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Peroxidase-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) (min X Bov,Ck,Gt,GP,Sy Hms,Hrs,Hu,Ms,Rat,Shp Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_10015282

β3 -adrenoceptor stimulation of perivascular adipocytes leads to increased fat cell-derived nitric oxide and vascular relaxation in small arteries.

  • Bussey CE
  • Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2018 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In response to norepinephrine healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on adjacent small arterial tissue. Organ bath solution transfer experiments have demonstrated the release of PVAT-derived relaxing factors that mediate this function. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanism responsible for the norepinephrine-induced PVAT anticontractile effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro rat small arterial contractile function was assessed using wire myography in the presence and absence of PVAT and the effects of sympathomimetic stimulation on the PVAT environment explored using Western blotting and assays of organ bath buffer. KEY RESULTS: PVAT elicited an anticontractile effect in response to norepinephrine but not phenylephrine stimulation. In arteries surrounded by intact PVAT, the β3 -adrenoceptor agonist, CL-316,243 reduced the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine but not norepinephrine. Kv 7 channel inhibition using XE 991 reversed the norepinephrine-induced anticontractile effect in exogenously applied PVAT studies. Adrenergic stimulation of PVAT with norepinephrine and CL-316,243, but not phenylephrine was associated with increased adipocyte-derived nitric oxide production and the contractile response to norepinephrine was augmented following incubation of exogenous PVAT with L-NMMA. PVAT from eNOS-/- mice had no anticontractile effect. Assays of adipocyte cAMP demonstrated an increase with norepinephrine stimulation implicating Gαs signalling in this process. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We have shown that adipocyte-located β3 -adrenoceptor stimulation leads to activation of Gαs signaling pathways with increased cAMP and the release of adipocyte-derived nitric oxide. This process is dependent upon Kv 7 channel function. We conclude that adipocyte-derived nitric oxide plays a central role in anticontractile activity when rodent PVAT is stimulated by norepinephrine.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24 RR017718(United States)

Co-polymers of Actin and Tropomyosin Account for a Major Fraction of the Human Actin Cytoskeleton.

  • Meiring JCM
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tropomyosin proteins form stable coiled-coil dimers that polymerize along the α-helical groove of actin filaments [1]. The actin cytoskeleton consists of both co-polymers of actin and tropomyosin and polymers of tropomyosin-free actin [2]. The fundamental distinction between these two types of filaments is that tropomyosin determines the functional capability of actin filaments in an isoform-dependent manner [3-9]. However, it is unknown what portion of actin filaments are associated with tropomyosin. To address this deficit, we have measured the relative distribution between these two filament populations by quantifying tropomyosin and actin levels in a variety of human cell types, including bone (U2OS); breast epithelial (MCF-10A); transformed breast epithelial (MCF-7); and primary (BJpar), immortalized (BJeH), and Ras-transformed (BJeLR) BJ fibroblasts [10]. Our measurements of tropomyosin and actin predict the saturation of the actin cytoskeleton, implying that tropomyosin binding must be inhibited in order to generate tropomyosin-free actin filaments. We find the majority of actin filaments to be associated with tropomyosin in four of the six cell lines tested and the portion of actin filaments associated with tropomyosin to decrease with transformation. We also discover that high-molecular-weight (HMW), unlike low-molecular-weight (LMW), tropomyosin isoforms are primarily co-polymerized with actin in untransformed cells. This differential partitioning of tropomyosins is not due to a lack of N-terminal acetylation of LMW tropomyosins, but it is, in part, explained by the susceptibility of soluble HMW tropomyosins to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that actin-tropomyosin co-polymers make up a major fraction of the human actin cytoskeleton.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1000213(United Kingdom)

Interdomain Stabilization Impairs CD4 Binding and Improves Immunogenicity of the HIV-1 Envelope Trimer.

  • Zhang P
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike is a trimer of gp120/gp41 heterodimers that mediates viral entry. Binding to CD4 on the host cell membrane is the first essential step for infection but disrupts the native antigenic state of Env, posing a key obstacle to vaccine development. We locked the HIV-1 Env trimer in a pre-fusion configuration, resulting in impaired CD4 binding and enhanced binding to broadly neutralizing antibodies. This design was achieved via structure-guided introduction of neo-disulfide bonds bridging the gp120 inner and outer domains and was successfully applied to soluble trimers and native gp160 from different HIV-1 clades. Crystallization illustrated the structural basis for CD4-binding impairment. Immunization of rabbits with locked trimers from two different clades elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier-2 viruses with a repaired glycan shield regardless of treatment with a functional CD4 mimic. Thus, interdomain stabilization provides a widely applicable template for the design of Env-based HIV-1 vaccines.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 AI999999()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AI001197-01()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AI001197-02()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AI001197-03()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI067891-01A1(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI094797()

Adrenal serotonin derives from accumulation by the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter.

