Literature context: agent Program Cat# 8129; RRID:CVCL_B478 Recombinant DNA
Virtually the entire surface of the HIV-1-envelope trimer is recognized by neutralizing antibodies, except for a highly glycosylated region at the center of the "silent face" on the gp120 subunit. From an HIV-1-infected donor, #74, we identified antibody VRC-PG05, which neutralized 27% of HIV-1 strains. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment of VRC-PG05 in complex with gp120 revealed an epitope comprised primarily of N-linked glycans from N262, N295, and N448 at the silent face center. Somatic hypermutation occurred preferentially at antibody residues that interacted with these glycans, suggesting somatic development of glycan recognition. Resistance to VRC-PG05 in donor #74 involved shifting of glycan-N448 to N446 or mutation of glycan-proximal residue E293. HIV-1 neutralization can thus be achieved at the silent face center by glycan-recognizing antibody; along with other known epitopes, the VRC-PG05 epitope completes coverage by neutralizing antibody of all major exposed regions of the prefusion closed trimer.
Literature context: S Reagent Program Cat#8129-442, RRID:CVCL_B478 Human: FreeStyle 293F Thermo Fi
Understanding how broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV envelope (Env) develop during natural infection can help guide the rational design of an HIV vaccine. Here, we described a bnAb lineage targeting the Env V2 apex and the Ab-Env co-evolution that led to development of neutralization breadth. The lineage Abs bore an anionic heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) of 25 amino acids, among the shortest known for this class of Abs, and achieved breadth with only 10% nucleotide somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions. The data suggested a role for Env glycoform heterogeneity in the activation of the lineage germline B cell. Finally, we showed that localized diversity at key V2 epitope residues drove bnAb maturation toward breadth, mirroring the Env evolution pattern described for another donor who developed V2-apex targeting bnAbs. Overall, these findings suggest potential strategies for vaccine approaches based on germline-targeting and serial immunogen design.
Literature context: orter cell line (Cat# 8129-442, RRID:CVCL_B478), obtained from NIH AIDS Resear
Like all other secretory proteins, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by its signal peptide during synthesis. Proper gp160 folding in the ER requires core glycosylation, disulfide-bond formation and proline isomerization. Signal-peptide cleavage occurs only late after gp160 chain termination and is dependent on folding of the soluble subunit gp120 to a near-native conformation. We here detail the mechanism by which co-translational signal-peptide cleavage is prevented. Conserved residues from the signal peptide and residues downstream of the canonical cleavage site form an extended alpha-helix in the ER membrane, which covers the cleavage site, thus preventing cleavage. A point mutation in the signal peptide breaks the alpha helix allowing co-translational cleavage. We demonstrate that postponed cleavage of gp160 enhances functional folding of the molecule. The change to early cleavage results in decreased viral fitness compared to wild-type HIV.
Literature context: 7Experimental Models: Cell LinesTZM-bl cellsNIH AIDS Reagent ProgramCat# 8129Experimental Models: Organisms/S
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer. We identified immunogens that minimized non-neutralizing V3 responses and demonstrated that continuous immunogen delivery could enhance nAb responses. nAb responses were strongly associated with germinal center reactions, as assessed by lymph node fine needle aspiration. This study provides a framework for preclinical and clinical vaccine studies targeting nAb elicitation.
Literature context: er cells (RRID:CVCL_B478) (Wei et a
HIV-1 assembles at the plasma membrane (PM) of infected cells. PM association of the main structural protein Gag depends on its myristoylated MA domain and PM PI(4,5)P2. Using a novel chemical biology tool that allows rapidly tunable manipulation of PI(4,5)P2 levels in living cells, we show that depletion of PI(4,5)P2 completely prevents Gag PM targeting and assembly site formation. Unexpectedly, PI(4,5)P2 depletion also caused loss of pre-assembled Gag lattices from the PM. Subsequent restoration of PM PI(4,5)P2 reinduced assembly site formation even in the absence of new protein synthesis, indicating that the dissociated Gag molecules remained assembly competent. These results reveal an important role of PI(4,5)P2 for HIV-1 morphogenesis beyond Gag recruitment to the PM and suggest a dynamic equilibrium of Gag-lipid interactions. Furthermore, they establish an experimental system that permits synchronized induction of HIV-1 assembly leading to induced production of infectious virions by targeted modulation of Gag PM targeting.
Literature context: 8129-442, RRID:CVCL_B478 Canine: Ca
Most HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies isolated to date exhibit unusual characteristics that complicate their elicitation. Neutralizing antibodies that target the V1V2 apex of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer feature unusually long protruding loops, which enable them to penetrate the HIV-1 glycan shield. As antibodies with loops of requisite length are created through uncommon recombination events, an alternative mode of apex binding has been sought. Here, we isolated a lineage of Env apex-directed neutralizing antibodies, N90-VRC38.01-11, by using virus-like particles and conformationally stabilized Env trimers as B cell probes. A crystal structure of N90-VRC38.01 with a scaffolded V1V2 revealed a binding mode involving side-chain-to-side-chain interactions that reduced the distance the antibody loop must traverse the glycan shield, thereby facilitating V1V2 binding via a non-protruding loop. The N90-VRC38 lineage thus identifies a solution for V1V2-apex binding that provides a more conventional B cell pathway for vaccine design.
Literature context: e 293F cellsInvitrogenCat#R79007Human: TZM-bl cellsNIH AIDS Reagent ProgramCat#8129OligonucleotidesNested PCR Prime
The development of soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era in HIV-1 vaccination. The recently reported native, flexibly linked (NFL) design allows the generation of native-like trimers from clinical isolates at high yields and homogeneity. As the majority of infections world-wide are of the clade C subtype, we examined responses in non-human primates to well-ordered subtype C 16055 trimers administered in soluble or high-density liposomal formats. We detected superior germinal center formation and enhanced autologous neutralizing antibodies against the neutralization-resistant (tier 2) 16055 virus following inoculation of liposome-arrayed trimers. Epitope mapping of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated major contacts with the V2 apex, and 3D electron microscopy reconstructions of Fab-trimer complexes revealed a horizontal binding angle to the Env spike. These vaccine-elicited mAbs target the V2 cap, demonstrating a means to accomplish tier 2 virus neutralization by penetrating the dense N-glycan shield.
Literature context: at# 8129; RRID:CVCL_B478 Oligonucle
The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of HIV-1 mediate cell entry through fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. Intramembrane mobility and clustering of Env trimers at the viral budding site are essential for its function. Previous live-cell and super-resolution microscopy studies were limited by lack of a functional fluorescent Env derivative, requiring antibody labeling for detection. Introduction of a bio-orthogonal amino acid by genetic code expansion, combined with click chemistry, offers novel possibilities for site-specific, minimally invasive labeling. Using this approach, we established efficient incorporation of non-canonical amino acids within HIV-1 Env in mammalian cells. The engineered protein retained plasma membrane localization, glycosylation, virion incorporation, and fusogenic activity, and could be rapidly and specifically labeled with synthetic dyes. This strategy allowed us to revisit Env dynamics and nanoscale distribution at the plasma membrane close to its native state, applying fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching and STED nanoscopy, respectively.