X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Rabbit anti-Calbindin D-28k antibody

RRID:AB_10000340

Antibody ID

AB_10000340

Target Antigen

Rabbit anti-Calbindin D-28k rat

Proper Citation

(Swant Cat# CB 38, RRID:AB_10000340)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

crossreacts with calbindin D-28k from many other species, including human, monkey, rat, mouse chicken and fish

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Swant

Cat Num

CB 38

Publications that use this research resource

Cone synapses in mammalian retinal rod bipolar cells.

  • Pang JJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k. All synapses in the outer plexiform layer were labeled for synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and PSD (postsynaptic density)-95, and those that coincided with PNA resided closest to bipolar cell somas. Cone-RBC synaptic contacts were identified by: (a) RBC dendrites deeply invaginating into the center of cone pedicles (invaginating synapses), (b) RBC dendritic spines intruding into the surface of cone pedicles (superficial synapses), and (c) PKCα immunoreactivity coinciding with synaptic marker SV2, PSD-95, mGluR6, G protein beta 5 or PNA at cone pedicles. One RBC could form 0-1 invaginating and 1-3 superficial contacts with cones. 20.7% and 38.9% of mouse RBCs contacted cones in the peripheral and central retina (p < .05, n = 14 samples), respectively, while 34.4% (peripheral) and 48.5% (central) of cones contacted RBCs (p > .05). In baboon retinas (n = 4 samples), cone-RBC contacts involved 12.2% of RBCs (n = 416 cells) and 22.5% of cones (n = 225 cells). This suggests that rod and cone signals in the ON pathway are integrated in some RBCs before reaching AII amacrine cells.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY002520()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY004446()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY019908()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS056427(United States)

Effects of early eye removal on the morphology of a multisensory neuron in the chicken optic tectum.

  • Lischka K
  • Brain Res.
  • 2018 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The midbrain is a subcortical area involved in central functions such as integrating sensory modalities, movement initiation and bottom-up and top-down attention. In chicken, the midbrain roof is termed optic tectum (TeO) and consists of 15 layers with distinct in- and output regions. Visual input targets the superficial layers, while auditory input terminates in deeper layers. It has been shown that ablation of sensory epithelia leads to changes in the cellular patterning and structural organization of the sensory pathways. For the tectum, ablation of the eye anlagen was shown to affect retinorecipient neurons. While the gross morphology remained intact after enucleation, the shape of dendritic endings was changed presumably due to missing presynaptic input during synaptic pruning. We investigated the effect of deafferentation in a multisensory cell type, the Shepherd's crook neuron (SCN) in the TeO. SCNs have distinct dendritic branches in retinorecipient layers (superficial layers 1 to 5 and 7) and in layers where auditory input terminates. To assess whether removal of a single sensory input only affects the dendrites recipient for that input, we removed the eye anlagen and retrogradely labeled SCNs later in embryogenesis to visualize the morphology in lesioned and non-lesioned embryos. We found no changes in the gross morphology or in the basal dendrites, but an altered growth of the fine structures at the apical dendrite of SCNs in the retinorecipient layers. Our data indicate that the neuronal morphology of SCNs is mostly predefined before retinal innervation affect the fine structure.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY020581(United States)

Morphological evidence for novel enteric neuronal circuitry in guinea pig distal colon.

  • Smolilo DJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is unique compared to all other internal organs; it is the only organ with its own nervous system and its own population of intrinsic sensory neurons, known as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). How these IPANs form neuronal circuits with other functional classes of neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is incompletely understood. We used a combination of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the topographical distribution of specific classes of neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon, including putative IPANs, with other classes of enteric neurons. These findings were based on immunoreactivity to the neuronal markers, calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase. We then correlated the varicose outputs formed by putative IPANs with subclasses of excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. We revealed that calbindin-immunoreactive varicosities form specialized structures resembling 'baskets' within the majority of myenteric ganglia, which were arranged in clusters around calretinin-immunoreactive neurons. These calbindin baskets directly arose from projections of putative IPANs and represent morphological evidence of preferential input from sensory neurons directly to a select group of calretinin neurons. Our findings uncovered that these neurons are likely to be ascending excitatory interneurons and excitatory motor neurons. Our study reveals for the first time in the colon, a novel enteric neural circuit, whereby calbindin-immunoreactive putative sensory neurons form specialized varicose structures that likely direct synaptic outputs to excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. This circuit likely forms the basis of polarized neuronal pathways underlying motility.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR18522(United States)

Perineuronal Nets in the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Regulate GABAergic Transmission and Delay Eyeblink Conditioning.

  • Hirono M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Perineuronal nets (PNNs), composed mainly of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, are the extracellular matrix that surrounds cell bodies, proximal dendrites, and axon initial segments of adult CNS neurons. PNNs are known to regulate neuronal plasticity, although their physiological roles in cerebellar functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the contribution of PNNs to GABAergic transmission from cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) to large glutamatergic neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) in male mice by recording IPSCs from cerebellar slices, in which PNNs were depleted with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). We found that PNN depletion increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs and enhanced the paired-pulse depression. ChABC treatment also facilitated spontaneous IPSCs and increased the miniature IPSC frequency without changing not only the amplitude but also the density of PC terminals, suggesting that PNN depletion enhances presynaptic GABA release. We also demonstrated that the enhanced GABAergic transmission facilitated rebound firing in large glutamatergic DCN neurons, which is expected to result in the efficient induction of synaptic plasticity at synapses onto DCN neurons. Furthermore, we tested whether PNN depletion affects cerebellar motor learning. Mice having received the enzyme into the interpositus nuclei, which are responsible for delay eyeblink conditioning, exhibited the conditioned response at a significantly higher rate than control mice. Therefore, our results suggest that PNNs of the DCN suppress GABAergic transmission between PCs and large glutamatergic DCN neurons and restrict synaptic plasticity associated with motor learning in the adult cerebellum.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are one of the extracellular matrices of adult CNS neurons and implicated in regulating various brain functions. Here we found that enzymatic PNN depletion in the mouse deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) reduced the paired-pulse ratio of IPSCs and increased the miniature IPSC frequency without changing the amplitude, suggesting that PNN depletion enhances GABA release from the presynaptic Purkinje cell (PC) terminals. Mice having received the enzyme in the interpositus nuclei exhibited a higher conditioned response rate in delay eyeblink conditioning than control mice. These results suggest that PNNs regulate presynaptic functions of PC terminals in the DCN and functional plasticity of synapses on DCN neurons, which influences the flexibility of adult cerebellar functions.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI076174(United States)

Regional chemoarchitecture of the brain of lungfishes based on calbindin D-28K and calretinin immunohistochemistry.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates, and their neuroanatomical organization is particularly relevant for deducing the neural traits that have been conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. The immunohistochemical localization of calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) provides a powerful method for discerning segregated neuronal populations, fiber tracts, and neuropils and is here applied to the brains of Neoceratodus and Protopterus, representing the two extant orders of lungfishes. The results showed abundant cells containing these proteins in pallial and subpallial telencephalic regions, with particular distinct distribution in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, and septum. Similarly, the distribution of CB and CR containing cells supports the division of the hypothalamus of lungfishes into neuromeric regions, as in tetrapods. The dense concentrations of CB and CR positive cells and fibers highlight the extent of the thalamus. As in other vertebrates, the optic tectum is characterized by numerous CB positive cells and fibers and smaller numbers of CR cells. The so-called cerebellar nucleus contains abundant CB and CR cells with long ascending axons, which raises the possibility that it could be homologized to the secondary gustatory nucleus of other vertebrates. The corpus of the cerebellum is devoid of CB and CR and cells positive for both proteins are found in the cerebellar auricles and the octavolateralis nuclei. Comparison with other vertebrates reveals that lungfishes share most of their features of calcium binding protein distribution with amphibians, particularly with salamanders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32CA154274(United States)

Ablation of the presynaptic organizer Bassoon in excitatory neurons retards dentate gyrus maturation and enhances learning performance.

  • Annamneedi A
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bassoon is a large scaffolding protein of the presynaptic active zone involved in the development of presynaptic terminals and in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at both excitatory and inhibitory brain synapses. Mice with constitutive ablation of the Bassoon (Bsn) gene display impaired presynaptic function, show sensory deficits and develop severe seizures. To specifically study the role of Bassoon at excitatory forebrain synapses and its relevance for control of behavior, we generated conditional knockout (Bsn cKO) mice by gene ablation through an Emx1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. In these animals, we confirm selective loss of Bassoon from glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. Behavioral assessment revealed that, in comparison to wild-type littermates, Bsn cKO mice display selectively enhanced contextual fear memory and increased novelty preference in a spatial discrimination/pattern separation task. These changes are accompanied by an augmentation of baseline synaptic transmission at medial perforant path to dentate gyrus (DG) synapses, as indicated by increased ratios of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope to fiber volley amplitude. At the structural level, an increased complexity of apical dendrites of DG granule cells can be detected in Bsn cKO mice. In addition, alterations in the expression of cellular maturation markers and a lack of age-dependent decrease in excitability between juvenile and adult Bsn cKO mice are observed. Our data suggest that expression of Bassoon in excitatory forebrain neurons is required for the normal maturation of the DG and important for spatial and contextual memory.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project A06()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B05()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 779-Neurobiology of Motivated Behavior project B09()
  • Leibniz-Gemeinschaft - LGS SynaptoGenetics()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - S06 GM061223-05A1(United States)

Preterm birth disrupts cerebellar development by affecting granule cell proliferation program and Bergmann glia.

  • Iskusnykh IY
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants. In this study, we analyzed the cerebellum of preterm pigs delivered via c-section at 91% term and raised for 10 days, until term-equivalent age. The pigs did not receive any treatments known or suspected to affect cerebellar development and had no evidence of brain damage. Term pigs sacrificed at birth were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that preterm birth did not affect either size or numbers of Purkinje cells or molecular layer interneurons at term-equivalent age. The number of granule cell precursors and Bergmann glial fibers, however, were reduced in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs had reduced proliferation but not differentiation of granule cells. qRT-PCR analysis of laser capture microdissected external granule cell layer showed that preterm pigs had a reduced expression of Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1), granule cell master regulatory transcription factor Atoh1, and signaling molecule Jag1. In vitro rescue experiments identified Jag1 as a central granule cell gene affected by preterm birth. Thus, preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment disrupt cerebellum by modulating expression of key cerebellar developmental genes, predominantly affecting development of granule precursors and Bergmann glia.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007491(United States)

Heteromeric KV2/KV8.2 Channels Mediate Delayed Rectifier Potassium Currents in Primate Photoreceptors.

  • Gayet-Primo J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Silent voltage-gated potassium channel subunits (KVS) interact selectively with members of the KV2 channel family to modify their functional properties. The localization and functional roles of these silent subunits remain poorly understood. Mutations in the KVS subunit, KV8.2 (KCNV2), lead to severe visual impairment in humans, but the basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we examined the localization, native interactions, and functional properties of KV8.2-containing channels in mouse, macaque, and human photoreceptors of either sex. In human retina, KV8.2 colocalized with KV2.1 and KV2.2 in cone inner segments and with KV2.1 in rod inner segments. KV2.1 and KV2.2 could be coimmunoprecipitated with KV8.2 in retinal lysates indicating that these subunits likely interact directly. Retinal KV2.1 was less phosphorylated than cortical KV2.1, a difference expected to alter the biophysical properties of these channels. Using voltage-clamp recordings and pharmacology, we provide functional evidence for Kv2-containing channels in primate rods and cones. We propose that the presence of KV8.2, and low levels of KV2.1 phosphorylation shift the activation range of KV2 channels to align with the operating range of rod and cone photoreceptors. Our data indicate a role for KV2/KV8.2 channels in human photoreceptor function and suggest that the visual deficits in patients with KCNV2 mutations arise from inadequate resting activation of KV channels in rod and cone inner segments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mutations in a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, KV8.2, underlie a blinding inherited photoreceptor dystrophy, indicating an important role for these channels in human vision. Here, we have defined the localization and subunit interactions of KV8.2 channels in primate photoreceptors. We show that the KV8.2 subunit interacts with different Kv2 channels in rods and cones, giving rise to potassium currents with distinct functional properties. Our results provide a molecular basis for retinal dysfunction in patients with mutations in the KCNV2 gene encoding KV8.2.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY003176(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY010572(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024265(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - T32 EY023211(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U01GM070708(United States)
  • NIH HHS - P51 OD011092(United States)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Visual and Motor Deficits in Grown-up Mice with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

  • Cui L
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human infants with congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection exhibit a range of symptoms including microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, macular atrophy and arthrogryposis. More importantly, prognosis data have lagged far behind the recent outbreak of ZIKV in 2015. In this work, we allow congenitally ZIKV-infected mice to grow into puberty. These mice exhibited motor incoordination and visual dysfunctions, which can be accounted by anatomical defects in the retina and cerebellar cortex. In contrary, anxiety level of the ZIKV-infected mice is normal. The spectrum of anatomical and behavioral deficits is consistent across different mice. Our data provided evidence that may help predict the public health burden in terms of prognosis of ZIKV-related congenital brain malformations in an animal model. Our study provided behavioral evaluation for the prognosis of congenital ZIKV infection and provides a platform for screening and evaluation of drugs candidates and treatment aiming at improving regeneration of infected neurons to prevent sequelae caused by ZIKV infection of fetus.

Differential Expression and Cell-Type Specificity of Perineuronal Nets in Hippocampus, Medial Entorhinal Cortex, and Visual Cortex Examined in the Rat and Mouse.

  • Lensjø KK
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1). We compared rats and mice as knowledge from these species are often intermingled. The most abundant expression of PNNs was found in the mEC and V1, while dorsal hippocampus showed strikingly low levels of PNNs, apart from dense expression in the CA2 region. In hippocampus we also found apparent species differences in expression of PNNs. While we confirm that the PNNs enwrap parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) neurons in V1, we found that they mainly colocalize with excitatory CamKII-expressing neurons in CA2. In mEC, we demonstrate that in addition to PV+ cells, the PNNs colocalize with reelin-expressing stellate cells. We also show that the maturation of PNNs in mEC coincides with the formation of grid cell pattern, while PV+ cells, unlike in other cortical areas, are present from early postnatal development. Finally, we demonstrate considerable effects on the number of PSD-95-gephyrin puncta after enzymatic removal of PNNs.

ATXN1-CIC Complex Is the Primary Driver of Cerebellar Pathology in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 through a Gain-of-Function Mechanism.

  • Rousseaux MWC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are caused by expansion of translated CAG repeats in distinct genes leading to altered protein function. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a gain of function of polyQ-expanded ataxin-1 (ATXN1) contributes to cerebellar pathology. The extent to which cerebellar toxicity depends on its cognate partner capicua (CIC), versus other interactors, remains unclear. It is also not established whether loss of the ATXN1-CIC complex in the cerebellum contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, we exclusively disrupt the ATXN1-CIC interaction in vivo and show that it is at the crux of cerebellar toxicity in SCA1. Importantly, loss of CIC in the cerebellum does not cause ataxia or Purkinje cell degeneration. Expression profiling of these gain- and loss-of-function models, coupled with data from iPSC-derived neurons from SCA1 patients, supports a mechanism in which gain of function of the ATXN1-CIC complex is the major driver of toxicity.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008449(United States)

Eliminating Glutamatergic Input onto Horizontal Cells Changes the Dynamic Range and Receptive Field Organization of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells.