  • Brindley RL
  • Pharmacol. Res.
  • 2018 Jun 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adrenal chromaffin cells comprise the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and secrete catecholamines to coordinate the appropriate stress response. Deletion of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) gene in mice (SERT-/- mice) or pharmacological block of SERT function in rodents and humans augments this sympathoadrenal stress response (epinephrine secretion). The prevailing assumption is that loss of CNS SERT alters central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells also prominently express SERT where it might coordinate accumulation of 5-HT for reuse in the autocrine control of stress-evoked catecholamine secretion. To help test this hypothesis, we have generated a novel mouse model with selective excision of SERT in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SERTΔTH), generated by crossing floxed SERT mice with tyrosine hydroxylase Cre driver mice. SERT expression, assessed by western blot, was abolished in the adrenal gland but not perturbed in the CNS of SERTΔTH mice. SERT-mediated [3H] 5-HT uptake was unaltered in midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord synaptosomes, confirming transporter function was intact in the CNS. Endogenous midbrain and whole blood 5-HT homeostasis was unperturbed in SERTΔTH mice, contrasting with the depleted 5-HT content in SERT-/- mice. Selective SERT excision reduced adrenal gland 5-HT content by ≈ 50% in SERTΔTH mice but had no effect on adrenal catecholamine content. This novel model confirms that SERT expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells is essential for maintaining wild-type levels of 5-HT and provides a powerful tool to help dissect the role of SERT in the sympathetic stress response.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

PRC1 Fine-tunes Gene Repression and Activation to Safeguard Skin Development and Stem Cell Specification.

  • Cohen I
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) 1 and 2 are essential chromatin regulators of cell identity. PRC1, a dominant executer of Polycomb-mediated control, functions as multiple sub-complexes that possess catalytic-dependent H2AK119 mono-ubiquitination (H2AK119ub) and catalytic-independent activities. Here, we show that, despite its well-established repressor functions, PRC1 binds to both silent and active genes. Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, we show that global PRC1 function is essential for skin development and stem cell (SC) specification, whereas PRC1 catalytic activity is dispensable. Further dissection demonstrated that both canonical and non-canonical PRC1 complexes bind to repressed genes, marked by H2AK119ub and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3. Interestingly, loss of canonical PRC1, PRC1 catalytic activity, or PRC2 leads to expansion of mechanosensitive Merkel cells in neonatal skin. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes, however, also bind to and promote expression of genes critical for skin development and SC formation. Together, our findings highlight PRC1's diverse roles in executing a precise developmental program.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R00 AR057817()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR063724()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS055261(United States)

ORY-1001, a Potent and Selective Covalent KDM1A Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Acute Leukemia.

  • Maes T
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lysine-specific demethylase KDM1A is a key regulator of stem cell potential in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). ORY-1001 is a highly potent and selective KDM1A inhibitor that induces H3K4me2 accumulation on KDM1A target genes, blast differentiation, and reduction of leukemic stem cell capacity in AML. ORY-1001 exhibits potent synergy with standard-of-care drugs and selective epigenetic inhibitors, reduces growth of an AML xenograft model, and extends survival in a mouse PDX (patient-derived xenograft) model of T cell acute leukemia. Surrogate pharmacodynamic biomarkers developed based on expression changes in leukemia cell lines were translated to samples from patients treated with ORY-1001. ORY-1001 is a selective KDM1A inhibitor in clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in patients with leukemia and solid tumors.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 1 P50 CA121974(United States)

Importin-β Directly Regulates the Motor Activity and Turnover of a Kinesin-4.

  • Ganguly A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spatiotemporal regulation of kinesins is essential for microtubule-dependent intracellular transport. In plants, cell wall deposition depends on the FRA1 kinesin, whose abundance and motility are tightly controlled to match cellular growth rate. Here, we show that an importin-β, IMB4, regulates FRA1 activity in a developmental manner. IMB4 physically interacts with a PY motif in the FRA1 motor domain and inhibits its motility by preventing microtubule binding, while also protecting FRA1 against proteasome-mediated degradation, thus providing a mechanism to couple the motility and stability of FRA1. This regulatory mechanism is likely to be broadly applicable, based on the conservation of the PY motif in the motor domains of plant and animal kinesins and the direct interaction of multiple plant kinesins with IMB4. Together, our data establish IMB4 as a multi-functional regulator of FRA1 and reveal a mechanism for how plants control the magnitude of cargo transport needed for cell wall assembly.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA158383(United States)

Ribosome Levels Selectively Regulate Translation and Lineage Commitment in Human Hematopoiesis.

