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Mus musculus


Part of: ENCODE project mouse cell lines. Part of: Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) collection (transferred to ATCC in 1982). Doubling time: ~20 hours (DSMZ). Omics: SNP array analysis. Discontinued: ATCC; CRL-6442. Breed/subspecies: NIH Swiss.

Proper Citation



Spontaneously immortalized cell line




NIH/3T3, NIH-3T3, NIH3T3, 3T3, 3T3NIH, 3T3-Swiss, Swiss-3T3, Swiss/3T3, Swiss 3T3, Swiss3T3



Cat Num

BS CL 165

Cross References

BTO; BTO:0000944 BTO; BTO:0005065 CLO; CLO_0008172 CLO; CLO_0009227 CLO; CLO_0050548 EFO; EFO_0001222 MCCL; MCC:0000362 CLDB; cl3702 CLDB; cl3704 CLDB; cl3705 CLDB; cl3706 CLDB; cl3707 CLDB; cl3708 CLDB; cl3709 CLDB; cl3710 CLDB; cl3711 CLDB; cl4451 CLDB; cl7203 AddexBio; P0011001/83 ATCC; CRL-1658 ATCC; CRL-6442 BCRC; 60008 BCRJ; 0191 CCRID; 3111C0001CCC000018 CCRID; 3111C0002000000034 CCRID; 3131C0001000300006 CCRID; 3142C0001000000030 ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307716 ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL614822 CLS; 400101/p677_NIH-3T3 DSMZ; ACC-59 eagle-i; dartmouth.eagle-i.net/i/0000013e-d70e-ad79-6a92-b95280000000 eagle-i; hawaii.eagle-i.net/i/0000012b-5666-eb66-2f73-b43980000000 ECACC; 93061524 ENCODE; ENCBS117ENC ENCODE; ENCBS990YBC GEO; GSM1014177 ICLC; AL07001 IZSLER; BS CL 165 KCB; KCB 200645YJ KCLB; 21658 Lonza; 115 MeSH; D041681 NCBI_Iran; C156 NIH-ARP; 9946-386 PRIDE; PXD001241 PRIDE; PXD004929 RCB; RCB2767 TKG; TKG 0299 TOKU-E; 2753 TOKU-E; 3547 Wikidata; Q4636420

Brain Somatic Mutations in MTOR Disrupt Neuronal Ciliogenesis, Leading to Focal Cortical Dyslamination.

  • Park SM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 9

Literature context: mouse ; NIH/3T3 ATCC CRL-1658; RRID:CVCL_0594 mouse ; genome-edited MTOR p.Cy


Focal malformations of cortical development (FMCDs), including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME), are major etiologies of pediatric intractable epilepsies exhibiting cortical dyslamination. Brain somatic mutations in MTOR have recently been identified as a major genetic cause of FMCDs. However, the molecular mechanism by which these mutations lead to cortical dyslamination remains poorly understood. Here, using patient tissue, genome-edited cells, and mouse models with brain somatic mutations in MTOR, we discovered that disruption of neuronal ciliogenesis by the mutations underlies cortical dyslamination in FMCDs. We found that abnormal accumulation of OFD1 at centriolar satellites due to perturbed autophagy was responsible for the defective neuronal ciliogenesis. Additionally, we found that disrupted neuronal ciliogenesis accounted for cortical dyslamination in FMCDs by compromising Wnt signals essential for neuronal polarization. Altogether, this study describes a molecular mechanism by which brain somatic mutations in MTOR contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical dyslamination in FMCDs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL073284(United States)

Endogenous, regulatory cysteine sulfenylation of ERK kinases in response to proliferative signals.

  • Keyes JD
  • Free Radic. Biol. Med.
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context: ve accession numbers), NIH 3T3 (RRID:CVCL_0594), WI-38 (RRID:CVCL_0579), SK-OV


ERK-dependent signaling is key to many pathways through which extracellular signals are transduced into cell-fate decisions. One conundrum is the way in which disparate signals induce specific responses through a common, ERK-dependent kinase cascade. While studies have revealed intricate ways of controlling ERK signaling through spatiotemporal localization and phosphorylation dynamics, additional modes of ERK regulation undoubtedly remain to be discovered. We hypothesized that fine-tuning of ERK signaling could occur by cysteine oxidation. We report that ERK is actively and directly oxidized by signal-generated H2O2 during proliferative signaling, and that ERK oxidation occurs downstream of a variety of receptor classes tested in four cell lines. Furthermore, within the tested cell lines and proliferative signals, we observed that both activation loop-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated ERK undergo sulfenylation in cells and that dynamics of ERK sulfenylation is dependent on the cell growth conditions prior to stimulation. We also tested the effect of endogenous ERK oxidation on kinase activity and report that phosphotransfer reactions are reversibly inhibited by oxidation by as much as 80-90%, underscoring the importance of considering this additional modification when assessing ERK activation in response to extracellular signals.