  • Ströh S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial, and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells. This genetic modification allowed us to investigate the impact of horizontal cells on ganglion cell signaling independent of the actual mode of feedback in the outer retina and without pharmacological manipulation of signal transmission. In control and genetically modified mice (both sexes), we recorded the light responses of transient OFF-α retinal ganglion cells in the intact retina. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were reduced and the cells were tuned to lower temporal frequencies and higher contrasts, presumably because photoreceptor output was attenuated. Moreover, receptive fields of recorded cells showed a significantly altered surround structure. Our data thus suggest that horizontal cells are responsible for adjusting the dynamic range of retinal ganglion cells and, together with amacrine cells, contribute to the center/surround organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the mouse.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Horizontal cells represent a major neuronal class in the mammalian retina and provide lateral feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. The mode of signal transmission remains controversial and, moreover, the contribution of horizontal cells to visual processing is still elusive. To address the question of how horizontal cells affect retinal output signals, we recorded the light responses of transient OFF-α retinal ganglion cells in a newly generated mouse line. In this mouse line, horizontal cell signals were no longer modulated by light. With light response recordings, we show that horizontal cells increase the dynamic range of retinal ganglion cells for contrast and temporal changes and contribute to the center/surround organization of their receptive fields.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - 5T32HD007228(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM54096(United States)

Opposing and Complementary Topographic Connectivity Gradients Revealed by Quantitative Analysis of Canonical and Noncanonical Hippocampal CA1 Inputs.

  • Sun Y
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Physiological studies suggest spatial representation gradients along the CA1 proximodistal axis. To determine the underlying anatomical basis, we quantitatively mapped canonical and noncanonical inputs to excitatory neurons in dorsal hippocampal CA1 along the proximal-distal axis in mice of both sexes using monosynaptic rabies tracing. Our quantitative analyses show comparable strength of subiculum complex and entorhinal cortex (EC) inputs to CA1, significant inputs from presubiculum and parasubiculum to CA1, and a threefold stronger input to proximal versus distal CA1 from CA3. Noncanonical subicular complex inputs exhibit opposing topographic connectivity gradients whereby the subiculum-CA1 input strength systematically increases but the presubiculum-CA1 input strength decreases along the proximal-distal axis. The subiculum input strength cotracks that of the lateral EC, known to be less spatially selective than the medial EC. The functional significance of this organization is verified physiologically for subiculum-to-CA1 inputs. These results reveal a novel anatomical framework by which to determine the circuit bases for CA1 representations.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM028521-27(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH105427()

Neurochemical Characterization of PSA-NCAM+ Cells in the Human Brain and Phenotypic Quantification in Alzheimer's Disease Entorhinal Cortex.

  • Murray HC
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is widely expressed in the adult human brain and facilitates structural remodeling of cells through steric inhibition of intercellular NCAM adhesion. We previously showed that PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity is decreased in the entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on available evidence, we hypothesized that a loss of PSA-NCAM+ interneurons may underlie this reduction. PSA-NCAM expression by interneurons has previously been described in the human medial prefrontal cortex. Here we used postmortem human brain tissue to provide further evidence of PSA-NCAM+ interneurons throughout the human hippocampal formation and additional cortical regions. Furthermore, PSA-NCAM+ cell populations were assessed in the entorhinal cortex of normal and AD cases using fluorescent double labeling and manual cell counting. We found a significant decrease in the number of PSA-NCAM+ cells per mm2 in layer II and V of the entorhinal cortex, supporting our previous description of reduced PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity. Additionally, we found a significant decrease in the proportion of PSA-NCAM+ cells that co-labeled with NeuN and parvalbumin, but no change in the proportion that co-labeled with calbindin or calretinin. These results demonstrate that PSA-NCAM is expressed by a variety of interneuron populations throughout the brain. Furthermore, that loss of PSA-NCAM expression by NeuN+ cells predominantly contributes to the reduced PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity in the AD entorhinal cortex.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH094421(United States)

Diversity and Connectivity of Layer 5 Somatostatin-Expressing Interneurons in the Mouse Barrel Cortex.

  • Nigro MJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological, and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear. In this study, we aimed to correlate the morphological diversity of layer 5 (L5) SST-INs with their electrophysiological and molecular diversity in mice of either sex. Our morphological analysis demonstrated the existence of three subtypes of L5 SST-INs with distinct electrophysiological properties: T-shaped Martinotti cells innervate L1, and are low-threshold spiking; fanning-out Martinotti cells innervate L2/3 and the lower half of L1, and show adapting firing patterns; non-Martinotti cells innervate L4, and show a quasi-fast spiking firing pattern. We estimated the proportion of each subtype in L5 and found that T-shaped Martinotti, fanning-out Martinotti, and Non-Martinotti cells represent ∼10, ∼50, and ∼40% of L5 SST-INs, respectively. Last, we examined the connectivity between the three SST-IN subtypes and L5 pyramidal cells (PCs). We found that L5 T-shaped Martinotti cells inhibit the L1 apical tuft of nearby PCs; L5 fanning-out Martinotti cells also inhibit nearby PCs but they target the dendrite mainly in L2/3. On the other hand, non-Martinotti cells inhibit the dendrites of L4 neurons while avoiding L5 PCs. Our data suggest that morphologically distinct SST-INs gate different excitatory inputs in the barrel cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Morphologically diverse layer 5 SST-INs show different patterns of activity in behaving animals. However, little is known about the abundance and connectivity of each morphological type and the correlation between morphological subtype and spiking properties. We demonstrate a correlation between the morphological and electrophysiological diversity of layer 5 SST-INs. Based on these findings we built a classifier to infer the abundance of each morphological subtype. Last, using paired recordings combined with morphological analysis, we investigated the connectivity of each morphological subtype. Our data suggest that, by targeting different cell types and cellular compartments, morphologically diverse SST-INs might gate different excitatory inputs in the mouse barrel cortex.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL 072903(United States)

Origin and Segmental Diversity of Spinal Inhibitory Interneurons.

  • Sweeney LB
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor output varies along the rostro-caudal axis of the tetrapod spinal cord. At limb levels, ∼60 motor pools control the alternation of flexor and extensor muscles about each joint, whereas at thoracic levels as few as 10 motor pools supply muscle groups that support posture, inspiration, and expiration. Whether such differences in motor neuron identity and muscle number are associated with segmental distinctions in interneuron diversity has not been resolved. We show that select combinations of nineteen transcription factors that specify lumbar V1 inhibitory interneurons generate subpopulations enriched at limb and thoracic levels. Specification of limb and thoracic V1 interneurons involves the Hox gene Hoxc9 independently of motor neurons. Thus, early Hox patterning of the spinal cord determines the identity of V1 interneurons and motor neurons. These studies reveal a developmental program of V1 interneuron diversity, providing insight into the organization of inhibitory interneurons associated with differential motor output.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)

Expression of regulatory genes in the embryonic brain of a lizard and implications for understanding pallial organization and evolution.

  • Desfilis E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The comparison of gene expression patterns in the embryonic brain of mouse and chicken is being essential for understanding pallial organization. However, the scarcity of gene expression data in reptiles, crucial for understanding evolution, makes it difficult to identify homologues of pallial divisions in different amniotes. We cloned and analyzed the expression of the genes Emx1, Lhx2, Lhx9, and Tbr1 in the embryonic telencephalon of the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus. The comparative expression patterns of these genes, critical for pallial development, are better understood when using a recently proposed six-part model of pallial divisions. The lizard medial pallium, expressing all genes, includes the medial and dorsomedial cortices, and the majority of the dorsal cortex, except the region of the lateral cortical superposition. The latter is rich in Lhx9 expression, being excluded as a candidate of dorsal or lateral pallia, and may belong to a distinct dorsolateral pallium, which extends from rostral to caudal levels. Thus, the neocortex homolog cannot be found in the classical reptilian dorsal cortex, but perhaps in a small Emx1-expressing/Lhx9-negative area at the front of the telencephalon, resembling the avian hyperpallium. The ventral pallium, expressing Lhx9, but not Emx1, gives rise to the dorsal ventricular ridge and appears comparable to the avian nidopallium. We also identified a distinct ventrocaudal pallial sector comparable to the avian arcopallium and to part of the mammalian pallial amygdala. These data open new venues for understanding the organization and evolution of the pallium.

Behavior-Dependent Activity and Synaptic Organization of Septo-hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Selectively Targeting the Hippocampal CA3 Area.

  • Joshi A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability. Teevra cells synaptically target GABAergic axo-axonic and some CCK interneurons in restricted septo-temporal CA3 segments. The rhythmicity of their firing decreases from septal to temporal termination of individual axons. We hypothesize that Teevra neurons coordinate oscillatory activity across the septo-temporal axis, phasing the firing of specific CA3 interneurons, thereby contributing to the selection of pyramidal cell assemblies at the theta trough via disinhibition. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005237/1(United Kingdom)
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12024/4()
  • Wellcome Trust - MC_UU_12024/3()

Defective synaptic transmission causes disease signs in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

  • Grünewald B
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease) caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene is the most prevalent inherited neurodegenerative disease in childhood resulting in widespread central nervous system dysfunction and premature death. The consequences of CLN3 mutation on the progression of the disease, on neuronal transmission, and on central nervous network dysfunction are poorly understood. We used Cln3 knockout (Cln3Δex1-6) mice and found increased anxiety-related behavior and impaired aversive learning as well as markedly affected motor function including disordered coordination. Patch-clamp and loose-patch recordings revealed severely affected inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellar networks. Changes in presynaptic release properties may result from dysfunction of CLN3 protein. Furthermore, loss of calbindin, neuropeptide Y, parvalbumin, and GAD65-positive interneurons in central networks collectively support the hypothesis that degeneration of GABAergic interneurons may be the cause of supraspinal GABAergic disinhibition.

Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor.

  • Abi Ghanem C
  • PLoS Genet.
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH095995(United States)

Satb1 Regulates Contactin 5 to Pattern Dendrites of a Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cell.

  • Peng YR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5). Both Cntn5 and its co-receptor Caspr4 are expressed not only by ooDSGCs, but also by interneurons that form a scaffold on which ooDSGC ON dendrites fasciculate. Removing Cntn5 from either ooDSGCs or interneurons partially phenocopies Satb1 mutants, demonstrating that Satb1-dependent Cntn5 expression in ooDSGCs leads to branch-specific homophilic interactions with interneurons. Thus, Satb1 directs formation of a morphologically and functionally specialized compartment within a complex dendritic arbor.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022073()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS029169()

Dystroglycan Maintains Inner Limiting Membrane Integrity to Coordinate Retinal Development.

  • Clements R
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance, and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role of dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPDL79* ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance, and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina. Using genetic approaches, we show that dystroglycan functions in neuroepithelial cells as an extracellular scaffold to maintain the integrity of the retinal inner limiting membrane. Surprisingly, despite the profound disruptions in inner retinal circuit formation, spontaneous retinal activity is preserved. These results highlight the importance of dystroglycan in coordinating multiple aspects of retinal development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The extracellular environment plays a critical role in coordinating neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth during neural circuit development. The transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan functions as a receptor for multiple extracellular matrix proteins and its dysfunction leads to a form of muscular dystrophy frequently associated with neurodevelopmental defects. Our results demonstrate that dystroglycan is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in the developing retina. In the absence of functional dystroglycan, ILM degeneration leads to defective migration, axon guidance, and mosaic spacing of neurons and a loss of multiple neuron types during retinal development. These results demonstrate that disorganization of retinal circuit development is a likely contributor to visual dysfunction in patients with dystroglycanopathy.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZO1-HL001285(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS061800()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091027()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS053672()

Selective Optogenetic Control of Purkinje Cells in Monkey Cerebellum.

  • El-Shamayleh Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed selective ChR2 expression in Purkinje cells. Neurophysiological recordings confirmed robust optogenetic activation. Optical stimulation of the oculomotor vermis caused saccade dysmetria. Our results demonstrate the utility of AAV-L7-ChR2 for revealing the contributions of Purkinje cells to circuit function and behavior, and they attest to the feasibility of promoter-based, targeted, genetic manipulations in primates.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY024362()

Anatomy and spatial organization of Müller glia in mouse retina.

  • Wang J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors. We find sublayer-specific arbor specializations within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) that occur consistently at defined laminar locations. We then characterize Müller glia spatial patterning, revealing how individual cells collaborate to form a pan-retinal network. Müller cells, unlike neurons, are spread across the retina with homogenous density, and their arbor sizes change little with eccentricity. Using Brainbow methods to label neighboring cells in different colors, we find that Müller glia tile retinal space with minimal overlap. The shape of their arbors is irregular but nonrandom, suggesting that local interactions between neighboring cells determine their territories. Finally, we identify a developmental window at postnatal Days 6 to 9 when Müller arbors first colonize the synaptic layers beginning in stereotyped inner plexiform layer sublaminae. Together, our study defines the anatomical arrangement of mouse Müller glia and their network in the radial and tangential planes of the retina, in development and adulthood. The local precision of Müller glia organization suggests that their morphology is sculpted by specific cell to cell interactions with neurons and each other.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY005722()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024694()

Mechanisms for Selective Single-Cell Reactivation during Offline Sharp-Wave Ripples and Their Distortion by Fast Ripples.

  • Valero M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples. We found that firing selectivity was dominated by an event- and cell-specific synaptic drive, modulated in single cells by changes in the excitatory/inhibitory ratio measured intracellularly. This mechanism collapses during pathological fast ripples to exacerbate and randomize neuronal firing. Acute administration of a use- and cell-type-dependent sodium channel blocker reduced neuronal collapse and randomness and improved recall in epileptic rats. We propose that cell-specific synaptic inputs govern firing selectivity of CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp-wave ripples.

An exercise in brain genoarchitectonics: Analysis of AZIN2-Lacz expressing neuronal populations in the mouse hindbrain.

  • Martinez-de-la-Torre M
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

We examined in detail the distribution of AZIN2 (antizyme inhibitor 2) expression in the adult mouse hindbrain and neighboring spinal cord. AZIN2, similar to previously known AZIN1, is a recently-discovered, a functional paralog of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Due to their structural similarity to ODC, both AZIN1 and AZIN2 counteract the inhibitory action of 3 known antizymes (AZ1-3) on the ODC synthesis of polyamines, thus increasing intracytoplasmic levels of polyamines. AZIN2 is strongly, but heterogeneously, expressed in the brain. Our study uses a mouse line carrying an AZIN2-LacZ construct, and, in our topographic analysis of AZIN2-positive structures, we intend to share new knowledge about the rhombomeric segmentation of the hindbrain (a function of Hox paralogs and other genes). The observed labeled cell populations predominantly coincide with known cholinergic and glutamatergic cells, but occasionally also correspond to GABAergic, and possibly glycinergic cells. Some imperfectly known hindbrain populations stood out in unprecedented detail, and some axonal tracts were also differentially stained. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Posterior Orbitofrontal and Anterior Cingulate Pathways to the Amygdala Target Inhibitory and Excitatory Systems with Opposite Functions.

  • Zikopoulos B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys, we found that the anterior cingulate cortex innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal. By contrast, a pathway from pOFC to IM exceeded all other pathways to the amygdala by density and size and proportion of large and efficient terminals. Moreover, whereas pOFC terminals in IM innervated each of the three distinct classes of inhibitory neurons, most targeted neurons expressing dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+), known to be modulated by dopamine. The predominant pOFC innervation of DARPP-32+ neurons suggests activation of IM and inhibition of CeM, resulting in modulated autonomic function. By contrast, inhibition of DARPP-32 neurons in IM by high dopamine levels disinhibits CeM and triggers autonomic arousal. The findings provide a mechanism to help explain how a strong pOFC pathway, which is poised to moderate activity of CeM, through IM, can be undermined by the high level of dopamine during stress, resulting in collapse of potent inhibitory mechanisms in the amygdala and heightened autonomic drive, as seen in chronic anxiety disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala allows thoughts and emotions to influence actions. The posterior orbitofrontal cortex sends a powerful pathway that targets a special class of amygdalar intercalated mass (IM) inhibitory neurons, whose wiring may help modulate autonomic function. By contrast, the anterior cingulate cortex innervates other amygdalar parts, activating circuits to help avoid danger. Most IM neurons in primates label for the protein DARPP-32, known to be activated or inhibited based on the level of dopamine. Stress markedly increases dopamine release and inhibits IM neurons, compromises prefrontal control of the amygdala, and sets off a general alarm system as seen in affective disorders, such as chronic anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Serotonergic Projections Govern Postnatal Neuroblast Migration.