  • Khajuria RK
  • Cell
  • 2018 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blood cell formation is classically thought to occur through a hierarchical differentiation process, although recent studies have shown that lineage commitment may occur earlier in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The relevance to human blood diseases and the underlying regulation of these refined models remain poorly understood. By studying a genetic blood disorder, Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), where the majority of mutations affect ribosomal proteins and the erythroid lineage is selectively perturbed, we are able to gain mechanistic insight into how lineage commitment is programmed normally and disrupted in disease. We show that in DBA, the pool of available ribosomes is limited, while ribosome composition remains constant. Surprisingly, this global reduction in ribosome levels more profoundly alters translation of a select subset of transcripts. We show how the reduced translation of select transcripts in HSPCs can impair erythroid lineage commitment, illuminating a regulatory role for ribosome levels in cellular differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R33 HL120791()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007574()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103794()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM062917-06(United States)

Identification of PNG kinase substrates uncovers interactions with the translational repressor TRAL in the oocyte-to-embryo transition.

  • Hara M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila Pan Gu (PNG) kinase complex regulates hundreds of maternal mRNAs that become translationally repressed or activated as the oocyte transitions to an embryo. In a previous paper (Hara et al., 2017), we demonstrated PNG activity is under tight developmental control and restricted to this transition. Here, examination of PNG specificity showed it to be a Thr-kinase yet lacking a clear phosphorylation site consensus sequence. An unbiased biochemical screen for PNG substrates identified the conserved translational repressor Trailer Hitch (TRAL). Phosphomimetic mutation of the PNG phospho-sites in TRAL reduced its ability to inhibit translation in vitro. In vivo, mutation of tral dominantly suppressed png mutants and restored Cyclin B protein levels. The repressor Pumilio (PUM) has the same relationship with PNG, and we also show that PUM is a PNG substrate. Furthermore, PNG can phosphorylate BICC and ME31B, repressors that bind TRAL in cytoplasmic RNPs. Therefore, PNG likely promotes translation at the oocyte-to-embryo transition by phosphorylating and inactivating translational repressors.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP7770(Canada)
  • National Institutes of Health - GM104047()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM118090()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM39341()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM039341()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118098()

PTEN negatively regulates the cell lineage progression from NG2+ glial progenitor to oligodendrocyte via mTOR-independent signaling.

  • González-Fernández E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS. Unexpectedly, an additional deletion of mTOR did not reverse the enhanced OL development from PTEN-deficient OPCs. Instead, ablation of GSK3β, another downstream signaling molecule that is negatively regulated by PTEN-Akt, enhanced OL development. Our results suggest that PTEN persistently suppresses OL development in an mTOR-independent manner, and at least in part, via controlling GSK3β activity. OPC-targeted PTEN-GSK3β inactivation may benefit facilitated OL regeneration and myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Ellison Medical Foundation - AG-NS-1101-13()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS07693()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS089586()
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD006740(United States)
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 84298-PHI()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 85500-PHI-14()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 86600()

Repression of Adipose Tissue Fibrosis through a PRDM16-GTF2IRD1 Complex Improves Systemic Glucose Homeostasis.

  • Hasegawa Y
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of malfunction that is linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, what regulates this process remains unclear. Here we show that the PRDM16 transcriptional complex, a dominant activator of brown/beige adipocyte development, potently represses adipose tissue fibrosis in an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent manner. By purifying the PRDM16 complex, we identified GTF2IRD1, a member of the TFII-I family of DNA-binding proteins, as a cold-inducible transcription factor that mediates the repressive action of the PRDM16 complex on fibrosis. Adipocyte-selective expression of GTF2IRD1 represses adipose tissue fibrosis and improves systemic glucose homeostasis independent of body-weight loss, while deleting GTF2IRD1 promotes fibrosis in a cell-autonomous manner. GTF2IRD1 represses the transcription of transforming growth factor β-dependent pro-fibrosis genes by recruiting PRDM16 and EHMT1 onto their promoter/enhancer regions. These results suggest a mechanism by which repression of obesity-associated adipose tissue fibrosis through the PRDM16 complex leads to an improvement in systemic glucose homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK098722()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097441()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103175()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK108822()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK112304()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007418()

Rapid DNA replication origin licensing protects stem cell pluripotency.

  • Matson JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Complete and robust human genome duplication requires loading minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complexes at many DNA replication origins, an essential process termed origin licensing. Licensing is restricted to G1 phase of the cell cycle, but G1 length varies widely among cell types. Using quantitative single-cell analyses, we found that pluripotent stem cells with naturally short G1 phases load MCM much faster than their isogenic differentiated counterparts with long G1 phases. During the earliest stages of differentiation toward all lineages, MCM loading slows concurrently with G1 lengthening, revealing developmental control of MCM loading. In contrast, ectopic Cyclin E overproduction uncouples short G1 from fast MCM loading. Rapid licensing in stem cells is caused by accumulation of the MCM loading protein, Cdt1. Prematurely slowing MCM loading in pluripotent cells not only lengthens G1 but also accelerates differentiation. Thus, rapid origin licensing is an intrinsic characteristic of stem cells that contributes to pluripotency maintenance.

L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis.

