. While monogenic and monoallelic OR expression has been appreciated for over two decades, regulators of this process are still being described; most recently, epigenetic modifiers have been of high interest as silent OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally repressive trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) whereas active OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally activating trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3). The lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demethylates at both of these lysine residues and has been shown to disrupt neuronal maturation and OR expression in the developing embryonic OE. Despite the growing literature on LSD1 expression in the OE, a complete characterization of the timing of LSD1 expression relative to neuronal maturation and of the function of LSD1 in the adult OE have yet to be reported. To fill this gap, the present study determined that LSD1 (1) is expressed in early dividing cells before OR expression and neuronal maturation and decreases at the time of OR stabilization; (2) colocalizes with the repressor CoREST (also known as RCOR1) and histone deacetylase 2 in these early dividing cells; and (3) is required for neuronal maturation during a distinct time window between activating reserve stem cells (horizontal basal cells) and Neurogenin1 (+) immediate neuronal precursors. Thus, this study clarifies the role of LSD1 in olfactory neuronal maturation.

Sox11 Expression Promotes Regeneration of Some Retinal Ganglion Cell Types but Kills Others.

  • Norsworthy MW
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration. Transcriptome profiling indicated that Sox11 activates genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and axon growth. Remarkably, α-RGCs, which preferentially regenerate following treatments such as Pten deletion, were killed by Sox11 overexpression. Thus, Sox11 promotes regeneration of non-α-RGCs, which are refractory to Pten deletion-induced regeneration. We conclude that Sox11 can reprogram adult RGCs to a growth-competent state, suggesting that different growth-promoting interventions promote regeneration in distinct neuronal types.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY012196()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY021342()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY021526()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026939()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007901()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD018655()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS062691()

Select noxious stimuli induce changes on corneal nerve morphology.

  • Hegarty DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology, and function. We tested whether noxious stimulation of the corneal surface can alter nerve morphology and neurochemistry. We used concentrations of menthol, capsaicin, and hypertonic saline that evoked comparable levels of nocifensive eye wipe behaviors when applied to the ocular surface of an awake rat. Animals were sacrificed and corneal nerves were examined using immunocytochemistry and three-dimensional volumetric analyses. We found that menthol and capsaicin both caused a significant reduction in corneal nerve density as detected with β-tubulin immunoreactivity 2 hr after stimulation. Hypertonic saline did not reduce nerve density, but did cause qualitative changes in nerves including enlarged varicosities that were also seen following capsaicin and menthol stimulation. All three types of noxious stimuli caused a depletion of CGRP from corneal nerves, indicating that all modalities of noxious stimuli evoked peptide release. Our findings suggest that studies aimed at understanding the relationship between corneal nerve morphology and chronic disease may also need to consider the effects of acute stimulation on corneal nerve morphology.

Migrating Interneurons Secrete Fractalkine to Promote Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Developing Mammalian Brain.

  • Voronova A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, newborn interneurons migrate throughout the embryonic brain. Here, we provide evidence that these interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to regulate developmental oligodendrocyte formation. Specifically, we show that medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) interneurons secrete factors that promote genesis of oligodendrocytes from glially biased cortical precursors in culture. Moreover, when MGE interneurons are genetically ablated in vivo prior to their migration, this causes a deficit in cortical oligodendrogenesis. Modeling of the interneuron-precursor paracrine interaction using transcriptome data identifies the cytokine fractalkine as responsible for the pro-oligodendrocyte effect in culture. This paracrine interaction is important in vivo, since knockdown of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in embryonic cortical precursors, or constitutive knockout of CX3CR1, causes decreased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes in the postnatal cortex. Thus, in addition to their role in regulating neuronal excitability, interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to promote the developmental genesis of oligodendrocytes.

An Intrinsic Epigenetic Barrier for Functional Axon Regeneration.

  • Weng YL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery. Mechanistically, peripheral nerve injury induces DNA demethylation and upregulation of multiple regeneration-associated genes in a Tet3- and thymine DNA glycosylase-dependent fashion in DRG neurons. In addition, Pten deletion-induced axon regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons in the adult CNS is attenuated upon Tet1 knockdown. Together, our study suggests an epigenetic barrier that can be removed by active DNA demethylation to permit axon regeneration in the adult mammalian nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007814()

Small-Molecule Stabilization of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions Stimulates Axon Regeneration.