  • García-González D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

In many vertebrates, postnatally generated neurons often migrate long distances to reach their final destination, where they help shape local circuit activity. Concerted action of extrinsic stimuli is required to regulate long-distance migration. Some migratory principles are evolutionarily conserved, whereas others are species and cell type specific. Here we identified a serotonergic mechanism that governs migration of postnatally generated neurons in the mouse brain. Serotonergic axons originating from the raphe nuclei exhibit a conspicuous alignment with subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Optogenetic axonal activation provides functional evidence for serotonergic modulation of neuroblast migration. Furthermore, we show that the underlying mechanism involves serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3A)-mediated calcium influx. Thus, 5HT3A receptor deletion in neuroblasts impaired speed and directionality of migration and abolished calcium spikes. We speculate that serotonergic modulation of postnatally generated neuroblast migration is evolutionarily conserved as indicated by the presence of serotonergic axons in migratory paths in other vertebrates.

Rai1 frees mice from the repression of active wake behaviors by light.

  • Diessler S
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Besides its role in vision, light impacts physiology and behavior through circadian and direct (aka 'masking') mechanisms. In Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), the dysregulation of both sleep-wake behavior and melatonin production strongly suggests impaired non-visual light perception. We discovered that mice haploinsufficient for the SMS causal gene, Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1), were hypersensitive to light such that light eliminated alert and active-wake behaviors, while leaving time-spent-awake unaffected. Moreover, variables pertaining to circadian rhythm entrainment were activated more strongly by light. At the input level, the activation of rod/cone and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) by light was paradoxically greatly reduced, while the downstream activation of the ventral-subparaventricular zone (vSPVZ) was increased. The vSPVZ integrates retinal and SCN input and, when activated, suppresses locomotor activity, consistent with the behavioral hypersensitivity to light we observed. Our results implicate Rai1 as a novel and central player in processing non-visual light information, from input to behavioral output.

Assembly of Excitatory Synapses in the Absence of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.

  • Sando R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic excitation mediates a broad spectrum of structural changes in neural circuits across the brain. Here, we examine the morphologies, wiring, and architectures of single synapses of projection neurons in the murine hippocampus that developed in virtually complete absence of vesicular glutamate release. While these neurons had smaller dendritic trees and/or formed fewer contacts in specific hippocampal subfields, their stereotyped connectivity was largely preserved. Furthermore, loss of release did not disrupt the morphogenesis of presynaptic terminals and dendritic spines, suggesting that glutamatergic neurotransmission is unnecessary for synapse assembly and maintenance. These results underscore the instructive role of intrinsic mechanisms in synapse formation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM117049()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085776()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087026()

Deficiency in Neuronal TGF-β Signaling Leads to Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Activation of TGF-β Signaling Protects against MPTP Neurotoxicity in Mice.

  • Tesseur I
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. To study the function of TGF-β signaling in the adult nigrostriatal system, we generated transgenic mice with reduced TGF-β signaling in mature neurons. These mice display age-related motor deficits and degeneration of the nigrostriatal system. Increasing TGF-β signaling in the substantia nigra through adeno-associated virus expressing a constitutively active type I receptor significantly reduces 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits. These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is critical for adult DA neuron survival and that modulating this signaling pathway has therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that reducing Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling promotes Parkinson disease-related pathologies and motor deficits, and increasing TGF-β signaling reduces neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a parkinsonism-inducing agent. Our results provide a rationale to pursue a means of increasing TGF-β signaling as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG020603()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG023708()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092868()

Gene expression analysis of developing cell groups in the pretectal region of Xenopus laevis.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions, identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al. [2011] J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP). Additional genoarchitectural information was provided by the expression of Gbx2, NPY, Lhx1, and Lhx9. This allowed both unambiguous characterization of the anuran pretectal nuclei with regard to their origin in the three early anteroposterior progenitor domains, and their comparison with counterparts in the chick and mouse pretectum. Our observations demonstrated a molecular conservation, during practically all the stages analyzed, for most of the main markers used to define genoarchitecturally the main derivatives of each pretectal domain. We found molecular evidence to propose homologous derivatives from the CoP (olivary pretectal, parvocellular, and magnocellular posterior commissure and lateral terminal nuclei), JcP (spiriformis lateral and lateral terminal nuclei), and PcP (anterior pretectal nucleus) to those described in avian studies. These results represent significant progress in the comprehension of the diencephalic region of Xenopus and show that the organization of the pretectum possesses many features shared with birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:715-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007319(United States)

Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and Human Foxc1 dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms.

  • Haldipur P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously, we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule which echoes the posterior vermis DW 'tail sign' observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate that aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS050375()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072441()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080390()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095733()

Survey of retinal ganglion cell morphology in marmoset.

  • Masri RA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

In primate retina, the midget, parasol, and small bistratified cell populations form the large majority of ganglion cells. In addition, there is a variety of low-density wide-field ganglion cell types that are less well characterized. Here we studied retinal ganglion cells in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, using particle-mediated gene transfer. Ganglion cells were transfected with an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein. The retinas were processed with established immunohistochemical markers for bipolar and/or amacrine cells to determine ganglion cell dendritic stratification. In total over 500 ganglion cells were classified based on their dendritic field size, morphology, and stratification in the inner plexiform layer. Over 17 types were distinguished, including midget, parasol, broad thorny, small bistratified, large bistratified, recursive bistratified, recursive monostratified, narrow thorny, smooth monostratified, large sparse, giant sparse (melanopsin) ganglion cells, and a group that may contain several as yet uncharacterized types. Assuming each characterized type forms a hexagonal mosaic, the midget and parasol cells account for over 80% of all ganglion cells in the central retina but only ∼50% of cells in the peripheral (>2 mm) retina. We conclude that the fovea is dominated by midget and parasol cells, but outside the fovea the ganglion cell diversity in marmoset is likely as great as that reported for nonprimate retinas. Taken together, the ganglion cell types in marmoset retina resemble those described previously in macaque retina with respect to morphology, stratification, and change in proportion across the retina.

Organ of Corti explants direct tonotopically graded morphology of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

  • Smith FL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The spiral ganglion is a compelling model system to examine how morphological form contributes to sensory function. While the ganglion is composed mainly of a single class of type I neurons that make simple one-to-one connections with inner hair cell sensory receptors, it has an elaborate overall morphological design. Specific features, such as soma size and axon outgrowth, are graded along the spiral contour of the cochlea. To begin to understand the interplay between different regulators of neuronal morphology, we cocultured neuron explants with peripheral target tissues removed from distinct cochlear locations. Interestingly, these "hair cell microisolates" were capable of both increasing and decreasing neuronal somata size, without adversely affecting survival. Moreover, axon characteristics elaborated de novo by the primary afferents in culture were systematically regulated by the sensory endorgan. Apparent peripheral nervous system (PNS)-like and central nervous system (CNS)-like axonal profiles were established in our cocultures allowing an analysis of putative PNS/CNS axon length ratios. As predicted from the in vivo organization, PNS-like axon bundles elaborated by apical cocultures were longer than their basal counterparts and this phenotype was methodically altered when neuron explants were cocultured with microisolates from disparate cochlear regions. Thus, location-dependent signals within the organ of Corti may set the "address" of neurons within the spiral ganglion, allowing them to elaborate the appropriate tonotopically associated morphological features in order to carry out their signaling function. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2182-2207, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Brn3a and Brn3b knockout mice display unvaried retinal fine structure despite major morphological and numerical alterations of ganglion cells.

  • Ghinia MG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ganglion cells (GCs), the retinal output neurons, receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and send information to the brain nuclei via the optic nerve. Although GCs constitute less than 1% of the total retinal cells, they occur in numerous types and are the first neurons formed during retinal development. Using Brn3a and Brn3b mutant mice in which the alkaline phosphatase gene was knocked-in (Badea et al. [Neuron] 2009;61:852-864; Badea and Nathans [Vision Res] 2011;51:269-279), we studied the general effects after gene removal on the retinal neuropil together with the consequences of lack of development of large numbers of GCs onto the remaining retinal neurons of the same class. We analyzed the morphology, number, and general architecture of various neuronal types presynaptic to GCs, searching for changes secondary to the decrement in the number of their postsynaptic partners, as well as the morphology and distribution of retinal astrocytes, for their strong topographical relation to GCs. We found that, despite GC losses, retinal organization in Brn3 null mice is remarkably similar to that of wild-type controls. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL110952(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS041590(United States)

Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

  • Dell LA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

  • Dell LA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study provides the first systematic immunohistochemical neuroanatomical investigation of the systems involved in the control and regulation of sleep in an odontocete cetacean, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The odontocete cetaceans show an unusual form of mammalian sleep, with unihemispheric slow waves, suppressed REM sleep, and continuous bodily movement. All the neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals were present in the harbor porpoise, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity of nuclear organization relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements involved with these nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei of the pontine region revealed that in comparison with other mammals, the numbers of pontine cholinergic (126,776) and noradrenergic (122,878) neurons are markedly higher than in other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. The diminutive telencephalic commissures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure) along with an enlarged posterior commissure and supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons indicate that the control of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is likely to be a function of interpontine competition, facilitated through the posterior commissure, in response to unilateral telencephalic input related to the drive for sleep. In addition, an expanded peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex appears likely to play a role in the suppression of REM sleep in odontocete cetaceans. Thus, the current study provides several clues to the understanding of the neural control of the unusual sleep phenomenology present in odontocete cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1999-2017, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA060553(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA177558(United States)

Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

  • Masri RA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH095972(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS 20498(United States)

Role of primary afferents in the developmental regulation of motor axon synapse numbers on Renshaw cells.

  • Siembab VC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development. In other well-studied neurons, such as Purkinje cells, heterosynaptic competition between inputs from different sources shapes synaptic organization. To examine the possibility that sensory afferents modulate synaptic maturation on developing Renshaw cells, we used three animal models in which afferent inputs in the ventral horn are dramatically reduced (ER81(-/-) knockout), weakened (Egr3(-/-) knockout), or strengthened (mlcNT3(+/-) transgenic). We demonstrate that increasing the strength of sensory inputs on Renshaw cells prevents their deselection and reduces motor axon synaptic density, and, in contrast, absent or diminished sensory afferent inputs correlate with increased densities of motor axons synapses. No effects were observed on other glutamatergic inputs. We conclude that the early strength of Ia synapses influences their maintenance or weakening during later development and that heterosynaptic influences from sensory synapses during early development regulates the density and organization of motor inputs on mature Renshaw cells.

Funding information:
  • Intramural FDA HHS - FD999999(United States)

Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

  • Naumann RK
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD087101(United States)

Altered proliferative ability of neuronal progenitors in PlexinA1 mutant mice.

  • Andrews WD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and migrate through the ventral and dorsal telencephalon before taking their final positions within the developing cortical plate. Previously we demonstrated that interneurons from Robo1 knockout (Robo1(-/-)) mice contain reduced levels of neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) and PlexinA1 receptors, rendering them less responsive to the chemorepulsive actions of semaphorin ligands expressed in the striatum and affecting their course of migration (Hernandez-Miranda et al. [2011] J. Neurosci. 31:6174-6187). Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of Nrp1 and Nrp2 in interneuron migration, and here we assess the role of PlexinA1 in this process. We observed significantly fewer cells expressing the interneuron markers Gad67 and Lhx6 in the cortex of PlexinA1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates at E14.5 and E18.5. Although the level of apoptosis was similar in the mutant and control forebrain, proliferation was significantly reduced in the former. Furthermore, progenitor cells in the MGE of PlexinA1(-/-) mice appeared to be poorly anchored to the ventricular surface and showed reduced adhesive properties, which may account for the observed reduction in proliferation. Together our data uncover a novel role for PlexinA1 in forebrain development.

Distinction in the immunoreactivities of two calcium-binding proteins and neuronal birthdates in the first and higher-order somatosensory thalamic nuclei of mice: Evolutionary implications.

  • Zhang JY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Comparative embryonic studies are the most effective way to discern phylogenetic changes. To gain insight into the constitution and evolution of mammalian somatosensory thalamic nuclei, we first studied how calbindin (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivities appear during embryonic development in the first-order relaying somatosensory nuclei, i.e., the ventral posteromedial (VPM) and posterolateral (VPL) nuclei, and their neighboring higher-order modulatory regions, including the ventromedial or ventrolateral nucleus, posterior, and the reticular nucleus. The results indicated that cell bodies that were immunoreactive for CB were found earlier (embryonic day 12 [E12]) in the dorsal thalamus than were cells positive for PV (E14), and the adult somatosensory thalamus was characterized by complementary CB and PV distributions with PV dominance in the first-order relaying nuclei and CB dominance in the higher-order regions. We then labeled proliferating cells with [(3) H]-thymidine from E11 to 19 and found that the onset of neurogenesis began later (E12) in the first-order relaying nuclei than in the higher-order regions (E11). Using double-labeling with [(3) H]-thymidine autoradiography and CB or PV immunohistochemistry, we found that CB neurons were born earlier (E11-12) than PV neurons (E12-13) in the studied areas. Thus, similar to auditory nuclei, the first and the higher-order somatosensory nuclei exhibited significant distinctions in CB/PV immunohistochemistry and birthdates during embryonic development. These data, combined with the results of a cladistic analysis of the thalamic somatosensory nuclei, are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of sensory nuclei.

Effects of the jimpy mutation on mouse retinal structure and function.

  • Hovhannisyan A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Jimpy mutant mouse has a point mutation in the proteolipid protein gene (plp1). The resulting misfolding of the protein leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin destruction, and failure to produce adequately myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS). It is not known how the absence of normal myelination during development influences neural function. We characterized the Jimpy mouse retina to find out whether lack of myelination in the optic nerve during development has an effect on normal functioning and morphology of the retina. Optokinetic reflex measurements showed that Jimpy mice had, in general, a functional visual system. Both PLP1 antibody staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for plp1 mRNA showed that plp1 is not expressed in the wild-type retina. However, in the optic nerve, plp1 is normally expressed, and consequently, in Jimpy mutant mice, myelination of axons in the optic nerve was mostly absent. Nevertheless, neither axon count nor axon ultrastructure in the optic nerve was affected. Physiological recordings of ganglion cell activity using microelectrode arrays revealed a decrease of stimulus-evoked activity at mesopic light levels. Morphological analysis of the retina did not show any significant differences in the gross morphology, such as thickness of retinal layers or cell number in the inner and outer nuclear layer. The cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer, however, were larger in the peripheral retina of Jimpy mutant mice. Antibody labeling against cell type-specific markers showed that the number of rod bipolar and horizontal cells was increased in Jimpy mice. In conclusion, whereas the Jimpy mutation has dramatic effects on the myelination of retinal ganglion cell axons, it has moderate effects on retinal morphology and function.

Connexin50 couples axon terminals of mouse horizontal cells by homotypic gap junctions.

  • Dorgau B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Horizontal cells in the mouse retina are of the axon-bearing B-type and contribute to the gain control of photoreceptors and to the center-surround organization of bipolar cells by providing feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. Horizontal cells form two independent networks, coupled by dendro-dendritic and axo-axonal gap junctions composed of connexin57 (Cx57). In Cx57-deficient mice, occasionally the residual tracer coupling of horizontal cell somata was observed. Also, negative feedback from horizontal cells to photoreceptors, potentially mediated by connexin hemichannels, appeared unaffected. These results point to the expression of a second connexin in mouse horizontal cells. We investigated the expression of Cx50, which was recently identified in axonless A-type horizontal cells of the rabbit retina. In the mouse retina, Cx50-immunoreactive puncta were predominantly localized on large axon terminals of horizontal cells. Electron microscopy did not reveal any Cx50-immunolabeling at the membrane of horizontal cell tips invaginating photoreceptor terminals, ruling out the involvement of Cx50 in negative feedback. Moreover, Cx50 colocalized only rarely with Cx57 on horizontal cell processes, indicating that both connexins form homotypic rather than heterotypic or heteromeric gap junctions. To check whether the expression of Cx50 is changed when Cx57 is lacking, we compared the Cx50 expression in wildtype and Cx57-deficient mice. However, Cx50 expression was unaffected in Cx57-deficient mice. In summary, our results indicate that horizontal cell axon terminals form two independent sets of homotypic gap junctions, a feature which might be important for light adaptation in the retina.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS057674(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 660060(United Kingdom)

Septal projections to nucleus incertus in the rat: bidirectional pathways for modulation of hippocampal function.