Metal Free Graphene Oxide (GO) Nanosheets and Pristine-Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) Biocompatibility Investigation: A Comparative Study in Different Human Cell Lines.

  • Valentini F
  • Int J Mol Sci
  • 2018 Apr 28

Literature context: l Fibroblast (HDF) and NIH 3T3 (RRID:CVCL_0594) murine fibroblast cells [23].


The in vitro biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets, which were obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite electrodes in an electrolytic bath containing salts, was compared with the pristine Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (p-SWCNTs) under the same experimental conditions in different human cell lines. The cells were treated with different concentrations of GO and SWCNTs for up to 48 h. GO did not induce any significant morphological or functional modifications (demonstrating a high biocompatibility), while SWNCTs were toxic at any concentration used after a few hours of treatment. The cell viability or cytotoxicity were detected by the trypan blue assay and the lactate dehydrogenase LDH quantitative enzymatic test. The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the uptake and internalization of GO sheets into cells, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm. Different results were observed in the same cell lines treated with p-SWCNTs. TEM and CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) showed that the p-SWCNTs induced vacuolization in the cytoplasm, disruption of cellular architecture and damage to the nuclei. The most important result of this study is our finding of a higher GO biocompatibility compared to the p-SWCNTs in the same cell lines. This means that GO nanosheets, which are obtained by the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite-based electrode (carried out in saline solutions or other physiological working media) could represent an eligible nanocarrier for drug delivery, gene transfection and molecular cell imaging tests.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI055051(United States)

Angiogenin/Ribonuclease 5 Is an EGFR Ligand and a Serum Biomarker for Erlotinib Sensitivity in Pancreatic Cancer.

  • Wang YN
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context: TCC#CCL-2Mouse: NIH-3T3ATCCATCC#CRL-1658Human: A431ATCCATCC#CRL-1555Cow:


Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) is a secreted enzyme critical for host defense. We discover an intrinsic RNase function, serving as a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The closely related bovine RNase A and human RNase 5 (angiogenin [ANG]) can trigger oncogenic transformation independently of their catalytic activities via direct association with EGFR. Notably, high plasma ANG level in PDAC patients is positively associated with response to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib treatment. These results identify a role of ANG as a serum biomarker that may be used to stratify patients for EGFR-targeted therapies, and offer insights into the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase and RTK families.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211615()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA186892()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA201777()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098294(United States)

Systematic Characterization of Stress-Induced RNA Granulation.

  • Namkoong S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context: al Models: Cell LinesNIH 3T3ATCCCRL-1658HEK293AInvitrogenR70507HCT116ATC


Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI043477(United States)

The Dietary Supplement Chondroitin-4-Sulfate Exhibits Oncogene-Specific Pro-tumor Effects on BRAF V600E Melanoma Cells.

  • Lin R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context: CRL-1658; RRID:CVCL_0594 Human: EL 1 ATCC Cat# CRL-9854;


Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174786()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183594()
  • Wellcome Trust - 090532(United Kingdom)

LKB1, Salt-Inducible Kinases, and MEF2C Are Linked Dependencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

  • Tarumoto Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:  al., 2011aN/AMouse: NIH 3T3ATCCCRL-1658OligonucleotidessgRNA sequences,


The lineage-specific transcription factor (TF) MEF2C is often deregulated in leukemia. However, strategies to target this TF have yet to be identified. Here, we used a domain-focused CRISPR screen to reveal an essential role for LKB1 and its Salt-Inducible Kinase effectors (SIK3, in a partially redundant manner with SIK2) to maintain MEF2C function in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A key phosphorylation substrate of SIK3 in this context is HDAC4, a repressive cofactor of MEF2C. Consequently, targeting of LKB1 or SIK3 diminishes histone acetylation at MEF2C-bound enhancers and deprives leukemia cells of the output of this essential TF. We also found that MEF2C-dependent leukemias are sensitive to on-target chemical inhibition of SIK activity. This study reveals a chemical strategy to block MEF2C function in AML, highlighting how an oncogenic TF can be disabled by targeting of upstream kinases.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA013106()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174793()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK64540(United States)

MELK expression correlates with tumor mitotic activity but is not required for cancer growth.