  • Dou X
  • FASEB J.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ethanol causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) partly by inhibiting cell adhesion mediated by the L1 neural cell adhesion molecule. Ethanol interacts with an alcohol binding pocket in the L1 extracellular domain (ECD), and dephosphorylation of S1248 in the L1 cytoplasmic domain (CD) renders L1 adhesion insensitive to inhibition by ethanol (L1 insensitive). The mechanism underlying this inside-out signaling is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the human L1-CD at S1152, Y1176, S1181, and S1248 renders L1 sensitive to ethanol by promoting L1 coupling with ankyrin-G and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of ankyrin-G or L1 mutations that uncouple L1 from ankyrin reduce L1 sensitivity to ethanol, but not methanol, consistent with a small conformational change in the extracellular alcohol binding pocket. Phosphorylation of Y1176 and ankyrin-G coupling with L1 are higher in NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines in which ethanol inhibits L1 adhesion than in ethanol-resistant NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines. Similarly, phosphorylation of Y1176 is higher in C57BL/6J mice that are sensitive to ethanol teratogenesis than in ethanol resistant C57BL/6N mice. Finally, polymorphisms in genes that encode ankyrin-G and p90rsk, a kinase that phosphorylates S1152, are linked to facial dysmorphology in children with heavy prenatal ethanol exposure. These findings indicate that genes that regulate L1 coupling to ankyrin may influence susceptibility to FASD.-Dou, X., Menkari, C., Mitsuyama, R., Foroud, T., Wetherill, L., Hammond, P., Suttie, M., Chen, X., Chen, S.-Y., Charness, M. E., Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA70907(United States)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P50 AA024337()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA020265()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021434()

YAP/TAZ and Hedgehog Coordinate Growth and Patterning in Gastrointestinal Mesenchyme.

  • Cotton JL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

YAP/TAZ are the major mediators of mammalian Hippo signaling; however, their precise function in the gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. Here we dissect the distinct roles of YAP/TAZ in endodermal epithelium and mesenchyme and find that, although dispensable for gastrointestinal epithelial development and homeostasis, YAP/TAZ function as the critical molecular switch to coordinate growth and patterning in gut mesenchyme. Our genetic analyses reveal that Lats1/2 kinases suppress expansion of the primitive mesenchymal progenitors, where YAP activation also prevents induction of the smooth muscle lineage through transcriptional repression of Myocardin. During later development, zone-restricted downregulation of YAP/TAZ provides the positional cue and allows smooth muscle cell differentiation induced by Hedgehog signaling. Taken together, our studies identify the mesenchymal requirement of YAP/TAZ in the gastrointestinal tract and highlight the functional interplays between Hippo and Hedgehog signaling underlying temporal and spatial control of tissue growth and specification in developing gut.

Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction.

  • Hurtado E
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI) is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB) in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min). Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1) protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

  • Brejc K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

Molecular and Circuit-Dynamical Identification of Top-Down Neural Mechanisms for Restraint of Reward Seeking.

  • Kim CK
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reward-seeking behavior is fundamental to survival, but suppression of this behavior can be essential as well, even for rewards of high value. In humans and rodents, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in suppressing reward seeking; however, despite vital significance in health and disease, the neural circuitry through which mPFC regulates reward seeking remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that a specific subset of superficial mPFC projections to a subfield of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons naturally encodes the decision to initiate or suppress reward seeking when faced with risk of punishment. A highly resolved subpopulation of these top-down projecting neurons, identified by 2-photon Ca2+ imaging and activity-dependent labeling to recruit the relevant neurons, was found capable of suppressing reward seeking. This natural activity-resolved mPFC-to-NAc projection displayed unique molecular-genetic and microcircuit-level features concordant with a conserved role in the regulation of reward-seeking behavior, providing cellular and anatomical identifiers of behavioral and possible therapeutic significance.

Selective Silencing of Hippocampal Parvalbumin Interneurons Induces Development of Recurrent Spontaneous Limbic Seizures in Mice.

  • Drexel M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and is generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice. Subsequently, mice were subjected to telemetric EEG recording and video monitoring. Eighty-eight percent of the mice presented clusters of spike-wave discharges (C-SWDs; 40.0 ± 9.07/month), and 64% showed spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs; 5.3 ± 0.83/month). Mice injected with a control vector presented with neither C-SWDs nor SRSs. No neurodegeneration was observed due to vector injection or SRS. Interestingly, mice that presented with only C-SWDs but no SRSs, developed SRSs upon injection of a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole after 6 weeks. The initial frequency of SRSs declined by ∼30% after 5 weeks. In contrast to permanent silencing of PV neurons, transient inhibition of GABA release from PV neurons through the designer receptor hM4Di selectively expressed in PV-containing neurons transiently reduced the seizure threshold of the mice but induced neither acute nor recurrent seizures. Our data demonstrate a critical role for perisomatic inhibition mediated by PV-containing interneurons, suggesting that their sustained silencing could be causally involved in the development of TLE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) generally takes years after an initial insult during which maladaptation of hippocampal circuitries takes place. In human TLE and in animal models of TLE, parvalbumin neurons are selectively lost in the subiculum, the major output area of the hippocampus. The present experiments demonstrate that specific and sustained inhibition of GABA release from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (mostly basket cells) in sector CA1/subiculum is sufficient to induce hyperexcitability and spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. As in patients with nonlesional TLE, these mice developed epilepsy without signs of neurodegeneration. The experiments highlight the importance of the potent inhibitory action mediated by parvalbumin cells in the hippocampus and identify a potential mechanism in the development of TLE.