  • Sánchez-Pérez AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Projections from the nucleus incertus (NI) to the septum have been implicated in the modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In this study we describe a previously uncharacterized projection from the septum to the NI, which may provide feedback modulation of the ascending circuitry. Fluorogold injections into the NI resulted in retrograde labeling in the septum that was concentrated in the horizontal diagonal band and areas of the posterior septum including the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. Double-immunofluorescent staining indicated that the majority of NI-projecting septal neurons were calretinin-positive and some were parvalbumin-, calbindin-, or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-67-positive. Choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons were Fluorogold-negative. Injection of anterograde tracers into medial septum, or triangular septal and septofimbrial nuclei, revealed fibers descending to the supramammillary nucleus, median raphe, and the NI. These anterogradely labeled varicosities displayed synaptophysin immunoreactivity, indicating septal inputs form synapses on NI neurons. Anterograde tracer also colocalized with GAD-67-positive puncta in labeled fibers, which in some cases made close synaptic contact with GAD-67-labeled NI neurons. These data provide evidence for the existence of an inhibitory descending projection from medial and posterior septum to the NI that provides a "feedback loop" to modulate the comparatively more dense ascending NI projections to medial septum and hippocampus. Neural processes and associated behaviors activated or modulated by changes in hippocampal theta rhythm may depend on reciprocal connections between ascending and descending pathways rather than on unidirectional regulation via the medial septum.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115545(United States)

Analysis of bipolar and amacrine populations in marmoset retina.

  • Weltzien F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species.

Parallel prefrontal pathways reach distinct excitatory and inhibitory systems in memory-related rhinal cortices.

  • Bunce JG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

To investigate how prefrontal cortices impinge on medial temporal cortices we labeled pathways from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) in rhesus monkeys to compare their relationship with excitatory and inhibitory systems in rhinal cortices. The ACC pathway terminated mostly in areas 28 and 35 with a high proportion of large terminals, whereas the pOFC pathway terminated mostly through small terminals in area 36 and sparsely in areas 28 and 35. Both pathways terminated in all layers. Simultaneous labeling of pathways and distinct neurochemical classes of inhibitory neurons, followed by analyses of appositions of presynaptic and postsynaptic fluorescent signal, or synapses, showed overall predominant association with spines of putative excitatory neurons, but also significant interactions with presumed inhibitory neurons labeled for calretinin, calbindin, or parvalbumin. In the upper layers of areas 28 and 35 the ACC pathway was associated with dendrites of neurons labeled with calretinin, which are thought to disinhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting facilitated hippocampal access. In contrast, in area 36 pOFC axons were associated with dendrites of calbindin neurons, which are poised to reduce noise and enhance signal. In the deep layers, both pathways innervated mostly dendrites of parvalbumin neurons, which strongly inhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting gating of hippocampal output to other cortices. These findings suggest that the ACC, associated with attention and context, and the pOFC, associated with emotional valuation, have distinct contributions to memory in rhinal cortices, in processes that are disrupted in psychiatric diseases.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Spatiotemporal patterns of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expression in the developing brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset and developmental dynamics of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos, larvae, and recently metamorphosed juveniles of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. During the embryonic period, the Pax proteins start being detectable in neuroepithelial domains. Subsequently, they become restricted to subsets of cells in distinct brain regions, maintaining different degrees of expression in late larvae and juvenile brains. Specifically, Pax6 is broadly expressed all along the urodele CNS (olfactory bulbs, pallium, basal ganglia, diencephalon, mesencephalic tegmentum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord) and the developing olfactory organ and retina. Pax3 and Pax7 are excluded from the rostral forebrain and were usually observed in overlapping regions during embryonic development, whereas Pax3 expression is highly downregulated as development proceeds. Thus, Pax3 is restricted to the roof plate of prosomere 2, pretectum, optic tectum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. Comparatively, Pax7 was more conspicuous in all these regions. Pax7 cells were also found in the paraphysis, intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, and basal plate of prosomere 3. Our data show that the expression patterns of the three Pax genes studied are overall evolutionarily conserved, and therefore could unequivocally be used to identify subdivisions in the urodele brain similar to other vertebrates, which are not clearly discernable with classical techniques. In addition, the spatiotemporal sequences of expression provide indirect evidence of putative migratory routes across neuromeric limits and the alar-basal boundary.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA126189(United States)

Development of myenteric cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice.

  • Hao MM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholinergic neurons are the major excitatory neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and include intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons, and excitatory motor neurons. Cholinergic neurons have been detected in the embryonic ENS; however, the development of these neurons has been difficult to study as they are difficult to detect prior to birth using conventional immunohistochemistry. In this study we used ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice to examine the development of cholinergic neurons in the gut of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cholinergic (YFP+) neurons were first detected at embryonic day (E)11.5, and the proportion of cholinergic neurons gradually increased during pre- and postnatal development. At birth, myenteric cholinergic neurons comprised less than half of their adult proportions in the small intestine (25% of myenteric neurons were YFP+ at P0 compared to 62% in adults). The earliest cholinergic neurons appear to mainly project anally. Projections into the presumptive circular muscle were first observed at E14.5. A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons coexpress calbindin through embryonic and postnatal development, but only a small proportion coexpressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Our study shows that cholinergic neurons in the ENS develop over a protracted period of time.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK84142(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 085532(United Kingdom)

Retinotopic maps in the pulvinar of bush baby (Otolemur garnettii).

  • Li K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite its anatomical prominence, the function of the primate pulvinar is poorly understood. A few electrophysiological studies in simian primates have investigated the functional organization of pulvinar by examining visuotopic maps. Multiple visuotopic maps have been found for all studied simians, with differences in organization reported between New and Old World simians. Given that prosimians are considered closer to the common ancestors of New and Old World primates, we investigated the visuotopic organization of pulvinar in the prosimian bush baby (Otolemur garnettii). Single-electrode extracellular recording was used to find the retinotopic maps in the lateral (PL) and inferior (PI) pulvinar. Based on recordings across cases, a 3D model of the map was constructed. From sections stained for Nissl bodies, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin, or cytochrome oxidase, we identified three PI chemoarchitectonic subdivisions, lateral central (PIcl), medial central (PIcm), and medial (PIm) inferior pulvinar. Two major retinotopic maps were identified that cover PL and PIcl, the dorsal one in dorsal PL and the ventral one in PIcl and ventral PL. Both maps represent central vision at the posterior end of the border between the maps, the upper visual field in the lateral half and the lower visual field in the medial half. They share many features with the maps reported for the pulvinar of simians, including the location in pulvinar and the representation of the upper-lower and central-peripheral visual field axes. The second-order representation in the lateral map and a laminar organization are likely features specific to Old World simians.

Selective coexpression of synaptic proteins, α-synuclein, cysteine string protein-α, synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1, and synaptobrevin-2 in vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive axons in the guinea pig ileum.

  • Sharrad DF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Lewy bodies and neurites composed mainly of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein. Frequently, Lewy bodies and neurites are identified in the gut of Parkinson's disease patients and may underlie associated gastrointestinal dysfunctions. We recently reported selective expression of α-synuclein in the axons of cholinergic neurons in the guinea pig and human distal gut; however, it is not clear whether α-synuclein expression varies along the gut, nor how closely expression is associated with other synaptic proteins. We used multiple-labeling immunohistochemistry to quantify which neurons in the guinea pig ileum expressed α-synuclein, cysteine string protein-α (CSPα), synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1, or synaptobrevin-2 in their axons. Among the 10 neurochemically defined axonal populations, a significantly greater proportion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive (VAChT-IR) varicosities (80% ± 1.7%, n = 4, P < 0.001) contained α-synuclein immunoreactivity, and a significantly greater proportion of α-synuclein-IR axons also contained VAChT immunoreactivity (78% ± 1.3%, n = 4) compared with any of the other nine populations (P < 0.001). Among synaptophysin-, synaptotagmin-1-, synaptobrevin-2-, and CSPα-IR varicosities, 98% ± 0.7%, 96% ± 0.7%, 88% ± 1.6%, and 85% ± 2.9% (n = 4) contained α-synuclein immunoreactivity, respectively. Among α-synuclein-IR varicosities, 96% ± 0.9%, 99% ± 0.6%, 83% ± 1.9%, and 87% ± 2.3% (n = 4) contained synaptophysin-, synaptotagmin-1-, synaptobrevin-2-, and CSPα immunoreactivity, respectively. We report a close association between the expression of α-synuclein and the expression of other synaptic proteins in cholinergic axons in the guinea pig ileum. Selective expression of α-synuclein may relate to the neurotransmitter system utilized and predispose cholinergic enteric neurons to degeneration in Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR-00165(United States)

Differential dendritic targeting of AMPA receptor subunit mRNAs in adult rat hippocampal principal neurons and interneurons.

  • Cox DJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In hippocampal neurons, AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory postsynaptic responses at glutamatergic synapses, and are involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity. Dendritic local protein synthesis of selected AMPAR subunit mRNAs is considered an additional mechanism to independently and rapidly control the strength of individual synapses. We have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to analyze the localization of AMPAR subunit (GluA1-4) mRNAs and their relationship with the translation machinery in principal cells and interneurons of the adult rat hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding all four AMPAR subunits were detected in the somata and dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells and those of six classes of CA1 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were highly localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, whereas in interneurons they were present in multiple dendrites. In contrast, in the dentate gyrus, GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were virtually restricted to the somata and were absent from the dendrites of granule cells. These different regional and cell type-specific labeling patterns also correlated with the localization of markers for components of the protein synthesis machinery. Our results support the local translation of GluA1-4 mRNAs in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells and CA1 interneurons but not in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the regional and cell type-specific differences we observed suggest that each cell type uses distinct ways of regulating the local translation of AMPAR subunits.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I000984/1(United Kingdom)

Expression patterns of Pax6 and Pax7 in the adult brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression patterns of Pax6, Pax7, and, to a lesser extent, Pax3 genes were analyzed by a combination of immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system of adult specimens of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Only Pax6 was found in the telencephalon, specifically the olfactory bulbs, striatum, septum, and lateral and central parts of the amygdala. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, respectively, of prosomere 3. The distribution of Pax6, Pax7, and Pax3 cells correlated with the three pretectal domains. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the dorsal mesencephalon, mainly in the optic tectum, and Pax6 cells were the only cells found in the tegmentum. Large populations of Pax7 cells occupied the rostral rhombencephalon, along with lower numbers of Pax6 and Pax3 cells. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum. Pax6 cells also formed a column of scattered neurons in the reticular formation and were found in the octavolateral area. The rhombencephalic ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Dorsal Pax7 cells and ventral Pax6 cells were found along the spinal cord. Our results show that the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 is widely maintained in the brains of adult urodeles, in contrast to the situation in other tetrapods. This discrepancy could be due to the generally pedomorphic features of urodele brains. Although the precise role of these transcription factors in adult brains remains to be determined, our findings support the idea that they may also function in adult urodeles.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R03 EB012461-01(United States)

Alterations in the motor neuron-renshaw cell circuit in the Sod1(G93A) mouse model.

  • Wootz H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor neurons become hyperexcitable during progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This abnormal firing behavior has been explained by changes in their membrane properties, but more recently it has been suggested that changes in premotor circuits may also contribute to this abnormal activity. The specific circuits that may be altered during development of ALS have not been investigated. Here we examined the Renshaw cell recurrent circuit that exerts inhibitory feedback control on motor neuron firing. Using two markers for Renshaw cells (calbindin and cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit alpha2 [Chrna2]), two general markers for motor neurons (NeuN and vesicular acethylcholine transporter [VAChT]), and two markers for fast motor neurons (Chondrolectin and calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha [Calca]), we analyzed the survival and connectivity of these cells during disease progression in the Sod1(G93A) mouse model. Most calbindin-immunoreactive (IR) Renshaw cells survive to end stage but downregulate postsynaptic Chrna2 in presymptomatic animals. In motor neurons, some markers are downregulated early (NeuN, VAChT, Chondrolectin) and others at end stage (Calca). Early downregulation of presynaptic VAChT and Chrna2 was correlated with disconnection from Renshaw cells as well as major structural abnormalities of motor axon synapses inside the spinal cord. Renshaw cell synapses on motor neurons underwent more complex changes, including transitional sprouting preferentially over remaining NeuN-IR motor neurons. We conclude that the loss of presynaptic motor axon input on Renshaw cells occurs at early stages of ALS and disconnects the recurrent inhibitory circuit, presumably resulting in diminished control of motor neuron firing.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R24 HD042828(United States)

Properties of the ON bistratified ganglion cell in the rabbit retina.

  • Hoshi H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The identity of the types of different neurons in mammalian retinae is now close to being completely known for a few mammalian species; comparison reveals strong homologies for many neurons across the order. Still, there remain some cell types rarely encountered and inadequately described, despite not being rare in relative frequency. Here we describe in detail an additional ganglion cell type in rabbit that is bistratified with dendrites in both sublaminae, yet spikes only at light onset and has no response bias to the direction of moving bars. This ON bistratified ganglion cell type is most easily distinguished by the unusual behavior of its dendritic arbors. While dendrites that arborize in sublamina b terminate at that level, those that ascend to arborize in sublamina a do not normally terminate there. Instead, when they reach the approximate radius of the dendrites in sublamina b, they dive sharply back down to ramify in sublamina b. Here they continue to course even further away from the soma at the same level as the branches wholly contained in sublamina b, thereby forming an annulus of secondary ON dendrites in sublamina b. This pattern of branching creates a bistratified dendritic field of approximately equal area in the two sublaminae initially, to which is then added an external annulus of dendrites only in sublamina b whose origin is entirely from processes descending from sublamina a. It is coupled to a population of wide-field amacrine cells upon which the dendrites of the ganglion cell often terminate.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG006827(United States)

Selective expression of α-synuclein-immunoreactivity in vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive axons in the guinea pig rectum and human colon.

  • Sharrad DF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor impairments, including constipation. The hallmark pathological features of Parkinson's disease are Lewy bodies and neurites, of which aggregated α-synuclein is a major constituent. Frequently, Lewy pathology is identified in the distal gut of constipated Parkinson's disease patients. The neurons that innervate the distal gut that express α-synuclein have not been identified. We used multiple-labeling immunohistochemistry and anterograde tracing to quantify which neurons projecting to the guinea pig rectum and human colon expressed α-synuclein in their axons. α-Synuclein-immunoreactivity was present in 24 ± 0.7% of somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) varicosities; 20 ± 4.3% of substance P (SP)-IR varicosities and 9 ± 1.3% vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-IR varicosities in guinea pig rectal myenteric ganglia. However, α-synuclein-immunoreactivity was localized in significantly more vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-IR varicosities (88 ± 3%, P < 0.001). Of SOM-IR, SP-IR, and VIP-IR varicosities that lacked VAChT-immunoreactivity, only 1 ± 0.3%, 0 ± 0.3%, and 0% contained α-synuclein-immunoreactivity, respectively. 71 ± 0.8% of VAChT-IR varicosities in myenteric ganglia of human colon were α-synuclein-IR. In guinea pig rectal myenteric ganglia, α-synuclein- and VAChT-immunoreactivity coexisted in 15 ± 1.4% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic varicosities; only 1 ± 0.3% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic varicosities contained α-synuclein-immunoreactivity without VAChT-immunoreactivity. α-Synuclein expression in axons to the distal gut correlates closely with expression of the cholinergic marker, VAChT. This is the first report of cell-selective α-synuclein expression in the nervous system. Our results suggest cholinergic neurons in the gut may be vulnerable in Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/D019621/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH081187(United States)

Calbindin expression in developing striatum of zebra finches and its relation to the formation of area X.