  • Giuliano CJ
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context: ) 3T3 CSHL Cell Line Repository RRID:CVCL_0594


The Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK) has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in multiple cancer types. MELK over-expression is associated with aggressive disease, and MELK has been implicated in numerous cancer-related processes, including chemotherapy resistance, stem cell renewal, and tumor growth. Previously, we established that triple-negative breast cancer cell lines harboring CRISPR/Cas9-induced null mutations in MELK proliferate at wild-type levels in vitro (Lin et al., 2017). Here, we generate several additional knockout clones of MELK and demonstrate that across cancer types, cells lacking MELK exhibit wild-type growth in vitro, under environmental stress, in the presence of cytotoxic chemotherapies, and in vivo. By combining our MELK-knockout clones with a recently described, highly specific MELK inhibitor, we further demonstrate that the acute inhibition of MELK results in no specific anti-proliferative phenotype. Analysis of gene expression data from cohorts of cancer patients identifies MELK expression as a correlate of tumor mitotic activity, explaining its association with poor clinical prognosis. In total, our results demonstrate the power of CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic approaches to investigate cancer drug targets, and call into question the rationale for treating patients with anti-MELK monotherapies.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK088718(United States)
  • NIH Office of the Director - 1DP5OD021385()

Mapping the Mouse Cell Atlas by Microwell-Seq.

  • Han X
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context: Mouse: 3T3 Stuart Orkin Lab RRID:CVCL_0594 Mouse: Embryonic stem cell (Cj7


Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies are poised to reshape the current cell-type classification system. However, a transcriptome-based single-cell atlas has not been achieved for complex mammalian systems. Here, we developed Microwell-seq, a high-throughput and low-cost scRNA-seq platform using simple, inexpensive devices. Using Microwell-seq, we analyzed more than 400,000 single cells covering all of the major mouse organs and constructed a basic scheme for a mouse cell atlas (MCA). We reveal a single-cell hierarchy for many tissues that have not been well characterized previously. We built a web-based "single-cell MCA analysis" pipeline that accurately defines cell types based on single-cell digital expression. Our study demonstrates the wide applicability of the Microwell-seq technology and MCA resource.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI047380(United States)

Lineage-Determining Transcription Factor TCF-1 Initiates the Epigenetic Identity of T Cells.

  • Johnson JL
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context: NIH 3T3 ATCC Cat# CRL-1658 RRID:CVCL_0594 HEK293T ATCC Cat# CRL-3216; RRI


T cell development is orchestrated by transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes initially buried within inaccessible chromatin, but the transcription factors that establish the regulatory landscape of the T cell lineage remain unknown. Profiling chromatin accessibility at eight stages of T cell development revealed the selective enrichment of TCF-1 at genomic regions that became accessible at the earliest stages of development. TCF-1 was further required for the accessibility of these regulatory elements and at the single-cell level, it dictated a coordinate opening of chromatin in T cells. TCF-1 expression in fibroblasts generated de novo chromatin accessibility even at chromatin regions with repressive marks, inducing the expression of T cell-restricted genes. These results indicate that a mechanism by which TCF-1 controls T cell fate is through its widespread ability to target silent chromatin and establish the epigenetic identity of T cells.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K22 AI112570()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI047833()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI105343()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI082630()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS061856(United States)

Crk proteins transduce FGF signaling to promote lens fiber cell elongation.

  • Collins TN
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context: lture Collection Cat# CRL-1658, RRID:CVCL_0594


Specific cell shapes are fundamental to the organization and function of multicellular organisms. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling induces the elongation of lens fiber cells during vertebrate lens development. Nonetheless, exactly how this extracellular FGF signal is transmitted to the cytoskeletal network has previously not been determined. Here, we show that the Crk family of adaptor proteins, Crk and Crkl, are required for mouse lens morphogenesis but not differentiation. Genetic ablation and epistasis experiments demonstrated that Crk and Crkl play overlapping roles downstream of FGF signaling in order to regulate lens fiber cell elongation. Upon FGF stimulation, Crk proteins were found to interact with Frs2, Shp2 and Grb2. The loss of Crk proteins was partially compensated for by the activation of Ras and Rac signaling. These results reveal that Crk proteins are important partners of the Frs2/Shp2/Grb2 complex in mediating FGF signaling, specifically promoting cell shape changes.