  • Kaplan A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged central nervous system (CNS) neurons have a poor ability to spontaneously regenerate, causing persistent functional deficits after injury. Therapies that stimulate axon growth are needed to repair CNS damage. 14-3-3 adaptors are hub proteins that are attractive targets to manipulate cell signaling. We identify a positive role for 14-3-3s in axon growth and uncover a developmental regulation of the phosphorylation and function of 14-3-3s. We show that fusicoccin-A (FC-A), a small-molecule stabilizer of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions, stimulates axon growth in vitro and regeneration in vivo. We show that FC-A stabilizes a complex between 14-3-3 and the stress response regulator GCN1, inducing GCN1 turnover and neurite outgrowth. These findings show that 14-3-3 adaptor protein complexes are druggable targets and identify a new class of small molecules that may be further optimized for the repair of CNS damage.

The SARM1 Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain Possesses Intrinsic NAD+ Cleavage Activity that Promotes Pathological Axonal Degeneration.

  • Essuman K
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal degeneration is an early and prominent feature of many neurological disorders. SARM1 is the central executioner of the axonal degeneration pathway that culminates in depletion of axonal NAD+, yet the identity of the underlying NAD+-depleting enzyme(s) is unknown. Here, in a series of experiments using purified proteins from mammalian cells, bacteria, and a cell-free protein translation system, we show that the SARM1-TIR domain itself has intrinsic NADase activity-cleaving NAD+ into ADP-ribose (ADPR), cyclic ADPR, and nicotinamide, with nicotinamide serving as a feedback inhibitor of the enzyme. Using traumatic and vincristine-induced injury models in neurons, we demonstrate that the NADase activity of full-length SARM1 is required in axons to promote axonal NAD+ depletion and axonal degeneration after injury. Hence, the SARM1 enzyme represents a novel therapeutic target for axonopathies. Moreover, the widely utilized TIR domain is a protein motif that can possess enzymatic activity.

Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

  • Park KK
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells.

  • Wu J
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interspecies blastocyst complementation enables organ-specific enrichment of xenogenic pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derivatives. Here, we establish a versatile blastocyst complementation platform based on CRISPR-Cas9-mediated zygote genome editing and show enrichment of rat PSC-derivatives in several tissues of gene-edited organogenesis-disabled mice. Besides gaining insights into species evolution, embryogenesis, and human disease, interspecies blastocyst complementation might allow human organ generation in animals whose organ size, anatomy, and physiology are closer to humans. To date, however, whether human PSCs (hPSCs) can contribute to chimera formation in non-rodent species remains unknown. We systematically evaluate the chimeric competency of several types of hPSCs using a more diversified clade of mammals, the ungulates. We find that naïve hPSCs robustly engraft in both pig and cattle pre-implantation blastocysts but show limited contribution to post-implantation pig embryos. Instead, an intermediate hPSC type exhibits higher degree of chimerism and is able to generate differentiated progenies in post-implantation pig embryos.

MAPK signaling promotes axonal degeneration by speeding the turnover of the axonal maintenance factor NMNAT2.

  • Walker LJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Injury-induced (Wallerian) axonal degeneration is regulated via the opposing actions of pro-degenerative factors such as SARM1 and a MAPK signal and pro-survival factors, the most important of which is the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 that inhibits activation of the SARM1 pathway. Here we investigate the mechanism by which MAPK signaling facilitates axonal degeneration. We show that MAPK signaling promotes the turnover of the axonal survival factor NMNAT2 in cultured mammalian neurons as well as the Drosophila ortholog dNMNAT in motoneurons. The increased levels of NMNAT2 are required for the axonal protection caused by loss of MAPK signaling. Regulation of NMNAT2 by MAPK signaling does not require SARM1, and so cannot be downstream of SARM1. Hence, pro-degenerative MAPK signaling functions upstream of SARM1 by limiting the levels of the essential axonal survival factor NMNAT2 to promote injury-dependent SARM1 activation. These findings are consistent with a linear molecular pathway for the axonal degeneration program.

Isoform-specific localization of Nogo protein in the optic pathway of mouse embryos.

  • Wang L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression of Nogo protein was investigated in the optic pathway of embryonic mice by using isoform-specific antibodies Bianca and 11C7, which recognize Nogo-A/B and Nogo-A, respectively. Our previous reports from using antibody N18 have shown that Nogo is localized on the radial glia in the retina and at the midline of the ventral diencephalon in mouse embryos during the ingrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. This glial-specific localization is markedly different from findings in other studies. This study showed Nogo-A/B primarily on radial glia in the retina at E13 and then later on retinal ganglion cells and axons at E14 and E15, whereas Nogo-A was expressed preferentially by RGCs and their axons. In the ventral diencephalon, Nogo-A/B was expressed strongly on radial glia, particularly in those located in the midline region of the chiasm but also on RGC axons. In Nogo-A knockout embryos, the isoform Nogo-B (revealed by Bianca) was observed on radial glia in the ventral diencephalon and on RGCs and their axons. We concluded that Nogo-A is localized on the ganglion cells and retinal axons, whereas Nogo-B is expressed by the radial glia in the optic pathway. Nogo-B may play an important role in guiding axon growth in decisive regions of the visual pathway, which include the optic disc and the optic chiasm. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2322-2334, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Regional and stage-specific effects of prospectively purified vascular cells on the adult V-SVZ neural stem cell lineage.