  • Garcia-Calero E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A sexually dimorphic network of brain regions controls learning and production of song in zebra finches. How this specialized song system evolved is unknown. To start addressing this question, we focused on developmental differences between the sexes, using the expression of the calcium-binding protein calbindin (CB) during embryonic to adult stages to map out the early development of Area X, a male-specific striatal structure. We related this pattern to the expression of three transcription factors, Pax6 and Islet1 to delineate the striatal radial domains, and Nkx2.1 as a marker for cells of pallidal origin. An incipient Area X-CB+ domain became discernable at embryonic day 13 in the Islet1-ventral striatal field. This region contained many Nkx2.1-expressing cells with a morphology characteristic of migrating cells. Eight days after hatching (PHD) CB staining clearly delineated Area X. Another CB+ structure formed around PHD5 at the subpallial/pallial boundary. We call it the CB+striatal capsule (CB-StC) and discuss its relation with the previously described striatal capsule in vertebrates. The CB cell population in both Area X and CB-StC, but not in the surrounding striatum, colocalized with the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) marker, D1-receptor associated signaling protein dopamine-and-cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, DARPP32. In females, CB-positive cells were also present in the rostral striatum but did not coalesce into an Area X-like structure. We discuss possible reasons for CB expression in MSNs in songbirds and mammals, but not described in chicken striatum.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30NS048154(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - SP01NS055976(United States)

Developmental dynamics of PAFAH1B subunits during mouse brain development.

  • Escamez T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) mediates an array of biological processes in the mammalian central nervous system as a bioactive lipid messenger in synaptic function and dysfunction (plasticity, memory, and neurodegeneration). The intracellular enzyme that deacetylates the PAF (PAFAH1B) is composed of a tetramer of two catalytic subunits, ALPHA1 (PAFAH1B3) and ALPHA2 (PAFAH1B2), and a regulatory dimer of LIS1 (PAFAH1B1). We have investigated the mouse PAFAH1B subunit genes during brain development in normal mice and in mice with a hypomorphic allele for Lis1 (Lis1/sLis1; Cahana et al. [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6429-6434). We have analyzed quantitatively (by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction) and qualitatively (by in situ hybridization techniques) the amounts and expression patterns of their transcription in developing and postnatal brain, focusing mainly on differences in two laminated encephalic regions, the forebrain (telencephalon) and hindbrain (cerebellum) separately. The results revealed significant differences in cDNA content between these two brain subdivisions but, more importantly, between the LIS1 complex subunits. In addition, we found significant spatial differences in gene expression patterns. Comparison of results obtained with Lis1/sLis1 analysis also revealed significant temporal and spatial differences in Alpha1 and Lis1 expression levels. Thus, small changes in the amount of the Lis1 gene may differentially regulate expression of Alpha1 and Alpha2, depending on the brain region, which suggests different roles for each LIS1 complex subunit during neural differentiation and neural migration.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250128(International)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS032385(United States)

Connexin 57 is expressed by the axon terminal network of B-type horizontal cells in the rabbit retina.

  • Pan F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the rabbit retina there are two types of horizontal cell (HC). A-type HCs (AHC) are axonless and extensively coupled via connexin (Cx)50 gap junctions. The B-type HC (BHC) is axon-bearing; the somatic dendrites form a second network coupled by gap junctions while the axon terminals (ATs) form a third independent network in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). The mouse retina has only one type of HC, which is morphologically similar to the B-type HC of the rabbit. Previous work suggested that mouse HCs express Cx57 (Hombach et al. [2004] Eur J Neurosci 19:2633-2640). Therefore, we cloned rabbit Cx57 and raised an antibody to determine the distribution of Cx57 gap junctions among rabbit HCs. Dye injection methods were used to obtain detailed fills for all three HC networks for analysis by confocal microscopy. We found that Cx57 was associated with the B-type AT plexus. Cx57 plaques were anticorrelated with the B-type somatic dendrites and the A-type HC network. Furthermore, there was no colocalization between Cx50 and Cx57. We conclude that in the rabbit retina, Cx57 is only found on BHC-AT processes. Thus, in species where there are two types of HC, different connexins are expressed. The absence of Cx57 labeling in the somatic dendrites of B-type HCs suggests the possibility of an additional unidentified HC connexin in the rabbit.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K22 AI093595(United States)

The cellular composition of neurogenic periventricular zones in the adult zebrafish forebrain.

  • Lindsey BW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A central goal of adult neurogenesis research is to characterize the cellular constituents of a neurogenic niche and to understand how these cells regulate the production of new neurons. Because the generation of adult-born neurons may be tightly coupled to their functional requirement, the organization and output of neurogenic niches may vary across different regions of the brain or between species. We have undertaken a comparative study of six (D, Vd, Vv, Dm, Dl, Ppa) periventricular zones (PVZs) harboring proliferative cells present in the adult forebrain of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species known to possess widespread neurogenesis throughout life. Using electron microscopy, we have documented for the first time the detailed cytoarchitecture of these zones, and propose a model of the cellular composition of pallial and subpallial PVZs, as well as a classification scheme for identifying morphologically distinct cell types. Immunolabeling of resin-embedded tissue confirmed the phenotype of three constitutively proliferating (bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU]+) cell populations, including a radial glial-like (type IIa) cell immunopositive for both S100β and glutamine synthetase (GS). Our data revealed rostrocaudal differences in the density of distinct proliferative populations, and cumulative labeling studies suggested that the cell cycle kinetics of these populations are not uniform between PVZs. Although the peak numbers of differentiated neurons were generated after ~2 weeks among most PVZs, niche-specific decline in the number of newborn neurons in some regions occurred after 4 weeks. Our data suggest that the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic niches and the tempo of neuronal production are regionally distinct in the adult zebrafish forebrain.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH096678(United States)

The lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV1) nucleus in rodents.

  • Mészár Z
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the lateral hypothalamus, groups of functionally related cells tend to be widely scattered rather than confined to discrete, anatomically distinct units. However, by using parvalbumin (PV)-specific antibodies, a solitary, compact cord of PV-immunoreactive cells (the PV1-nucleus) has been identified in the ventrolateral tuberal hypothalamus in various species. Here we describe the topography, the chemo-, cyto-, and myeloarchitectonics, and the ultrastructure of this PV1-nucleus in rodents. The PV1-nucleus is located within the ventrolateral division of the medial forebrain bundle. In the horizontal plane, it has a length of 1 mm in mice and 2 mm in rats. PV-immunoreactive perikarya fall into two distinct size categories and number (~800 in rats and ~400 in mice). They are intermingled with PV-negative neurons and coarse axons of the medial forebrain bundle, some of which are PV-positive. Symmetric and asymmetric synapses, as well as PV-positive and PV-negative fiber endings, terminate on the perikarya of both PV-positive and PV-negative neurons. PV-positive neurons of the PV1-nucleus express glutamate, not γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the neurotransmitter that is usually associated with PV-containing nerve cells. Although we could not find evidence that PV1 neurons express either catecholamines or known neuropeptides, they sometimes are interspersed with the fibers and terminals of such cells. From its analogous topographical situation, the PV1-nucleus could correspond to the lateral tuberal nucleus in humans. We anticipate that the presence of the marker protein PV in the PV1-nucleus of the rodent hypothalamus will facilitate future studies relating to the connectivity, transcriptomics, and function of this entity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH61469(United States)

Nuclear factor one X regulates the development of multiple cellular populations in the postnatal cerebellum.

  • Piper M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Development of the cerebellum involves the coordinated proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and integration of cells from multiple neuronal and glial lineages. In rodent models, much of this occurs in the early postnatal period. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate this phase of cerebellar development remains incomplete. Here, we address the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor one X (NFIX), in postnatal development of the cerebellum. NFIX is expressed by progenitor cells within the external granular layer and by cerebellar granule neurons within the internal granule layer. Using NFIX⁻/⁻ mice, we demonstrate that the development of cerebellar granule neurons and Purkinje cells within the postnatal cerebellum is delayed in the absence of this transcription factor. Furthermore, the differentiation of mature glia within the cerebellum, such as Bergmann glia, is also significantly delayed in the absence of NFIX. Collectively, the expression pattern of NFIX, coupled with the delays in the differentiation of multiple cell populations of the developing cerebellum in NFIX⁻/⁻ mice, suggest a central role for NFIX in the regulation of cerebellar development, highlighting the importance of this gene for the maturation of this key structure.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM101457(United States)

Characterization of last-order premotor interneurons by transneuronal tracing with rabies virus in the neonatal mouse spinal cord.

  • Coulon P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We characterized the interneurons involved in the control of ankle extensor (triceps surae [TS] muscles) motoneurons (MNs) in the lumbar enlargement of mouse neonates by retrograde transneuronal tracing using rabies virus (RV). Examination of the kinetics of retrograde transneuronal transfer at sequential intervals post inoculation enabled us to determine the time window during which only the first-order interneurons, i.e., interneurons likely monosynaptically connected to MNs (last-order interneurons [loINs]) were RV-infected. The infection of the network resulted exclusively from a retrograde transport of RV along the motor pathway. About 80% of the loINs were observed ipsilaterally to the injection. They were distributed all along the lumbar enlargement, but the majority was observed in L4 and L5 segments where TS MNs were localized. Most loINs were distributed in laminae V-VII, whereas the most superficial laminae were devoid of RV infection. Contralaterally, commissural loINs were found essentially in lamina VIII of all lumbar segments. Groups of loINs were characterized by their chemical phenotypes using dual immunolabeling. Glycinergic neurons connected to TS MNs represented 50% of loINs ipsilaterally and 10% contralaterally. As expected, the ipsilateral glycinergic loINs included Renshaw cells, the most ventral neurons expressing calbindin. We also demonstrated a direct connection between a group of cholinergic interneurons observed ipsilaterally in L3 and the rostral part of L4, and TS MNs. To conclude, transneuronal tracing with RV, combined with an immunohistochemical detection of neuronal determinants, allows a very specific mapping of motor networks involved in the control of single muscles.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM06910(United States)

Genetic and experimental evidence supports the continuum of the central extended amygdala and a mutiple embryonic origin of its principal neurons.

  • Bupesh M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The central extended amygdala is the major output center for telencephalic control of ingestion, fear responses, stress, and anxiety. In spite of the abundant data supporting the similarity in neurochemistry, connections, and function along the extended amygdala, embryological support for this continuum is lacking. By using a combination of in vitro migration assays, in situ hybridization, and immunostaining, here we show that its major components, including central amygdala and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), are mosaics formed by different proportions of dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE)-, ventral LGE-, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived principal neurons. The dorsal LGE produces Pax6-expressing neurons that primarily populate lateral parts of the central extended amygdala, including the capsular and part of lateral central amygdala, but also produces a few cells for the lateral BST. Based on correlation with preproenkephalin, many of these cells are likely enkephalinergic. The ventral LGE produces Islet1-expressing neurons that populate primarily the central and medial parts of the central amygdala but also produces numerous neurons for the lateral BST. Correlation with corticotropin-releasing factor suggests that these neurons express this neuropeptide. The MGE produces the majority of neurons of the lateral BST, but its ventrocaudal subdivision also produces an important subpopulation of projection neurons containing somatostatin for medial aspects of the central amygdala. Thus, distinct principal neurons originate in different embryonic domains, but the same domains contribute neurons to most subdivisions of the central extended amygdala, which may explain the similarity in neurochemistry and connections along the corridor.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR021907(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY014888(United States)

A novel type of complex ganglion cell in rabbit retina.

  • Sivyer B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The 15-20 physiological types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be grouped according to whether they fire to increased illumination in the receptive-field center (ON cells), decreased illumination (OFF cells), or both (ON-OFF cells). The diversity of RGCs has been best described in the rabbit retina, which has three types of ON-OFF RGCs with complex receptive-field properties: the ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs), the local edge detectors, and the uniformity detectors. Here we describe a novel type of bistratified ON-OFF RGC that has not been described in either physiological or morphological studies of rabbit RGCs. These cells stratify in the ON and OFF sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer, branching at about 30% and 60% depth, between the ON and OFF arbors of the bistratified DSGCs. Similar to the ON-OFF DSGCs, these cells respond with transient firing to both bright and dark spots flashed in the receptive field but, unlike the DSGCs, they show no directional preference for moving stimuli. We have termed these cells "transient ON-OFF" RGCs. Area-response measurements show that both the ON and the OFF spike responses have an antagonistic receptive-field organization, but with different spatial extents. Voltage-clamp recordings reveal transient excitatory inputs at light ON and light OFF; this excitation is strongly suppressed by surround stimulation, which also elicits direct inhibitory inputs to the cells at light ON and light OFF. Thus the receptive-field organization is mediated both within the presynaptic circuitry and by direct feed-forward inhibition.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U19DK-62434(United States)

Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 immunoreactivity in the motor thalamus of humans and monkeys: γ-aminobutyric acidergic connections and nuclear delineations.

  • Kultas-Ilinsky K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in the motor thalamic nuclei. This report analyzes the distribution of the GABA-producing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 (GAD65), stained with monoclonal antibody, in human and rhesus monkey thalami and compares it with staining patterns of some widely used cytoskeletal and calcium binding protein markers. GAD65 immunoreactivity distinctly labeled two systems: fibers and terminals of basal ganglia thalamic afferents and local circuit neurons, revealing fine features of GABAergic circuitry in the human thalamus. Gross distribution patterns of GAD65 were identical in human and rhesus monkey thalami. The area displaying specific staining of large-caliber beaded fibers coincided with nigro- and pallidothalamic afferent territories previously identified in monkeys with anterograde tracers. Accordingly, a similarly stained region in the human thalamus was considered basal ganglia territory. Except for cytoarchitecture, no specific markers differentiating between the nigro- and pallidothalamic projection zones within this territory were found. GAD65 staining in the cerebellar afferent territory reflected organization of its local circuit neuron network, distinguishing it from adjacent nuclei. Specific GAD65 staining pattern and negative calcium binding protein immunoreactivity identify the cerebellar afferent territory in humans. It is subdivided further into ventral and dorsal regions based on the cytoskeletal protein SMI31 staining pattern. The nuclear outlines revised according to the results are compared with those of Hassler (Schaltenbrand G and Bailey P [1959] Einfuhrung in die stereotaktishen Operationen mit einem Atlas des menschlichen Gehirns, vol 3. Stuttgart: Thieme) and discussed in light of the ongoing controversy regarding delineations of the motor thalamic nuclei in humans.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - GM076990(Canada)

Molecular organization and timing of Wnt1 expression define cohorts of midbrain dopamine neuron progenitors in vivo.

  • Brown A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Midbrain dopamine (MbDA) neurons are functionally heterogeneous and modulate complex functions through precisely organized anatomical groups. MbDA neurons are generated from Wnt1-expressing progenitors located in the ventral mesencephalon (vMes) during embryogenesis. However, it is unclear whether the progenitor pool is partitioned into distinct cohorts based on molecular identity and whether the timing of gene expression uniquely identifies subtypes of MbDA neurons. In this study we show that Wnt1-expressing MbDA progenitors from embryonic day (E)8.5-12.5 have dynamic molecular identities that correlate with specific spatial locations in the vMes. We also tested the hypothesis that the timing of Wnt1 expression in progenitors is related to the distribution of anatomically distinct cohorts of adult MbDA neurons using genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM). We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage contributes to specific cohorts of MbDA neurons during a 7-day epoch and that the contribution to MbDA neurons predominates over other ventral Mb domains. In addition, we show that calbindin-, GIRK2-, and calretinin-expressing MbDA neuron subtypes are derived from Wnt1-expressing progenitors marked over a broad temporal window. Through GIFM and quantitative analysis we demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage does not undergo progressive lineage restriction, which eliminates a restricted competence model of generating MbDA diversity. Interestingly, we uncover that two significant peaks of Wnt1 lineage contribution to MbDA neurons occur at E9.5 and E11.5. Collectively, our findings delineate the temporal window of MbDA neuron generation and show that lineage and timing predicts the terminal distribution pattern of MbDA neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM068851(United States)

PCP4 (PEP19) overexpression induces premature neuronal differentiation associated with Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II-δ activation in mouse models of Down syndrome.