The polysialic acid mimetics idarubicin and irinotecan stimulate neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth and signal via protein kinase C.

  • Loers G
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. In the adult, PSA plays a role in the immune system, and PSA mimetics promote functional recovery after nervous system injury. In search for novel small molecule mimetics of PSA that are applicable for therapy, we identified idarubicin, an antineoplastic anthracycline, and irinotecan, an antineoplastic agent of the topoisomerase I inhibitor class, as PSA mimetics using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Idarubicin and irinotecan compete with the PSA-mimicking peptide and colominic acid, the bacterial analog of PSA, for binding to the PSA-specific monoclonal antibody 735. Idarubicin and irinotecan stimulate neurite outgrowth and survival of cultured cerebellar neurons after oxidative stress via protein kinase C and Erk1/2 in a similar manner as colominic acid, whereas Fyn, casein kinase II and the phosphatase and tensin homolog are only involved in idarubicin and irinotecan-stimulated neurite outgrowth. These novel results show that the structure and function of PSA can be mimicked by the small organic compounds irinotecan and idarubicin which trigger the same signaling cascades as PSA, thus introducing the possibility of retargeting these drugs to treat nervous system injuries.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078385(United States)
  • PHS HHS - HHSN261200800001E(United States)

Amount of fear extinction changes its underlying mechanisms.

  • An B
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

There has been a longstanding debate on whether original fear memory is inhibited or erased after extinction. One possibility that reconciles this uncertainty is that the inhibition and erasure mechanisms are engaged in different phases (early or late) of extinction. In this study, using single-session extinction training and its repetition (multiple-session extinction training), we investigated the inhibition and erasure mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of rats, where neural circuits underlying extinction reside. The inhibition mechanism was prevalent with single-session extinction training but faded when single-session extinction training was repeated. In contrast, the erasure mechanism became prevalent when single-session extinction training was repeated. Moreover, ablating the intercalated neurons of amygdala, which are responsible for maintaining extinction-induced inhibition, was no longer effective in multiple-session extinction training. We propose that the inhibition mechanism operates primarily in the early phase of extinction training, and the erasure mechanism takes over after that.

Pasireotide Therapy of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1-Associated Neuroendocrine Tumors in Female Mice Deleted for an Men1 Allele Improves Survival and Reduces Tumor Progression.

  • Walls GV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pasireotide, a somatostatin analog, is reported to have anti-proliferative effects in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We therefore assessed the efficacy of pasireotide for treating pancreatic and pituitary NETs that develop in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Men1(+/-) mice were treated from age 12 mo with 40 mg/kg pasireotide long-acting release formulation, or PBS, intramuscularly monthly for 9 mo. The Men1(+/-) mice had magnetic resonance imaging at 12 and 21 mo, and from 20 mo oral 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine for 1 mo, to assess tumor development and proliferation, respectively. NETs were collected at age 21 mo, and proliferation and apoptosis assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays, respectively. Pasireotide-treated Men1(+/-) mice had increased survival (pasireotide, 80.9% vs PBS, 65.2%; P < .05), with fewer mice developing pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 86.9% vs PBS, 96.9%; P < .05) and smaller increases in pituitary NET volumes (pre-treated vs post-treated, 0.803 ± 0.058 mm(3) vs 2.872 ± 0.728 mm(3) [pasireotide] compared with 0.844 ± 0.066 mm(3) vs 8.847 ±1.948 mm(3) [PBS]; P < .01). In addition, pasireotide-treated mice had fewer pancreatic NETs compared with PBS-treated mice (2.36 ± 0.25 vs 3.72 ± 0.32, respectively; P < .001), with decreased proliferation in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.35 ± 0.03% vs PBS, 0.78 ± 0.08%; P < .0001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 0.73 ±0.07% vs PBS, 1.81 ± 0.15%; P < .0001), but increased apoptosis in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.42 ± 0.05% vs PBS, 0.19 ± 0.03%; P < .001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 14.75 ± 1.58% vs PBS, 2.35 ± 0.44%; P < .001). Thus, pasireotide increased survival and inhibited pancreatic and pituitary NET growth, thereby indicating its potential as an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic therapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21NS073585-01A1(United States)

Control of PNG kinase, a key regulator of mRNA translation, is coupled to meiosis completion at egg activation.