Funding information:
  • National Eye Institute - 5P30EY019007()
  • National Eye Institute - EY017061()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21-CA102733(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017061()
  • Research to Prevent Blindness - Jules and Doris Stein professorship()

Deciphering caveolar functions by syndapin III KO-mediated impairment of caveolar invagination.

  • Seemann E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context: vices GmbH (Eppelheim, Germany) RRID:CVCL_0594


Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae. The membrane-shaping protein syndapin III is crucial for caveolar invagination and KO rendered the cells sensitive to membrane tensions. Consistent with this physiological role of caveolae in counterpoising membrane tensions, syndapin III KO skeletal muscles showed pathological parameters upon physical exercise that are also found in CAVEOLIN3 mutation-associated muscle diseases.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL095590(United States)

mTORC1-Mediated Inhibition of 4EBP1 Is Essential for Hedgehog Signaling-Driven Translation and Medulloblastoma.

  • Wu CC
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context: al Models: Cell LinesNIH 3T3ATCCCRL-1658Experimental Models: Organisms/S


Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1. Consistent with this, phosphorylated 4EBP1 levels were elevated in HH signaling-driven medulloblastomas in mice and humans. In mice, an mTORC1 inhibitor suppressed medulloblastoma driven by a mutant SMO that is inherently resistant to existing SMO inhibitors, prolonging the survival of the mice. Our study reveals that mTORC1-mediated translation is a key component of HH signaling and an important target for treating medulloblastoma and other cancers driven by HH signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()

SIRT2 and lysine fatty acylation regulate the transforming activity of K-Ras4a.

  • Jing H
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context: RRID:CVCL_0594


Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a. We further demonstrate that SIRT2-mediated lysine defatty-acylation promotes endomembrane localization of K-Ras4a, enhances its interaction with A-Raf, and thus promotes cellular transformation. Our study identifies lysine fatty acylation as a previously unknown regulatory mechanism for the Ras family of GTPases that is distinct from cysteine fatty acylation. These findings highlight the biological significance of lysine fatty acylation and sirtuin-catalyzed protein lysine defatty-acylation.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025502()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R03 AI078348(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM121540()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD017992()

A Method for the Acute and Rapid Degradation of Endogenous Proteins.

  • Clift D
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context: use: NIH 3T3 ATCC Cat#CRL-1658; RRID:CVCL_0594 Mouse: NIH 3T3-mCherry-mTRIM21


Methods for the targeted disruption of protein function have revolutionized science and greatly expedited the systematic characterization of genes. Two main approaches are currently used to disrupt protein function: DNA knockout and RNA interference, which act at the genome and mRNA level, respectively. A method that directly alters endogenous protein levels is currently not available. Here, we present Trim-Away, a technique to degrade endogenous proteins acutely in mammalian cells without prior modification of the genome or mRNA. Trim-Away harnesses the cellular protein degradation machinery to remove unmodified native proteins within minutes of application. This rapidity minimizes the risk that phenotypes are compensated and that secondary, non-specific defects accumulate over time. Because Trim-Away utilizes antibodies, it can be applied to a wide range of target proteins using off-the-shelf reagents. Trim-Away allows the study of protein function in diverse cell types, including non-dividing primary cells where genome- and RNA-targeting methods are limited.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - P30 DC04657(United States)

Direct Activation of BAX by BTSA1 Overcomes Apoptosis Resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

  • Reyna DE
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context: at. # CRL-1446NIH/3T3ATCCCat. # CRL-1658MEFLaboratory of Emily ChengWei


The BCL-2 family protein BAX is a central mediator of apoptosis. Overexpression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins contributes to tumor development and resistance to therapy by suppressing BAX and its activators. We report the discovery of BTSA1, a pharmacologically optimized BAX activator that binds with high affinity and specificity to the N-terminal activation site and induces conformational changes to BAX leading to BAX-mediated apoptosis. BTSA1-induced BAX activation effectively promotes apoptosis in leukemia cell lines and patient samples while sparing healthy cells. BAX expression levels and cytosolic conformation regulate sensitivity to BTSA1. BTSA1 potently suppressed human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenografts and increased host survival without toxicity. This study provides proof-of-concept for direct BAX activation as a treatment strategy in AML.

Combinatorial Signal Perception in the BMP Pathway.