  • Mouton-Liger F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pcp4/pep19 is a modulator of Ca(2+) -CaM, a key molecule for calcium signaling, expressed in postmitotic neuroectoderm cells during mouse embryogenesis. The PCP4 gene is located on human chromosome 21 and is present in three copies in Down syndrome (DS). To evaluate the consequences of three copies of this gene on the development of these cells in the nervous system, we constructed a transgenic (TgPCP4) mouse model, with one copy of human PCP4, and investigated the effects in this model and in the Ts1Cje, a mouse model of DS. During embryogenesis, we analyzed 1) the level of pcp4 transcript and protein in the two models; 2) the extent of colabeling for markers of neuronal differentiation (βIII-tubulin, Map2c, calbindin, and calretinin) and pcp4 by immunofluorescence analysis and overall protein levels of these markers by Western blotting; and 3) the rate of activation of CaMKII, a Ca(2+) -CaM target, to evaluate the impact of pcp4 overexpression on the Ca(2+) -CaM signaling pathway. We showed that three copies of the pcp4 gene induced the overexpression of transcripts and proteins during embryogenesis. Pcp4 overexpression 1) induced precocious neuronal differentiation, as shown by the distribution and levels of early neuronal markers; and 2) was associated with an increase in CaMKIIδ activation, confirming involvement in neuronal differentiation in vivo via a Pcp4-Ca(2+) -CaM pathway. TgPCP4 and Ts1Cje mice developed similar modifications, demonstrating that these mechanisms may account for abnormal neuronal development in DS.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - 1U54DA021519-01A1(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS36739(United States)

Sites of origin and developmental dynamics of the neurons in the core and shell regions of torus semicircularis in the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis).

  • Xi C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)H]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. Following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. The expression of vimentin (VM), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance P were also studied. The results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for the core and shell regions were generated in different sites of the ventricular zone; 2) the length of the cell cycle or S-phase for the shell region were both longer than those for the core region (4.7 and 3.2 hours longer, respectively), suggesting that mitotic activity in the core region is higher than it is in the shell region; 3) the elongated cell bodies of the labeled core and shell cells had close apposition to VM fibers, suggesting that the migration of these cells is guided by VM fibers; 4) the germinal sites of the core and shell constructed by projecting the orientation of radial VM fibers back to the ventricular zone was consistent with those obtained by short and sequential survival [(3)H]-thymidine radiography; and 5) the beginning of positive staining for parvalbumin in the core region was interposed between those for calbindin and substance P in the shell regions. This study contributes to the understanding of how auditory nuclei are organized and how their components developed and evolved.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R21 AA0160307(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077044/Z/05/Z(United Kingdom)

Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala.

  • Wang B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

We describe here the prenatal telencephalic expression of Dlx6 RNA and β-galactosidase driven from a mutant Dlx6 locus. The mutant Dlx6 allele, which we believe is either a null or severe hypomorph, has an IRES-lacZ-neomycin resistance cassette inserted into the Dlx6 homeobox coding sequence (Dlx6(LacZ) ). We compared expression from the Dlx6-lacZ (Dlx6(LacZ) ) allele in heterozygotes (Dlx6(LacZ/+) ), with the expression of Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5 and Dlx6 RNA. Like these wild-type alleles, Dlx6(LacZ) is expressed in the developing ganglionic eminences, and their derivatives. Unlike the other Dlx genes, Dlx6 and Dlx6(LacZ) expression is not readily observed in tangentially migrating interneurons. In addition to Dlx6's expression at later stages of differentiation of many basal ganglia nuclei, it shows particularly robust expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Histological analysis of Dlx6 mutants (Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) ) shows that this homeobox transcription factor is required for molecular properties of the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala. For instance, we observed reduced of Golf, RXRγ, and Tiam2 expression in the striatum, and reduced Dlx5 expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala. RNA expression array analysis of the E18.5 striatum was useful in identifying the transcription factors that are expressed in this tissue, but did not identify major changes in gene expression in the Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) mutant.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Multiple telencephalic and extratelencephalic embryonic domains contribute neurons to the medial extended amygdala.

  • Bupesh M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dysfunctions in emotional control and social behavior are behind human neuropsychiatric disorders, some of which are associated with an alteration of amygdalar development. The medial extended amygdala is a key telencephalic center for control of social behavior, but very little is known about its development. We used in vitro migration assays for analyzing the origin of the neurons of the medial extended amygdala in mouse embryos (E13.5-E16.5). We compared the migration assays with immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry for calbindin and radial glial fibers and with mRNA expression of several genetic markers of distinct forebrain subdivisions. We provide experimental evidence for multiple embryonic origins of the principal neurons of the medial extended amygdala. In particular, we provide novel evidence indicating that a major part of the neurons derives from a caudoventral pallidal subdivision (previously called or included as part of the anterior peduncular area), forming a cell corridor with similar molecular features (expression of Lhx6 and calbindin), connectivity, and function, which relates to reproductive behavior. We also provide novel experimental evidence indicating that the ventral pallium produces some neurons for the medial amygdala, which correlates with data from Lhx9 expression. Our results also confirm that some neurons of the medial extended amygdala originate in the preoptic area (our results indicate that these cells specifically originate in its commissural subdivision) and the supraoptoparaventricular domain of the hypothalamus. Our study helps to set up the foundations for a better understanding of medial amygdalar control of behavior in normal and abnormal conditions.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Characterization of NPY Y2 receptor protein expression in the mouse brain. II. Coexistence with NPY, the Y1 receptor, and other neurotransmitter-related molecules.

  • Stanić D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the brain and its biological effects are mediated through a variety of receptors. We examined, using immunohistochemistry, expression of the Y2 receptor (R) protein in the adult mouse brain and its association with NPY and the Y1R, as well as a range of additional neurotransmitters and signaling-related molecules, which previously have not been defined. Our main focus was on the hippocampal formation (HiFo), amygdaloid complex, and hypothalamus, considering the known functions of NPY and the wide expression of NPY, Y1R, and Y2R in these regions. Y2R-like immunoreactivity (-LI) was distributed in nerve fibers/terminal endings throughout the brain axis, without apparent colocalization with NPY or the Y1R. Occasional coexistence between NPY- and Y1R-LI was found in the HiFo. Following colchicine treatment, Y2R-LI accumulated in cell bodies that coexpressed γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in a population of cells in the amygdaloid complex and lateral septal nucleus, but not in the HiFo. Instead, Y2R-positive nerve terminals appeared to surround GABA-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the HiFo and other neuronal populations, e.g., NPY-ir cells in HiFo and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir cells in the hypothalamus. In the HiFo, Y2R-ir mossy fibers coexpressed GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 and calbindin, and Y2R-LI was found in the same fibers that contained the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, but not together with any of the three vesicular glutamate transporters. Our findings provide further support that Y2R is mostly presynaptic, and that Y2Rs thus have a modulatory role in mediating presynaptic neurotransmitter release.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-177796(Canada)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RC1-HG005334(United States)

SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells.

  • Hirano AA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Horizontal cells mediate inhibitory feedforward and feedback lateral interactions in the outer retina at photoreceptor terminals and bipolar cell dendrites; however, the mechanisms that underlie synaptic transmission from mammalian horizontal cells are poorly understood. The localization of a vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) to horizontal cell processes in primate and rodent retinae suggested that mammalian horizontal cells release transmitter in a vesicular manner. Toward determining whether the molecular machinery for vesicular transmitter release is present in horizontal cells, we investigated the expression of SNAP25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), a key SNARE protein, by immunocytochemistry with cell type-specific markers in the retinae of mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Different commercial antibodies to SNAP25 were tested on vertical sections of retina. We report the robust expression of SNAP25 in both plexiform layers. Double labeling with SNAP25 and calbindin antibodies demonstrated that horizontal cell processes and their endings in photoreceptor triad synapses were strongly labeled for both proteins in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey retinae. Double labeling with parvalbumin antibodies in monkey retina verified SNAP25 immunoreactivity in all horizontal cells. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy in rabbit retina confirmed expression of SNAP25 in lateral elements within photoreceptor triad synapses. The SNAP25 immunoreactivity in the plexiform layers and outer nuclear layer fell into at least three patterns depending on the antibody, suggesting a differential distribution of SNAP25 isoforms. The presence of SNAP25a and SNAP25b isoforms in mouse retina was established by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. SNAP25 expression in mammalian horizontal cells along with other SNARE proteins is consistent with vesicular exocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM00806-06(United States)

Neurochemical coding of enteric neurons in adult and embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio).

  • Uyttebroek L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although the morphology and development of the zebrafish enteric nervous system have been extensively studied, the precise neurochemical coding of enteric neurons and their proportional enteric distribution are currently not known. By using immunohistochemistry, we determined the proportional expression and coexpression of neurochemical markers in the embryonic and adult zebrafish intestine. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) were observed only in nerve fibers, whereas other markers were also detected in neuronal cell bodies. Calretinin and calbindin had similar distributions. In embryos, all markers, except for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and TH, were present from 72 hours postfertilization. Nitrergic neurons, evenly distributed and remaining constant in time, constituted the major neuronal subpopulation. The neuronal proportions of the other markers increased during development and were characterized by regional differences. In the adult, all markers examined were expressed in the enteric nervous system. A large percentage of enteric neurons displayed calbindin and calretinin, and serotonin was the only marker showing significant distribution differences in the three intestinal regions. Colocalization studies showed that serotonin was not coexpressed with any of the other markers. At least five neuronal subpopulations were determined: a serotonergic, a nitrergic noncholinergic, two cholinergic nonnitrergic subpopulations along with one subpopulation expressing both ChAT and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Analysis of nerve fibers revealed that nitrergic neurons coexpress VIP and PACAP, and that nitrergic neurons innervate the tunica muscularis, whereas serotonergic and cholinergic nonnitrergic neurons innervate the lamina propria and the tunica muscularis.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41-EB001978(United States)

Calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity characterizes the auditory system of Gekko gecko.

  • Yan K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Geckos use vocalizations for intraspecific communication, but little is known about the organization of their central auditory system. We therefore used antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin-D28k (CB) to characterize the gecko auditory system. We also examined expression of both glutamic acid decarboxlase (GAD) and synaptic vesicle protein (SV2). Western blots showed that these antibodies are specific to gecko brain. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in the auditory nerve, and CR immunoreactivity labeled the first-order nuclei and delineated the terminal fields associated with the ascending projections from the first-order auditory nuclei. PV expression characterized the superior olivary nuclei, whereas GAD immunoreactivity characterized many neurons in the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and some neurons in the torus semicircularis. In the auditory midbrain, the distribution of CR, PV, and CB characterized divisions within the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in nucleus medialis of the thalamus. These expression patterns are similar to those described for other vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG004059(United States)

Progression of neuronal and synaptic remodeling in the rd10 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa.

  • Phillips MJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Pde6b(rd10) (rd10) mouse has a moderate rate of photoreceptor degeneration and serves as a valuable model for human autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We evaluated the progression of neuronal remodeling of second- and third-order retinal cells and their synaptic terminals in retinas from Pde6b(rd10) (rd10) mice at varying stages of degeneration ranging from postnatal day 30 (P30) to postnatal month 9.5 (PNM9.5) using immunolabeling for well-known cell- and synapse-specific markers. Following photoreceptor loss, changes occurred progressively from outer to inner retina. Horizontal cells and rod and cone bipolar cells underwent morphological remodeling that included loss of dendrites, cell body migration, and the sprouting of ectopic processes. Gliosis, characterized by translocation of Müller cell bodies to the outer retina and thickening of their processes, was evident by P30 and became more pronounced as degeneration progressed. Following rod degeneration, continued expression of VGluT1 in the outer retina was associated with survival and expression of synaptic proteins by nearby second-order neurons. Rod bipolar cell terminals showed a progressive reduction in size and ectopic bipolar cell processes extended into the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer by PNM3.5. Putative ectopic conventional synapses, likely arising from amacrine cells, were present in the inner nuclear layer by PNM9.5. Despite these changes, the laminar organization of bipolar and amacrine cells and the ON-OFF organization in the inner plexiform layer was largely preserved. Surviving cone and bipolar cell terminals continued to express the appropriate cell-specific presynaptic proteins needed for synaptic function up to PNM9.5.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG004069-04S1(United States)

Antigenic compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex in the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

  • Marzban H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chick is a well-understood developmental model of cerebellar pattern formation,but we know much less about the patterning of the adult chicken cerebellum. Therefore an expression study of two Purkinje cell stripe antigens-zebrin II/aldolase C and phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4)-has been carried out in the adult chicken (Gallus domesticus). The mammalian cerebellar cortex is built around transverse expression domains ("transverse zones"), each of which is further subdivided into parasagittally oriented stripes. The results from the adult chicken reveal a similar pattern. Five distinct transverse domains were identified. In the anterior lobe a uniformly zebrin II-immunopositive/PLCbeta4-immunonegative lingular zone (LZ; lobule I) and a striped anterior zone (AZ; lobules II-VIa) were distinguished. A central zone (CZ; approximately lobules VIa-VIIIa,b) and a posterior zone (PZ; approximately lobules VIIIa,b-IXc,d) were distinguished in the posterior lobe. Finally, the nodular zone (NZ; lobule X) is uniformly zebrin II-immunoreactive and is innervated by vestibular mossy fibers. Lobule IXc,d is considered as a transitional region between the PZ and the NZ, because the vestibular mossy fiber projection extends into these lobules and because they receive optokinetic mossy and climbing fiber input. It is proposed that the zebrin II-immunonegative P3- stripe corresponds to the lateral vermal B zone of the mammalian cerebellum and that the border between the avian homologs of the mammalian vermis and hemispheres is located immediately lateral to P3-. Thus, there seem to be transverse zones in chicken that are plausible homologs of those identified in mammals, together with an LZ that is characteristic of birds.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG006465(United States)

Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter.

  • Guo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is likely expressed in horizontal cells of all species, although conflicting physiological findings have led to considerable controversy regarding its role as a transmitter in the outer retina. This study has evaluated key components of the GABA system in the outer retina of guinea pig, an emerging retinal model system. The presence of GABA, its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65) and GAD(67) isoforms), the plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3), and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized antibodies. The presence of GAD(65) mRNA was also evaluated by using laser capture microdissection and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specific GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT immunostaining was localized to horizontal cell bodies, as well as to their processes and tips in the outer plexiform layer. Furthermore, immunostaining of retinal whole mounts and acutely dissociated retinas showed GAD(65) and VGAT immunoreactivity in both A-type and B-type horizontal cells. However, these cells did not contain GAD(67), GAT-1, or GAT-3 immunoreactivity. GAD(65) mRNA was detected in horizontal cells, and sequencing of the amplified GAD(65) fragment showed approximately 85% identity with other mammalian GAD(65) mRNAs. These studies demonstrate the presence of GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT in horizontal cells of the guinea pig retina, and support the idea that GABA is synthesized from GAD(65), taken up into synaptic vesicles by VGAT, and likely released by a vesicular mechanism from horizontal cells.

Differential gene expression in migrating cortical interneurons during mouse forebrain development.

  • Faux C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons play a vital role in modulating the activity of the cerebral cortex, and disruptions to their function have been linked to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. These cells originate in the ganglionic eminences (GE) of the ventral telencephalon and undergo tangential migration to enter the cortex. Currently, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that regulate interneuron migration. We therefore performed a microarray analysis comparing the changes in gene expression between the GABAergic interneurons that are actively migrating into the cortex with those in the GE. We were able to isolate pure populations of GABAergic cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting of cortex and GE from embryonic brains of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Our microarray analysis identified a number of novel genes that were upregulated in migrating cortical interneurons at both E13.5 and E15.5. Many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in cell migration of both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. In addition, several of the genes identified are involved in the regulation of migratory processes, such as neurite outgrowth, cell adhesion, and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization analyses confirmed that the expression of some of these genes is restricted to cortical interneurons. These data therefore provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the complexities of interneuron migration and, in turn, may reveal important genes that are related to the development of specific neurological disorders.

Collagen XIX is expressed by interneurons and contributes to the formation of hippocampal synapses.