  • Crouch EE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Mar 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neural stem cells reside in specialized niches. In the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) become activated (aNSCs), and generate transit amplifying cells (TACs), which give rise to neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb. The vasculature is an important component of the adult neural stem cell niche, but whether vascular cells in neurogenic areas are intrinsically different from those elsewhere in the brain is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of pericytes to the neural stem cell niche has not been defined. Here, we describe a rapid FACS purification strategy to simultaneously isolate primary endothelial cells and pericytes from brain microregions of nontransgenic mice using CD31 and CD13 as surface markers. We compared the effect of purified vascular cells from a neurogenic (V-SVZ) and non-neurogenic brain region (cortex) on the V-SVZ stem cell lineage in vitro. Endothelial and pericyte diffusible signals from both regions differentially promote the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of qNSCs, aNSCs, and TACs. Unexpectedly, diffusible cortical signals had the most potent effects on V-SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, highlighting the intrinsic capacity of non-neurogenic vasculature to support stem cell behavior. Finally, we identify PlGF-2 as an endothelial-derived mitogen that promotes V-SVZ cell proliferation. This purification strategy provides a platform to define the functional and molecular contribution of vascular cells to stem cell niches and other brain regions under different physiological and pathological states.

Prolyl hydroxylase regulates axonal rewiring and motor recovery after traumatic brain injury.

  • Miyake S
  • Cell Death Dis
  • 2015 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs; PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) are a component of cellular oxygen sensors that regulate the adaptive response depending on the oxygen concentration stabilized by hypoxia/stress-regulated genes transcription. In normoxic condition, PHD2 is required to stabilize hypoxia inducible factors. Silencing of PHD2 leads to the activation of intracellular signaling including RhoA and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), which are key regulators of neurite growth. In this study, we determined that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PHD2 in cultured cortical neurons prevents neurite elongation through a ROCK-dependent mechanism. We then explored the role of PHDs in axonal reorganization following a traumatic brain injury in adult mice. Unilateral destruction of motor cortex resulted in behavioral deficits due to disruption of the corticospinal tract (CST), a part of the descending motor pathway. In the spinal cord, sprouting of fibers from the intact side of the CST into the denervated side is thought to contribute to the recovery process following an injury. Intracortical infusion of PHD inhibitors into the intact side of the motor cortex abrogated spontaneous formation of CST collaterals and functional recovery after damage to the sensorimotor cortex. These findings suggest PHDs have an important role in the formation of compensatory axonal networks following an injury and may represent a new molecular target for the central nervous system disorders.

Adult c-Kit(+) progenitor cells are necessary for maintenance and regeneration of olfactory neurons.

  • Goldstein BJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The olfactory epithelium houses chemosensory neurons, which transmit odor information from the nose to the brain. In adult mammals, the olfactory epithelium is a uniquely robust neuroproliferative zone, with the ability to replenish its neuronal and non-neuronal populations due to the presence of germinal basal cells. The stem and progenitor cells of these germinal layers, and their regulatory mechanisms, remain incompletely defined. Here we show that progenitor cells expressing c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase marking stem cells in a variety of embryonic tissues, are required for maintenance of the adult neuroepithelium. Mouse genetic fate-mapping analyses show that embryonically, a c-Kit(+) population contributes to olfactory neurogenesis. In adults under conditions of normal turnover, there is relatively sparse c-Kit(+) progenitor cell (ckPC) activity. However, after experimentally induced neuroepithelial injury, ckPCs are activated such that they reconstitute the neuronal population. There are also occasional non-neuronal cells found to arise from ckPCs. Moreover, the selective depletion of the ckPC population, utilizing temporally controlled targeted diphtheria toxin A expression, results in failure of neurogenesis after experimental injury. Analysis of this model indicates that most ckPCs reside among the globose basal cell populations and act downstream of horizontal basal cells, which can serve as stem cells. Identification of the requirement for olfactory c-Kit-expressing progenitors in olfactory maintenance provides new insight into the mechanisms involved in adult olfactory neurogenesis. Additionally, we define an important and previously unrecognized site of adult c-Kit activity.

Induction of early neural precursors and derivation of tripotent neural stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells under xeno-free conditions.