  • Antebi YE
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context: inesNMuMGATCCCRL-1636NIH 3T3ATCCCRL-1658E14 mouse ES cells (E14Tg2a.4)La


The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway comprises multiple ligands and receptors that interact promiscuously with one another and typically appear in combinations. This feature is often explained in terms of redundancy and regulatory flexibility, but it has remained unclear what signal-processing capabilities it provides. Here, we show that the BMP pathway processes multi-ligand inputs using a specific repertoire of computations, including ratiometric sensing, balance detection, and imbalance detection. These computations operate on the relative levels of different ligands and can arise directly from competitive receptor-ligand interactions. Furthermore, cells can select different computations to perform on the same ligand combination through expression of alternative sets of receptor variants. These results provide a direct signal-processing role for promiscuous receptor-ligand interactions and establish operational principles for quantitatively controlling cells with BMP ligands. Similar principles could apply to other promiscuous signaling pathways.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD075335()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008042()

CpG and UpA dinucleotides in both coding and non-coding regions of echovirus 7 inhibit replication initiation post-entry.

  • Fros JJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 29

Literature context: 017]), NIH/3T3 (ATCC: CRL-1658, RRID:CVCL_0594, Mus musculus, embryonic fibrob


Most vertebrate and plant RNA and small DNA viruses suppress genomic CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies, apparently mimicking host mRNA composition. Artificially increasing CpG/UpA dinucleotides attenuates viruses through an entirely unknown mechanism. Using the echovirus 7 (E7) model in several cell types, we show that the restriction in E7 replication in mutants with increased CpG/UpA dinucleotides occurred immediately after viral entry, with incoming virions failing to form replication complexes. Sequences of CpG/UpA-high virus stocks showed no evidence of increased mutational errors that would render them replication defective, these viral RNAs were not differentially sequestered in cytoplasmic stress granules nor did they induce a systemic antiviral state. Importantly, restriction was not mediated through effects on translation efficiency since replicons with high CpG/UpA sequences inserted into a non-coding region were similarly replication defective. Host-cells thus possess intrinsic defence pathways that prevent replication of viruses with increased CpG/UpA frequencies independently of codon usage.

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context: Andreas FisherN/ANIH3T3ATCCCat#CRL1658Experimental Models: Organisms/S


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

The DREAM complex through its subunit Lin37 cooperates with Rb to initiate quiescence.

  • Mages CF
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 18

Literature context: NIH3T3 (RRID:CVCL_0594) and C2C12 (RRID:CVCL_0188) cel


The retinoblastoma Rb protein is an important factor controlling the cell cycle. Yet, mammalian cells carrying Rb deletions are still able to arrest under growth-limiting conditions. The Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, which are components of the DREAM complex, had been suggested to be responsible for a continued ability to arrest by inhibiting E2f activity and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we show that p130 and p107 are not sufficient for DREAM-dependent repression. We identify the MuvB protein Lin37 as an essential factor for DREAM function. Cells not expressing Lin37 proliferate normally, but DREAM completely loses its ability to repress genes in G0/G1 while all remaining subunits, including p130/p107, still bind to target gene promoters. Furthermore, cells lacking both Rb and Lin37 are incapable of exiting the cell cycle. Thus, Lin37 is an essential component of DREAM that cooperates with Rb to induce quiescence.

Interaction between optineurin and Rab1a regulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.

  • Song GJ
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Aug 27

Literature context: lls (RRID:CVCL_0594) were grown and maintained in D


Optineurin (OPTN) is an autophagy receptor protein that has been implicated in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OPTN-mediated autophagy is a complex process involving many autophagy-regulating proteins. Autophagy plays a critical role in removing damaged organelles, intracellular pathogens, and protein aggregates to maintain cellular homeostasis. We identified Ypt1 as a novel interaction partner of OPTN by performing a large-scale yeast-human two-hybrid assay. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that OPTN interacted with Rab1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Ypt1, in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. We confirmed this interaction by confocal microscopy showing intracellular colocalization of the two proteins. We observed that a zinc finger domain of OPTN is important for Rab1a binding. Rab1a activity is also required for the binding with OPTN. The role of the OPTN-Rab1a complex in neuronal autophagy was determined by measuring the translocation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-EGFP to autophagosomes. In N2a cells, OPTN-induced autophagosome formation was inhibited by Rab1a knockdown, indicating the important role of OPTN-Rab1a interaction in neuronal autophagy processes. Similarly, in N2a cells overexpressing Rab1a, serum starvation-induced formation of autophagosome was enhanced, while OPTN knockdown reduced the Rab1a-induced autophagy. These results show that the OPTN-Rab1a complex modulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.

Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

  • Preußner M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context: R Methods RRID:CVCL_0594 Homo sapie


The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks.

Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors.