  • Su J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules contribute to the formation and maintenance of synapses in the mammalian nervous system. We previously discovered a family of nonfibrillar collagens that organize synaptic differentiation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although many NMJ-organizing cues contribute to central nervous system (CNS) synaptogenesis, whether similar roles for collagens exist at central synapses remained unclear. In the present study we discovered that col19a1, the gene encoding nonfibrillar collagen XIX, is expressed by subsets of hippocampal neurons. Colocalization with the interneuron-specific enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 67 (Gad67), but not other cell-type-specific markers, suggests that hippocampal expression of col19a1 is restricted to interneurons. However, not all hippocampal interneurons express col19a1 mRNA; subsets of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, somatostatin (Som)-, and calbindin (Calb)-immunoreactive interneurons express col19a1, but those containing parvalbumin (Parv) or calretinin (Calr) do not. To assess whether collagen XIX is required for the normal formation of hippocampal synapses, we examined synaptic morphology and composition in targeted mouse mutants lacking collagen XIX. We show here that subsets of synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2)-containing hippocampal nerve terminals appear malformed in the absence of collagen XIX. The presence of Syt2 in inhibitory hippocampal synapses, the altered distribution of Gad67 in collagen XIX-deficient subiculum, and abnormal levels of gephyrin in collagen XIX-deficient hippocampal extracts all suggest inhibitory synapses are affected by the loss of collagen XIX. Together, these data not only reveal that collagen XIX is expressed by central neurons, but show for the first time that a nonfibrillar collagen is necessary for the formation of hippocampal synapses.

Genoarchitectonic profile of developing nuclear groups in the chicken pretectum.

  • Ferran JL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Earlier results on molecularly coded progenitor domains in the chicken pretectum revealed an anteroposterior subdivision of the pretectum in precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic areas, each specified differentially (Ferran et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 505:379-403). Here we examined the nuclei derived from these areas with regard to characteristic gene expression patterns and gradual histogenesis (eventually, migration patterns). We sought a genoarchitectonic schema of the avian pretectum within the prosomeric model of the vertebrate forebrain (Puelles and Rubenstein [2003] Trends Neurosci 26:469-476; Puelles et al. [2007] San Diego: Academic Press). Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of the three pretectal histogenetic domains: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); FoxP1 and Six3 (JcP); and FoxP2, Ebf1, and Bhlhb4 (PcP). The combination of this genoarchitectonic information with additional data on Lim1, Tal2, and Nbea mRNA expression and other chemoarchitectonic results allowed unambiguous characterization of some 30 pretectal nuclei. Apart from grouping them as derivatives of the three early anteroposterior domains, we also assigned them to postulated dorsoventral subdomains (Ferran et al. [2007]). Several previously unknown neuronal populations were detected, thus expanding the list of pretectal structures, and we corrected some apparently confused concepts in the earlier literature. The composite gene expression map represents a substantial advance in anatomical and embryological knowledge of the avian pretectum. Many nuclear primordia can be recognized long before the mature differentiated state of the pretectum is achieved. This study provides fundamental notions for ultimate scientific study of the specification and regionalization processes building up this brain area, both in birds and other vertebrates.

Purkinje cell compartmentation of the cerebellum of microchiropteran bats.

  • Kim JY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transverse boundaries divide the mammalian cerebellar cortex into transverse zones, and within each zone the cortex is further subdivided into a symmetrical array of parasagittal stripes. This topography is highly conserved across the Mammalia. Bats have a remarkable cerebellum with presumed adaptations to flight and to echolocation, but nothing is known of its compartmentation. We have therefore used two Purkinje cell compartmentation antigens, zebrin II/aldolase C and phospholipase Cbeta4, to reveal the topography of the cerebellum in microchiropteran bats. Three species of bat were studied, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Eptesicus fuscus. A reproducible pattern of zones and stripes was revealed that is similar across the three species. The architecture of the bat cerebellum conforms to the ground plan of other mammals. However, two exceptions to the highly conserved mammalian architectural plan were revealed. First, many Purkinje cells in lobule I express zebrin II. A zebrin II-immunopositive lobule I has not been seen previously in mammals but is characteristic of the avian cerebellum. Second, lobules VI-VII comprise the large central zone. Within the central zone two subdomains are evident, a small anterior subdomain (lobule VI) in which Purkinje cells are predominantly zebrin II-immunopositive/PLCbeta4-immunonegative, as in other mammals, and a posterior subdomain (lobule VII), in which alternating zebrin II/phospholipase Cbeta4 stripes are prominent.

Effects of developmental age, brain region, and time in culture on long-term proliferation and multipotency of neural stem cell populations.

  • Gritti A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the murine subventricular zone (SVZ) niche allow life-long neurogenesis. During the first postnatal month and throughout aging, the decrease of neuroblasts and the rise of astrocytes results in diminished neurogenesis and increased astrocyte:neuron ratio. Also, a different neurogenic activity characterizes the SVZ periventricular region (LV, lateral ventricle) as compared to its rostral extension (RE). In order to investigate whether and to what extent these physiological modifications may be ascribed to intrinsic changes of the endogenous NSC/progenitor features, we performed a functional analysis on NSCs isolated and cultured from LV and RE tissues at distinct postnatal stages that are marked by striking modifications to the SVZ niche in vivo. We evaluated the effect of age and brain region on long-term proliferation and multipotency, and characterized the cell type composition of NSC-derived progeny, comparing this make-up to that of region- and age-matched primary neural cultures. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of prolonged in vitro expansion on NSC functional properties. We documented age- and region-dependent differences on the clonogenic efficiency and on the long-term proliferative capacity of NSCs. Also, we found age- and region-dependent quantitative changes in the cell composition of NSC progeny (decreased quantity of neurons and oligodendrocytes; increased amount of astroglial cells) and these differences were maintained in long-term cultured NSC populations. Overall, these data strengthen the hypothesis that age- and region-dependent differences in neurogenesis (observed in vivo) may be ascribed to the changes in the intrinsic developmental program of the NSC populations.

Evolutionary significance of delayed neurogenesis in the core versus shell auditory areas of Mus musculus.

  • Zeng SJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Early comparative embryogenesis can reflect the organization and evolutionary origins of brain areas. Neurogenesis in the auditory areas of sauropsids displays a clear core-to-shell distinction, but it remains unclear in mammals. To address this issue, [3H]-thymidine was injected into pregnant mice on consecutive embryonic (E) days (E10-E19) to date neuronal birthdays. Immunohistochemistry for substance P, calbindin, and parvalbumin was conducted to distinguish the core and shell auditory regions. The results showed that: 1) cell generation began at E13 in the external or dorsal nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC), but it did not start in the caudomedial portion of the central nucleus of IC, and significantly fewer cells were produced in the medial and rostromedial portions of the central nucleus of IC; 2) cells were generated at E11 in the dorsal and medial divisions of the medial geniculate complex (MGd and MGm, respectively), whereas cell generation was absent in the medial and rostromedial portions of the ventral medial geniculate complex (MGv), and fewer cells were produced in the caudomedial portion of MGv; 3) in the telencephalic auditory cortex, cells were produced at E11 or E12 in layer I and the subplate, which receive projections from the MGd and MGm. However, cell generation occurred at E13-E18 in layers II-VI, including the area receiving projections from the MGv. The core-to-shell distinction of neurogenesis is thus present in the mesencephalic to telencephalic auditory areas in the mouse. This distinction of neurogenesis is discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

Components and properties of the G3 ganglion cell circuit in the rabbit retina.

  • Hoshi H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Each point on the retina is sampled by about 15 types of ganglion cell, each of which is an element in a circuit also containing specific types of bipolar cell and amacrine cell. Only a few of these circuits are well characterized. We found that intracellular injection of Neurobiotin into a specific ganglion cell type targeted by fluorescent markers also stained an asymmetrically branching ganglion cell. It was also tracer-coupled to an unusual type of amacrine cell whose dendrites were strongly asymmetric, coursing in a narrow bundle from the soma in the dorsal direction only. The dendritic field of the ganglion cell stratifies initially in sublamina b (the ON layers), but with few specializations and branches, and then more extensively in sublamina a (the OFF layers) at the level of the processes of the coupled amacrine cell. Intersections of the ganglion and amacrine cell processes contain puncta immunopositive for Cx36. Additionally, we found that the dopaminergic amacrine cell makes contact with both the ganglion cell and the amacrine cell, and that a bipolar cell immunopositive for calbindin synapses onto the sublamina b processes of the ganglion cell. Dopamine D(1) receptor activation reduced tracer flow to the amacrine cells. We have thus targeted and characterized two poorly understood retinal cell types and placed them with two other cell types in a substantial portion of a new retinal circuit. This unique circuit comprised of pronounced asymmetries in the ganglion cell and amacrine cell dendritic fields may result in a substantial orientation bias.

Plasmalemmal and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in the developing mouse retina.

  • Guo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasmalemmal and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters influence neurotransmission by regulating high-affinity GABA uptake and GABA release into the synaptic cleft and extracellular space. Postnatal expression of the plasmalemmal GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-3, and the vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) were evaluated in the developing mouse retina by using immunohistochemistry with affinity-purified antibodies. Weak transporter immunoreactivity was observed in the inner retina at postnatal day 0 (P0). GAT-1 immunostaining at P0 and at older ages was in amacrine and displaced amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), respectively, and in their processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). At P10, weak GAT-1 immunostaining was in Müller cell processes. GAT-3 immunostaining at P0 and older ages was in amacrine cells and their processes, as well as in Müller cells and their processes that extended radially across the retina. At P10, Müller cell somata were observed in the middle of the INL. VGAT immunostaining was present at P0 and older ages in amacrine cells in the INL as well as processes in the IPL. At P5, weak VGAT immunostaining was also observed in horizontal cell somata and processes. By P15, the GAT and VGAT immunostaining patterns appear similar to the adult immunostaining patterns; they reached adult levels by about P20. These findings demonstrate that GABA uptake and release are initially established in the inner retina during the first postnatal week and that these systems subsequently mature in the outer retina during the second postnatal week.

Differential expression of canonical (classical) transient receptor potential channels in guinea pig enteric nervous system.

  • Liu S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) family of ion channels is implicated in many neuronal processes including calcium homeostasis, membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, and axon guidance. TRPC channels are postulated to be important in the functional neurobiology of the enteric nervous system (ENS); nevertheless, details for expression in the ENS are lacking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to study the expression and localization of TRPC channels. We found mRNA transcripts, protein on Western blots, and immunoreactivity (IR) for TRPC1/3/4/6 expressed in the small intestinal ENS of adult guinea pigs. TRPC1/3/4/6-IR was localized to distinct subpopulations of enteric neurons and was differentially distributed between the myenteric and submucosal divisions of the ENS. TRPC1-IR was widely distributed and localized to neurons with cholinergic, calretinin, and nitrergic neuronal immunochemical codes in the myenteric plexus. It was localized to both cholinergic and noncholinergic secretomotor neurons in the submucosal plexus. TRPC3-IR was found only in the submucosal plexus and was expressed exclusively by neuropeptide Y-IR neurons. TRPC4/6-IR was expressed in only a small population of myenteric neurons, but was abundantly expressed in the submucosal plexus. TRPC4/6-IR was coexpressed with both cholinergic and nitrergic neurochemical codes in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, TRPC4/6-IR was expressed exclusively in noncholinergic secretomotor neurons. No TRPC1/3/4/6-IR was found in calbindin-IR neurons. TRPC3/4/6-IR was widely expressed along varicose nerve fibers and colocalized with synaptophysin-IR at putative neurotransmitter release sites. Our results suggest important roles for TRPC channels in ENS physiology and neuronal regulation of gut function.

Calbindin-D28k and calretinin expression in the forebrain of anuran and urodele amphibians: further support for newly identified subdivisions.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

A general pattern of organization of the forebrain shared by amphibians, mainly anurans, and amniotes has been proposed considering the relative topography of the territories, their connectivity, and their neurochemistry. These criteria were needed because the amphibians possess limited cell migration from the ventricle that precludes a parcellation into circumscribed nuclei. In the present study we have tested the identity of most newly described forebrain territories in anurans and urodeles with regard to their content in calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR). By means of immunohistochemistry, these proteins were demonstrated to be particularly abundant and specifically distributed in the amphibian forebrain and were extremely useful markers for delineating nuclear boundaries otherwise indistinguishable. In the telencephalon, labeled cells in the pallium allowed the identification of particular regions with marked differences between anurans and urodeles, whereas the subpallium showed more conservative patterns of distribution. In particular, the components of the amygdaloid complex and the basal ganglia were distinctly labeled. The distribution in the nonevaginated secondary prosencephalon and diencephalon showed abundant common features between anurans and urodeles, highlighted using the prosomeric model for the comparison. In the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus of urodeles, the CB and CR staining was particularly suitable for the identification of diverse structures within the simple periventricular gray layer. However, the analysis across species also revealed a considerable degree of heterogeneity, even within comparatively well-defined neuronal populations. Therefore, the content of a particular calcium binding protein in a neuronal group is not a fully reliable criterion for considering homologies.

Retinal anatomy and visual performance in a diurnal cone-rich laboratory rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

  • Gaillard F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Unlike laboratory rats and mice, muridae of the Arvicanthis family (A. ansorgei and A. niloticus) are adapted to functioning best in daylight. To date, they have been used as experimental models mainly in studies of circadian rhythms. However, recent work aimed at optimizing photoreceptor-directed gene delivery vectors (Khani et al. [2007] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3954-3961) suggests their potential usefulness for studying retinal pathologies and therapies. In the present study we analyzed the retinal anatomy and visual performance of the Nile grass rat (A. niloticus) using immunohistofluorescence and the optokinetic response (OKR). We found that approximately 35-40% of photoreceptors are cones; that many neural features of the inner retina are similar to those in other diurnal mammals; and that spatial acuity, measured by the OKR, is more than two times that of the usual laboratory rodents. These observations are consistent with the known diurnal habits of this animal, and further support its pertinence as a complementary model for studies of structure, function, and pathology in cone-rich mammalian retinae.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071832-03(United States)

Mirror-symmetrical populations of wide-field amacrine cells of the macaque monkey retina.

  • Majumdar S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinas of macaque monkeys were immunostained for glycogen phosphorylase (glypho). Glypho was localized to regular and displaced amacrine cells. Their processes occupied two narrow strata within the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The labeling pattern is reminiscent of cholinergic amacrine cells; however, double immunostaining of the retinas for choline acetyltransferase and glypho revealed two different cell populations. Intracellular injection of DiI showed that glypho-immunoreactive amacrine cells are wide-field amacrine cells with straight, radially oriented, and sparsely branched dendrites. The density of the cells increased from approximately 70/mm(2) in the peripheral retina to approximately 700/mm(2) in the central retina. The regular glypho-immunoreactive amacrine cells branch in sublamina 2 of the IPL, where they receive input from OFF-cone bipolar cells. The displaced cells branch in sublamina 3/4 and receive input from ON-cone bipolar cells. This suggests that the regular cells are OFF-cells and the displaced cells are ON-cells. The cells express gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity and receive glycinergic input through synapses expressing preferentially the glycine receptor alpha2 subunit. The close proximity of the dendritic strata of glypho-immunoreactive amacrine cells, cholinergic amacrine cells, and direction-selective ganglion cells suggests a possible role of the cells in the generation of direction-selective light responses of the monkey retina.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017037(United States)

Patterns of convergence in rat zona incerta from the trigeminal nuclear complex: light and electron microscopic study.

  • Simpson K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In contrast to the restricted receptive field (RF) properties of the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM), neurons of the ventral thalamus zona incerta (ZI) have been shown to exhibit multiwhisker responses that vary from the ventral (ZIv) to the dorsal (ZId) subdivision. Differences in activity may arise from the trigeminal nuclear complex (TNC) and result from subnucleus specific inputs via certain cells of origin, axon distribution patterns, fiber densities, bouton sizes, or postsynaptic contact sites. We tested this hypothesis by assessing circuit relationships among TNC, ZI, and VPM. Results from tracer studies show that, 1) relative to ZId, the trigeminal projection to ZIv is denser and arises predominantly from the principalis (PrV) and interpolaris (SpVi) subdivisions; 2) the incertal projection from TNC subnuclei overlaps and covers most of ZIv; 3) two sets of PrV axons terminate in ZI: a major subtype, possessing bouton-like swellings, and a few fine fibers, with minimal specialization; 4) both PrV and SpVi terminals exhibit asymmetric endings and preferentially target dendrites of ZI neurons; 5) small and large neurons in PrV are labeled after retrograde injections into ZI; 6) small PrV cells with incertal projections form a population that is distinct from those projecting to VPM; and 7) approximately 30-50% of large cells in PrV send collaterals to ZI and VPM. These findings suggest that, 1) although information to ZI and VPM is essentially routed along separate TNC circuits, streams of somatosensory code converge in ZI to establish large RFs, and 2) subregional differences in ZI response profiles are attributable in part to TNC innervation density.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - ESO 12961(United States)

Expression of calcium channel CaV1.3 in cat spinal cord: light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study.