  • Hara M
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The oocyte-to-embryo transition involves extensive changes in mRNA translation, regulated in Drosophila by the PNG kinase complex whose activity we show here to be under precise developmental control. Despite presence of the catalytic PNG subunit and the PLU and GNU activating subunits in the mature oocyte, GNU is phosphorylated at Cyclin B/CDK1sites and unable to bind PNG and PLU. In vitro phosphorylation of GNU by CyclinB/CDK1 blocks activation of PNG. Meiotic completion promotes GNU dephosphorylation and PNG kinase activation to regulate translation. The critical regulatory effect of phosphorylation is shown by replacement in the oocyte with a phosphorylation-resistant form of GNU, which promotes PNG-GNU complex formation, elevation of Cyclin B, and meiotic defects consistent with premature PNG activation. After PNG activation GNU is destabilized, thus inactivating PNG. This short-lived burst in kinase activity links development with maternal mRNA translation and ensures irreversibility of the oocyte-to-embryo transition.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM039341()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118098()

PPARβ Is Essential for Maintaining Normal Levels of PGC-1α and Mitochondria and for the Increase in Muscle Mitochondria Induced by Exercise.

  • Koh JH
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the specific mechanism(s) by which PPARβ regulates mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle. We discovered that PPARβ increases PGC-1α by protecting it from degradation by binding to PGC-1α and limiting ubiquitination. PPARβ also induces an increase in nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) expression, resulting in increases in mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and MEF2A, for which NRF-1 is a transcription factor. There was also an increase in AMP kinase phosphorylation mediated by an NRF-1-induced increase in CAM kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ). Knockdown of PPARβ resulted in large decreases in the levels of PGC-1α and mitochondrial proteins and a marked attenuation of the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, PPARβ induces an increase in PGC-1α protein, and PPARβ is a transcription factor for NRF-1. Thus, PPARβ plays essential roles in the maintenance and adaptive increase in mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle by exercise.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5K01NS085071-03(United States)

A MEN1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour mouse model under temporal control.

  • Lines KE
  • Endocr Connect
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception or tumour development occurs asynchronously. To generate a temporally controlled conditional mouse model, we crossbred mice with the MEN1 gene floxed by LoxP sites (Men1L/L ), and mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the rat insulin promoter (RIP2-CreER), to establish a pancreatic β-cell-specific NET model under temporal control (Men1L/L /RIP2-CreER). Men1L/L /RIP2-CreER mice aged ~3 months were given tamoxifen in the diet for 5 days, and pancreata harvested 2-2.5, 2.9-3.5 and 4.5-5.5 months later. Control mice did not express Cre and did not receive tamoxifen. Immunostaining of pancreata from tamoxifen-treated Men1L/L /RIP2-CreER mice, compared to control mice, showed at all ages: loss of menin in all islets; increased islet area (>4.2-fold); increased proliferation of insulin immunostaining β-cells (>2.3-fold) and decreased proliferation of glucagon immunostaining α-cells (>1.7-fold). There were no gender and apoptotic or proliferation differences, and extra-pancreatic tumours were not detected. Thus, we have established a mouse model (Men1L/L /RIP2-CreER) to study early events in the development of pancreatic β-cell NETs.

The duplication mutation of Quebec platelet disorder dysregulates PLAU, but not C10orf55, selectively increasing production of normal PLAU transcripts by megakaryocytes but not granulocytes.

  • Hayward CP
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Mar 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Quebec Platelet disorder (QPD) is a unique bleeding disorder that markedly increases urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in megakaryocytes and platelets but not in plasma or urine. The cause is tandem duplication of a 78 kb region of chromosome 10 containing PLAU (the uPA gene) and C10orf55, a gene of unknown function. QPD increases uPA in platelets and megakaryocytes >100 fold, far more than expected for a gene duplication. To investigate the tissue-specific effect that PLAU duplication has on gene expression and transcript structure in QPD, we tested if QPD leads to: 1) overexpression of normal or unique PLAU transcripts; 2) increased uPA in leukocytes; 3) altered levels of C10orf55 mRNA and/or protein in megakaryocytes and leukocytes; and 4) global changes in megakaryocyte gene expression. Primary cells and cultured megakaryocytes from donors were prepared for quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction analyses, RNA-seq and protein expression analyses. Rapidly isolated blood leukocytes from QPD subjects showed only a 3.9 fold increase in PLAU transcript levels, in keeping with the normal to minimally increased uPA in affinity purified, QPD leukocytes. All subjects had more uPA in granulocytes than monocytes and minimal uPA in lymphocytes. QPD leukocytes expressed PLAU alleles in proportions consistent with an extra copy of PLAU on the disease chromosome, unlike QPD megakaryocytes. QPD PLAU transcripts were consistent with reference gene models, with a much higher proportion of reads originating from the disease chromosome in megakaryocytes than granulocytes. QPD and control megakaryocytes contained minimal reads for C10orf55, and C10orf55 protein was not increased in QPD megakaryocytes or platelets. Finally, our QPD megakaryocyte transcriptome analysis revealed a global down regulation of the interferon type 1 pathway. We suggest that the low endogenous levels of uPA in blood are actively regulated, and that the regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in QPD in a megakaryocyte-specific manner.

p27Kip1 promotes invadopodia turnover and invasion through the regulation of the PAK1/Cortactin pathway.