  • Nguyen HX
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can differentiate into many cell types and are important for regenerative medicine; however, further work is needed to reliably differentiate hESC and hiPSC into neural-restricted multipotent derivatives or specialized cell types under conditions that are free from animal products. Toward this goal, we tested the transition of hESC and hiPSC lines onto xeno-free (XF) / feeder-free conditions and evaluated XF substrate preference, pluripotency, and karyotype. Critically, XF transitioned H9 hESC, Shef4 hESC, and iPS6-9 retained pluripotency (Oct-4 and NANOG), proliferation (MKI67 and PCNA), and normal karyotype. Subsequently, XF transitioned hESC and hiPSC were induced with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to generate neuralized spheres containing primitive neural precursors, which could differentiate into astrocytes and neurons, but not oligoprogenitors. Further neuralization of spheres via LIF supplementation and attachment selection on CELLstart substrate generated adherent human neural stem cells (hNSC) with normal karyotype and high proliferation potential under XF conditions. Interestingly, adherent hNSC derived from H9, Shef4, and iPS6-9 differentiated into significant numbers of O4+ oligoprogenitors (∼20-30%) with robust proliferation; however, very few GalC+ cells were observed (∼2-4%), indicative of early oligodendrocytic lineage commitment. Overall, these data demonstrate the transition of multiple hESC and hiPSC lines onto XF substrate and media conditions, and a reproducible neuralization method that generated neural derivatives with multipotent cell fate potential and normal karyotype.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 249845(International)
  • Wellcome Trust - 100329(United Kingdom)

Global expression profiling of globose basal cells and neurogenic progression within the olfactory epithelium.

  • Krolewski RC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ongoing, lifelong neurogenesis maintains the neuronal population of the olfactory epithelium in the face of piecemeal neuronal turnover and restores it following wholesale loss. The molecular phenotypes corresponding to different stages along the progression from multipotent globose basal cell (GBC) progenitor to differentiated olfactory sensory neuron are poorly characterized. We used the transgenic expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and cell surface markers to FACS-isolate ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs, Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs and immature neurons, and ΔOMP-eGFP(+) mature neurons from normal adult mice. In addition, the latter two populations were also collected 3 weeks after olfactory bulb ablation, a lesion that results in persistently elevated neurogenesis. Global profiling of mRNA from the populations indicates that all stages of neurogenesis share a cohort of >2,100 genes that are upregulated compared to sustentacular cells. A further cohort of >1,200 genes are specifically upregulated in GBCs as compared to sustentacular cells and differentiated neurons. The increased rate of neurogenesis caused by olfactory bulbectomy had little effect on the transcriptional profile of the Neurog1-eGFP(+) population. In contrast, the abbreviated lifespan of ΔOMP-eGFP(+) neurons born in the absence of the bulb correlated with substantial differences in gene expression as compared to the mature neurons of the normal epithelium. Detailed examination of the specific genes upregulated in the different progenitor populations revealed that the chromatin modifying complex proteins LSD1 and coREST were expressed sequentially in upstream ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs and Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs/immature neurons. The expression patterns of these proteins are dynamically regulated after activation of the epithelium by methyl bromide lesion.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U54-HL108460(United States)

Developmental dynamics of PAFAH1B subunits during mouse brain development.

  • Escamez T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) mediates an array of biological processes in the mammalian central nervous system as a bioactive lipid messenger in synaptic function and dysfunction (plasticity, memory, and neurodegeneration). The intracellular enzyme that deacetylates the PAF (PAFAH1B) is composed of a tetramer of two catalytic subunits, ALPHA1 (PAFAH1B3) and ALPHA2 (PAFAH1B2), and a regulatory dimer of LIS1 (PAFAH1B1). We have investigated the mouse PAFAH1B subunit genes during brain development in normal mice and in mice with a hypomorphic allele for Lis1 (Lis1/sLis1; Cahana et al. [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6429-6434). We have analyzed quantitatively (by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction) and qualitatively (by in situ hybridization techniques) the amounts and expression patterns of their transcription in developing and postnatal brain, focusing mainly on differences in two laminated encephalic regions, the forebrain (telencephalon) and hindbrain (cerebellum) separately. The results revealed significant differences in cDNA content between these two brain subdivisions but, more importantly, between the LIS1 complex subunits. In addition, we found significant spatial differences in gene expression patterns. Comparison of results obtained with Lis1/sLis1 analysis also revealed significant temporal and spatial differences in Alpha1 and Lis1 expression levels. Thus, small changes in the amount of the Lis1 gene may differentially regulate expression of Alpha1 and Alpha2, depending on the brain region, which suggests different roles for each LIS1 complex subunit during neural differentiation and neural migration.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250128(International)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS032385(United States)