  • Zhang M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In spinal neurons, plateau potentials serve to amplify neuronal input signals. To a large extent, the underlying persistent inward current is mediated by a subtype of the L-type calcium channel (Ca(V)1.3). In the present investigation, we have studied its distribution and cellular localization in the cat spinal cord by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. The results show that Ca(V)1.3-like immunoreactivity is widely distributed in all segments of the spinal cord but that the distribution in the different laminae of the spinal gray matter varies, with the highest density of labeled neurons in lamina IX and the lowest in lamina II. The labeling intensity was highest in neuronal somata, but a certain length of the proximal dendrite was also labeled. Some neuronal groups exhibited a particularly dense labeling; these include the lateral motoneuronal group in the cervical and the lumbar enlargements and the phrenic nucleus in cervical, Clarke's nucleus in lower thoracic and upper lumbar, and Onuf's nucleus in upper sacral segments. At the ultrastructural level, Ca(V)1.3-immunoreactive products were found in neuronal somata and dendrites of different sizes. In the soma, they were predominantly associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but some also with the plasma membrane. In dendrites, they were associated with both intracellular organelles, including microtubules and microchondria, and the plasma membrane. These results indicate that significant proportions of the neurons in cat spinal cord, including projection neurons, interneurons, and motoneurons, are endowed with ion channels that subserve persistent inward currents and act to amplify synaptic input signals.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK61142(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS064577(United States)

Type 4 OFF cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina express calsenilin and contact cones as well as rods.

  • Haverkamp S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Immunocytochemical discrimination of distinct bipolar cell types in the mouse retina is a prerequisite for analyzing retinal circuitry in wild-type and transgenic mice. Here we demonstrate that among the more than 10 anatomically defined mouse bipolar cell types, type 4 bipolar cells are specifically recognized by anti-calsenilin antibodies. Axon terminals in the inner plexiform layer are not readily identifiable because calsenilin is also expressed in a subset of amacrine and ganglion cells. In contrast, in the outer plexiform layer calsenilin immunoreactivity allows the analysis of photoreceptor to type 4 bipolar cell contacts. A dense plexus of calsenilin-positive dendrites makes several basal contacts at cone pedicles. An individual calsenilin-positive bipolar cell contacts five to seven cones. In addition, some calsenilin-positive dendrites contact rod photoreceptors. On average we counted 10 rod spherule contacts per type 4 bipolar cell, and approximately 10% of rods contacted type 4 bipolar cells. We suggest that type 4 bipolar cells, together with the recently described type 3a and b cells, provide an alternative and direct route from rods to OFF cone bipolar cells. In the Bassoon DeltaEx4/5 mouse, a mouse mutant that shows extensive remodeling of the rod system including sprouting of horizontal and rod bipolar cells into the outer nuclear layer due to impaired synaptic transmission, we found that in addition mixed-input (type 3 and 4) OFF bipolar cells sprout to ectopic sites. In contrast, true cone-selective type 1 and 2 OFF cone bipolar cells did not show sprouting in the Bassoon mouse mutant.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD021764(United States)

Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development.

  • García-López M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amygdala controls emotional and social behavior and regulates instinctive reflexes such as defense and reproduction by way of descending projections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. The descending amygdalar projections are suggested to show a cortico-striato-pallidal organization similar to that of the basal ganglia (Swanson [2000] Brain Res 886:113-164). To test this model we investigated the embryological origin and molecular properties of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdalar subdivisions, which constitute major sources of descending projections. We analyzed the distribution of key regulatory genes that show restricted expression patterns within the subpallium (Dlx5, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx7/8, Lhx9, Shh, and Gbx1), as well as genes considered markers for specific subpallial neuronal subpopulations. Our results indicate that most of the centromedial and extended amygdala is formed by cells derived from multiple subpallial subdivisions. Contrary to a previous suggestion, only the central--but not the medial--amygdala derives from the lateral ganglionic eminence and has striatal-like features. The medial amygdala and a large part of the extended amygdala (including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) consist of subdivisions or cell groups that derive from subpallial, pallial (ventral pallium), or extratelencephalic progenitor domains. The subpallial part includes derivatives from the medial ganglionic eminence, the anterior peduncular area, and possibly a novel subdivision, called here commissural preoptic area, located at the base of the septum and related to the anterior commissure. Our study provides a molecular and morphological foundation for understanding the complex embryonic origins and adult organization of the centromedial and extended amygdala.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - FRN15686(Canada)

Fate mapping Nkx2.1-lineage cells in the mouse telencephalon.

  • Xu Q
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.1 is expressed in the pallidal (subcortical) telencephalon, including the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and preoptic area. Studies have shown that Nkx2.1 is required for normal patterning of the MGE and for the specification of the parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing cortical interneurons. To define the contribution of Nkx2.1 lineages to neurons in the mature telencephalon, we have generated transgenic mice carrying the genomic integration of a modified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in which the second exon of Nkx2.1 is replaced by the Cre recombinase. Analysis of these mice has found that they express the Cre recombinase and Cre reporters within Nkx2.1-expressing domains of the brain, thyroid, pituitary, and lung. Telencephalic expression of reporters begins at about embryonic day 10.5. Expression both of Cre and of recombination-based Cre reporters is weaker within the dorsalmost region of the MGE than in other Nkx2.1-expressing regions. In this paper, we present fate-mapping data on Nkx2.1-lineage neurons throughout the telencephalon, including the cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb, striatum, globus pallidus, septum, and nucleus basalis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS059600(United States)

Quantitative analysis of neuronal diversity in the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Parrish-Aungst S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olfactory sensory information is processed and integrated by circuits within the olfactory bulb. Golgi morphology suggests the olfactory bulb contains several major neuronal classes. However, an increasingly diverse collection of neurochemical markers have been localized in subpopulations of olfactory bulb neurons. While the mouse is becoming the animal model of choice for olfactory research, little is known about the proportions of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical markers in this species. Here we characterize neuronal populations in the mouse main olfactory bulb, focusing on glomerular populations. Immunofluorescent labeling for: 1) calretinin, 2) calbindin D-28K (CB), 3) parvalbumin, 4) neurocalcin, 5) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 6) the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD67), and 7) the neuronal marker NeuN was performed in mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kDa (GAD65) promoter. Using unbiased stereological cell counts we estimated the total numbers of cells and neurons in the bulb and the number and percentage of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical populations in each layer of the olfactory bulb. Use of a genetic label for GAD65 and immunohistochemistry for GAD67 identified a much larger percentage of GABAergic neurons in the glomerular layer (55% of all neurons) than previously recognized. Additionally, while many glomerular neurons expressing TH or CB coexpress GAD, the majority of these neurons preferentially express the GAD67 isoform. These data suggest that the chemospecific populations of neurons in glomeruli form distinct subpopulations and that GAD isoforms are preferentially regulated in different neurochemical cell types.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG006193(United States)

Cellular and subcellular localization of Huntingtin [corrected] aggregates in the brain of a rat transgenic for Huntington disease.

  • Petrasch-Parwez E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by emotional, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions. Aggregation of huntingtin is a hallmark of HD and, therefore, a crucial parameter for the evaluation of HD animal models. We investigated here the regional, cellular, and subcellular distribution of N-terminal huntingtin aggregates and associated neuropathological changes in the forebrain of a rat transgenic for HD (tgHD). The tgHD rat brain showed enormously enlarged lateral ventricles and a similar atrophy of cortical and subcortical areas as known in HD patients. Huntingtin aggregates of varying size and forms were regionally identified in neuronal nuclei, cytoplasm, dendrites, dendritic spines, axons, and synaptic terminals, closely resembling the results described earlier for human HD brains and in established HD mouse models. Huntingtin aggregates in mitochondria support mitochondrial dysfunction as contributing to the disease pathogenesis. Dark cell degeneration was reminiscent of results in HD individuals and HD mouse models. Interestingly, huntingtin aggregates were especially well accumulated in two interacting limbic forebrain systems, the ventral striatopallidum and the extended amygdala, which may contribute to the early onset of emotional changes observed in the tgHD rat. In conclusion, the tgHD rat model reflects to a remarkable extent the cellular and subcellular neuropathological key features as observed in human HD and HD mouse brains and hints of changes in limbic forebrain systems, which may elucidate the emotional dysfunction in the tgHD rat and affective disturbances in HD patients.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37NS008174(United States)

Decreased neurogenesis in aged rats results from loss of granule cell precursors without lengthening of the cell cycle.

  • Olariu A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is well established that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus slows with aging, but it is unclear whether this change is due to slowing of the cell cycle, as occurs during development, or to loss of precursor cells. In the current study, we find that the cell cycle time of granule cell precursors in middle-aged male rats is not significantly different from that in young adults. The size of the precursor pool, however, was 3-4 times smaller in the middle-aged rats, as determined using both cumulative bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling as well as labeling with the endogenous marker of cell proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Loss of precursor cells was much greater in the granule cell layer than in the hilus, suggesting that dividing cells in the hilus belong to a distinct population, most likely glial progenitors, that are less affected by aging than neuronal precursors. BrdU-labeled precursor cells and young neurons, labeled with doublecortin, appeared to be lost equally from rostral and caudal, as well as suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal, subregions of the granule cell layer. However, doublecortin staining did show large parts of the caudal granule cell layer with few if any young neurons at both ages. Taken together, these findings indicate that precursor cells are not distributed evenly within the dentate gyrus in adulthood but that precursors are lost from throughout the dentate gyrus in old age with no concomitant change in the cell cycle time.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083091(United States)

Heterogeneity of glycinergic and gabaergic interneurons in the granule cell layer of mouse cerebellum.

  • Simat M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interneurons of the cerebellum granule cell layer (GCL) form distinct populations. Golgi cells extend dendrites in the molecular layer (ML) and innervate granule cells. In contrast, Lugaro cells have dendrites confined to the GCL but innervate interneurons in the ML, and globular cells have both their dendrites and axons in the ML. The latter cells were described recently and remain poorly characterized. Although several neurochemical markers have been associated selectively with GCL interneurons, it is unclear how they relate to their morphological classification and neurochemical phenotype (glycinergic and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]ergic). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of GCL interneurons in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glycinergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively. By using immunofluorescence for metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) and neurogranin as markers, we demonstrate the existence of five non-overlapping subsets of Golgi cells: about 65% are glycinergic/GABAergic and co-express both markers. Two small subsets (5-10%) also contain both neurotransmitters but express only mGluR2; they are distinguished by cell body size and location in the GCL. The fourth subset (15%) is GABAergic only and expresses neurogranin. The fifth subset (5%) is glycinergic only and lacks both markers. Thus, the heterogeneity of Golgi cells suggests that they belong to specific functional circuits and are differentially regulated by mGluRs and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent signaling pathways. In contrast to Golgi cells, Lugaro and globular cells are glycinergic/GABAergic and lack mGluR2 and neurogranin. They each represent at least 15% of GCL interneurons and extensively innervate stellate and basket cells, but not Purkinje cells, emphasizing their contribution to inhibitory control of ML interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS058901(United States)

Origins and migratory routes of murine Cajal-Retzius cells.

  • García-Moreno F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The first layer that appears in the cortical neuroepithelium, the preplate, forms in the upper part of the cortex immediately below the pial surface. In mice, this layer exists between embryonic days (E) 10 and 13, and it hosts different cell populations. Here, we have studied the first cell population generated in the preplate, the Cajal-Retzius cells. There is considerable confusion regarding these cells with respect to both their site of generation and the migratory routes that they follow. This perhaps is due largely to the different opinions that exist regarding their characterization. We have studied the site of origin of these cells, their migratory routes, and the molecular markers that may distinguish them by injecting tracers into early embryos, culturing them in toto for 24 hours, and then performing immunohistochemistry. We found that the Cajal-Retzius cells are most likely generated in the cortical hem by comparing with other cortical or extracortical origins. These cells are generated mainly at E10 and E11, and they subsequently migrate tangentially to cover the whole cortical mantle in 24 hours. From their site of origin in the medial wall of the telencephalon, they spread in a caudorostral direction, following an oblique migratory path toward the lateral part of the neuroepithelium. Prior to the splitting of the preplate, a percentage of the Cajal-Retzius cells that can be distinguished by the expression of reelin do not contain calretinin. Furthermore, there were no early-migrating neurons that expressed calbindin.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005210/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE12738(United States)

Chicken lateral septal organ and other circumventricular organs form in a striatal subdomain abutting the molecular striatopallidal border.

  • Bardet SM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The avian lateral septal organ (LSO) is a telencephalic circumventricular specialization with liquor-contacting neurons (Kuenzel and van Tienhoven [1982] J. Comp. Neurol. 206:293-313). We studied the topological position of the chicken LSO relative to molecular borders defined previously within the telencephalic subpallium (Puelles et al. [2000] J. Comp. Neurol. 424:409-438). Differential expression of Dlx5 and Nkx2.1 homeobox genes, or the Shh gene encoding a secreted morphogen, allows distinction of striatal, pallidal, and preoptic subpallial sectors. The chicken LSO complex was characterized chemoarchitectonically from embryonic to posthatching stages, by using immunohistochemistry for calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, NKX2.1, and BEN proteins and in situ hybridization for Nkx2.1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Shh, and Dlx5 mRNA. Medial and lateral parts of LSO appear, respectively, at the striatal part of the septum and adjacent bottom of the lateral ventricle (accumbens), in lateral continuity with another circumventricular organ that forms along a thin subregion of the entire striatum, abutting the molecular striatopallidal boundary; we called this the "striatopallidal organ" (SPO). The SPO displays associated distal periventricular cells, which are lacking in the LSO. Moreover, the SPO is continuous caudomedially with a thin, linear ependymal specialization found around the extended amygdala and preoptic areas. This differs from SPO and LSO in some molecular aspects. We tentatively identified this structure as being composed of an "extended amygdala organ" (EAO) and a "preoptohypothalamic organ" (PHO). The position of LSO, SPO, EAO, and PHO within a linear Dlx5-expressing ventricular domain that surrounds the Nkx2.1-expressing pallidopreoptic domain provides an unexpected insight into possible common and differential causal mechanisms underlying their formation.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR0146475(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006677(United States)

Calcium-binding proteins, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and GABA help to distinguish different pallial areas in the developing and adult chicken. I. Hippocampal formation and hyperpallium.

  • Suárez J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

To better understand the formation and adult organization of the avian pallium, we studied the expression patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hippocampal formation and hyperpallium of developing and adult chicks. Each marker showed a specific spatiotemporal expression pattern and was expressed in a region (area)-specific but dynamic manner during development. The combinatorial expression of these markers was very useful for identifying and following the development of subdivisions of the chicken hippocampal formation and hyperpallium. In the hyperpallium, three separate radially arranged subdivisions were present since early development showing distinct expression patterns: the apical hyperpallium (CB-rich); the intercalated hyperpallium (nNOS-rich, CB-poor); the dorsal hyperpallium (nNOS-poor, CB-moderate). Furthermore, a novel division was identified (CB-rich, CR-rich), interposed between hyper- and mesopallium and related to the lamina separating both, termed laminar pallial nucleus. This gave rise at its surface to part of the lateral hyperpallium. Later in development, the interstitial nucleus of the apical hyperpallium became visible as a partition of the apical hyperpallium. In the hippocampal formation, at least five radial divisions were observed, and these were compared with the divisions proposed recently in adult pigeons. Of note, the corticoid dorsolateral area (sometimes referred as caudolateral part of the parahippocampal area) contained CB immunoreactivity patches coinciding with Nissl-stained cell aggregates, partially resembling the patches described in the mammalian entorhinal cortex. Each neurochemical marker was present in specific neuronal subpopulations and axonal networks, providing insights into the functional maturation of the chicken pallium.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC000191(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)