Characteristics: HTLV-1 producing cell line. Contains 11 integrated HTLV-1 proviruses: one complete proviral genome, six copies of a provirus with an internal deletion of 5.3 kb, one copy of a provirus with an internal deletion of 3.9 kb, one copy of a provirus with a 6.2 kB deletion from 5'LTR to position 6257, and two copies of a provirus composed of LTR only.
Characteristics: Susceptible to infection by HCV (PubMed=7832798).
Transformant: NCBI_TaxID; 11908; Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1).
Discontinued: ECACC; 93121518.
Discontinued: JCRB; NIHS0527.
DT Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 24-05-19; Version: 18
Endogenous retroviral sequences provide a molecular fossil record of ancient infections whose analysis might illuminate mechanisms of viral extinction. A close relative of gammaretroviruses, HERV-T, circulated in primates for ~25 million years (MY) before apparent extinction within the past ~8 MY. Construction of a near-complete catalog of HERV-T fossils in primate genomes allowed us to estimate a ~32 MY old ancestral sequence and reconstruct a functional envelope protein (ancHTenv) that could support infection of a pseudotyped modern gammaretrovirus. Using ancHTenv, we identify monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) as a receptor used by HERV-T for attachment and infection. A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. This apparently exapted HERV-T env could not support virion infection but could block ancHTenv mediated infection, by causing MCT-1 depletion from cell surfaces. Thus, hsaHTenv may have contributed to HERV-T extinction, and could also potentially regulate cellular metabolism.
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