  • Jeannot P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.

Context Specificity in Causal Signaling Networks Revealed by Phosphoprotein Profiling.

  • Hill SM
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling networks downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases are among the most extensively studied biological networks, but new approaches are needed to elucidate causal relationships between network components and understand how such relationships are influenced by biological context and disease. Here, we investigate the context specificity of signaling networks within a causal conceptual framework using reverse-phase protein array time-course assays and network analysis approaches. We focus on a well-defined set of signaling proteins profiled under inhibition with five kinase inhibitors in 32 contexts: four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, UACC812, BT20, and BT549) under eight stimulus conditions. The data, spanning multiple pathways and comprising ∼70,000 phosphoprotein and ∼260,000 protein measurements, provide a wealth of testable, context-specific hypotheses, several of which we experimentally validate. Furthermore, the data provide a unique resource for computational methods development, permitting empirical assessment of causal network learning in a complex, mammalian setting.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_0801/1()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_1302/3()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA112970()

Artemisinins Target GABAA Receptor Signaling and Impair α Cell Identity.

  • Li J
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm. We show that the protein gephyrin is the mammalian target of these antimalarial drugs and that the mechanism of action of these molecules depends on the enhancement of GABAA receptor signaling. Our results in zebrafish, rodents, and primary human pancreatic islets identify gephyrin as a druggable target for the regeneration of pancreatic β cell mass from α cells.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD084409(United States)

Coexpression of auxiliary subunits KChIP and DPPL in potassium channel Kv4-positive nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

  • Cheng CF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the somata of nociceptors and spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons, which sense and modulate pain, respectively. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. Accumulative evidence suggests that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits and two types of auxiliary subunits: K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). Previous reports have shown Kv4.3 in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and Kv4.2/Kv4.3 in certain spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons. However, whether and which KChIP and DPPL are coexpressed with Kv4 in these ISA -expressing pain-related neurons is unknown. In this study we mapped the protein distribution of KChIP1, KChIP2, KChIP3, DPP6, and DPP10 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. In the DRG, we found colocalization of KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP10 in the somatic surface and cytoplasm of Kv4.3(+) nociceptors. KChIP3 appears in most Aβ and Aδ sensory neurons as well as a small population of peptidergic nociceptors, whereas DPP6 is absent in sensory neurons. In the spinal cord, KChIP1 is coexpressed with Kv4.3 in the cell bodies of a subset of lamina II excitatory interneurons, while KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP6 are colocalized with Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in their dendrites. Within the dorsal horn, besides KChIP3 in the inner lamina II and lamina III, we detected DPP10 in most projection neurons, which transmit pain signal to brain. The results suggest the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complexes in ISA -expressing nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30NS048154(United States)
  • PHS HHS - T32 016434-33(United States)

Activins A and B Regulate Fate-Determining Gene Expression in Islet Cell Lines and Islet Cells From Male Mice.

  • Andrzejewski D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

TGFβ superfamily ligands, receptors, and second messengers, including activins A and B, have been identified in pancreatic islets and proposed to have important roles regulating development, proliferation, and function. We previously demonstrated that Fstl3 (an antagonist of activin activity) null mice have larger islets with β-cell hyperplasia and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the absence of altered β-cell proliferation. This suggested the hypothesis that increased activin signaling influences β-cell expansion by destabilizing the α-cell phenotype and promoting transdifferentiation to β-cells. We tested the first part of this hypothesis by treating α- and β-cell lines and sorted mouse islet cells with activin and related ligands. Treatment of the αTC1-6 α cell line with activins A or B suppressed critical α-cell gene expression, including Arx, glucagon, and MafB while also enhancing β-cell gene expression. In INS-1E β-cells, activin A treatment induced a significant increase in Pax4 (a fate determining β-cell gene) and insulin expression. In sorted primary islet cells, α-cell gene expression was again suppressed by activin treatment in α-cells, whereas Pax4 was enhanced in β-cells. Activin treatment in both cell lines and primary cells resulted in phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic-2 phosphorylation. Finally, treatment of αTC1-6 cells with activins A or B significantly inhibited proliferation. These results support the hypothesis that activin signaling destabilized the α-cell phenotype while promoting a β-cell fate. Moreover, these results support a model in which the β-cell expansion observed in Fstl3 null mice may be due, at least in part, to enhanced α- to β-cell transdifferentiation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 43881(Canada)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK069351(United States)

Immunohistochemical localization of DPP10 in rat brain supports the existence of a Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in neurons.

  • Wang WC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the cell bodies of hippocampal and neocortical interneurons as well as neocortical pyramidal neurons. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. It has been proposed that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits, K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). However, colocalization evidence was still lacking. The distribution of DPP10 mRNA in rodent brain has been reported but its protein localization remains unknown. In this study, we generated a DPP10 antibody to label DPP10 protein in adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. Absent from glia, DPP10 proteins appear mainly in the cell bodies of DPP10(+) neurons, not only at the plasma membrane but also in the cytoplasm. At least 6.4% of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus coexpressed Kv4.3, KChIP1, and DPP10, with the highest density in the CA1 strata alveus/oriens/pyramidale and the dentate hilus. Colocalization of Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10 was also detected in at least 6.9% of inhibitory interneurons scattered throughout the neocortex. Both hippocampal and neocortical Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10(+) inhibitory interneurons expressed parvalbumin or somatostatin, but not calbindin or calretinin. Furthermore, we found colocalization of Kv4.2/Kv4.3/KChIP3/DPP10 in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons and olfactory bulb mitral cells. Together, although DPP10 is also expressed in some brain neurons lacking Kv4 (such as parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive Golgi cells in the cerebellum), colocalization of DPP10 with Kv4 and KChIP at the plasma membrane of ISA -expressing neuron somata supports the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in vivo.

Opposing effects of membrane-anchored CX3CL1 on amyloid and tau pathologies via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  • Lee S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk genes are specifically expressed by microglia within the CNS. However, the mechanisms by which microglia regulate the pathological hallmarks of AD--extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)--remain to be established. Notably, deficiency for the microglial CX3CR1 receptor has opposing effects on Aβ and MAPT pathologies. CX3CL1, the neuronally derived cognate ligand for CX3CR1, signals both in membrane-anchored and soluble forms. In this study, we sought to determine the relative contribution on membrane-anchored versus soluble CX3CL1 in regulating the microglia-mediated amelioration of Aβ pathology, as well as provide insight into the potential downstream microglial-based mechanisms. As expected, CX3CL1 deficiency reduced Aβ deposition in APPPS1 animals in a similar manner to CX3CR1 deficiency. Surprisingly, however, CX3CL1-deficient APPPS1 animals exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite reduced amyloid burden. Importantly, neither of these phenotypes was altered by transgenic expression of the soluble CX3CL1 isoform, suggesting that it is the membrane-anchored version of CX3CL1 that regulates microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and neuronal MAPT phosphorylation. Analysis of transcript levels in purified microglia isolated from APPPS1 mice with the various CX3CL1/CX3CR1 genotypes revealed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and phagocytic markers, which was associated with activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Aβ internalization within microglia. Together, these studies challenge the "frustrated phagocytosis" concept and suggest that neuronal-microglial communication link the two central AD pathologies.

Progressive disorganization of paranodal junctions and compact myelin due to loss of DCC expression by oligodendrocytes.

  • Bull SJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Paranodal axoglial junctions are critical for maintaining the segregation of axonal domains along myelinated axons; however, the proteins required to organize and maintain this structure are not fully understood. Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) are proteins enriched at paranodes that are expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes. To identify the specific function of DCC expressed by oligodendrocytes in vivo, we selectively eliminated DCC from mature myelinating oligodendrocytes using an inducible cre regulated by the proteolipid protein promoter. We demonstrate that DCC deletion results in progressive disruption of the organization of axonal domains, myelin ultrastructure, and myelin protein composition. Conditional DCC knock-out mice develop balance and coordination deficits and exhibit decreased conduction velocity. We conclude that DCC expression by oligodendrocytes is required for the maintenance and stability of myelin in vivo, which is essential for proper signal conduction in the CNS.

Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

  • Côté MP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087632(United States)

Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on leptin and leptin receptor protein expression in the carotid body.

  • Messenger SA
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study was done to investigate whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induced changes in leptin and leptin receptor protein levels, and known downstream mediators of leptin receptor signaling in the carotid body. Rats were subjected to CIH (120s normoxia, 80s hypoxia) or normoxia for 8h/day to either short term (7 days) or long term CIH exposure (95 days). After both 7 and 95 days of CIH, carotid body leptin protein expression was decreased, while protein levels of the long form leptin receptor (OB-Rb) were elevated. On the other hand, protein expression levels of the short form leptin receptor (OB-R100) were unchanged. Furthermore, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) protein levels were found to be significantly decreased at only the 7 day period. On the other hand, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein levels were elevated at only the 7 day period, while phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) was elevated only at the 95 day period. In both the normoxia and the CIH groups, carotid body leptin was decreased at the 95 day period compared to 7 days. However, OB-Rb or Ob-R100 protein levels were not changed in the normoxic or CIH group at either time point. Furthermore, pSTAT3 protein levels were found to be significantly higher, while SOCS3 levels were significantly lower in the 95 day CIH group compared to the 7 day CIH group. Taken together, these data indicate that CIH induces changes in leptin and leptin downstream signaling proteins within the carotid bodies which may contribute to alterations in carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - P41 HG002273(United States)