  • Blanco-Melo D
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 11

Literature context: 3 (RRID:CVCL_0594) that were


Endogenous retroviral sequences provide a molecular fossil record of ancient infections whose analysis might illuminate mechanisms of viral extinction. A close relative of gammaretroviruses, HERV-T, circulated in primates for ~25 million years (MY) before apparent extinction within the past ~8 MY. Construction of a near-complete catalog of HERV-T fossils in primate genomes allowed us to estimate a ~32 MY old ancestral sequence and reconstruct a functional envelope protein (ancHTenv) that could support infection of a pseudotyped modern gammaretrovirus. Using ancHTenv, we identify monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) as a receptor used by HERV-T for attachment and infection. A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. This apparently exapted HERV-T env could not support virion infection but could block ancHTenv mediated infection, by causing MCT-1 depletion from cell surfaces. Thus, hsaHTenv may have contributed to HERV-T extinction, and could also potentially regulate cellular metabolism.

RNA Helicase DDX5 Inhibits Reprogramming to Pluripotency by miRNA-Based Repression of RYBP and its PRC1-Dependent and -Independent Functions.

  • Li H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context: A RRID:CVCL_0594 Plat-E N/A


RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), in addition to their functions in cellular homeostasis, play important roles in lineage specification and maintaining cellular identity. Despite their diverse and essential functions, which touch on nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, the roles of RBPs in somatic cell reprogramming are poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RBP DDX5 inhibits reprogramming by repressing the expression and function of the non-canonical polycomb complex 1 (PRC1) subunit RYBP. Disrupting Ddx5 expression improves the efficiency of iPSC generation and impedes processing of miR-125b, leading to Rybp upregulation and suppression of lineage-specific genes via RYBP-dependent ubiquitination of H2AK119. Furthermore, RYBP is required for PRC1-independent recruitment of OCT4 to the promoter of Kdm2b, a histone demethylase gene that promotes reprogramming by reactivating endogenous pluripotency genes. Together, these results reveal important functions of DDX5 in regulating reprogramming and highlight the importance of a Ddx5-miR125b-Rybp axis in controlling cell fate.

Targeted Apoptosis of Senescent Cells Restores Tissue Homeostasis in Response to Chemotoxicity and Aging.

  • Baar MP
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context: NIH 3T3ATCCCat#CRL-1658WI-38ATCCCat#CCL-75Experimental Models: Organisms/S


The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53. In senescent cells, this selectively causes p53 nuclear exclusion and cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Under conditions where it was well tolerated in vivo, this FOXO4 peptide neutralized doxorubicin-induced chemotoxicity. Moreover, it restored fitness, fur density, and renal function in both fast aging XpdTTD/TTD and naturally aged mice. Thus, therapeutic targeting of senescent cells is feasible under conditions where loss of health has already occurred, and in doing so tissue homeostasis can effectively be restored.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG017242()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG009909()

A Viral Immunoevasin Controls Innate Immunity by Targeting the Prototypical Natural Killer Cell Receptor Family.

  • Aguilar OA
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context: CRL-1658; RRID: CVCL_0594Mouse: NIH 3T3.ΔClrbThis paperN/AMouse: BWZ.36Mesci


Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in innate immunity by detecting alterations in self and non-self ligands via paired NK cell receptors (NKRs). Despite identification of numerous NKR-ligand interactions, physiological ligands for the prototypical NK1.1 orphan receptor remain elusive. Here, we identify a viral ligand for the inhibitory and activating NKR-P1 (NK1.1) receptors. This murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded protein, m12, restrains NK cell effector function by directly engaging the inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor. However, m12 also interacts with the activating NKR-P1A/C receptors to counterbalance m12 decoy function. Structural analyses reveal that m12 sequesters a large NKR-P1 surface area via a "polar claw" mechanism. Polymorphisms in, and ablation of, the viral m12 protein and host NKR-P1B/C alleles impact NK cell responses in vivo. Thus, we identify the long-sought foreign ligand for this key immunoregulatory NKR family and reveal how it controls the evolutionary balance of immune recognition during host-pathogen interplay.

SMOC can act as both an antagonist and an expander of BMP signaling.

  • Thomas JT
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 21

Literature context: ell cultureNIH-3T3 Fibroblasts (ATCC CRL-1658) and HEK 293 (ATCC CRL-1573) ce


The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone (pent), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling. The SMOC-EC domain bound HSPGs with a similar affinity to BMP2 and could expand the range of BMP signaling in an in vitro assay by competition for HSPG-binding. Together with data from studies in vivo we propose a model to explain how these two activities contribute to the function of Pent in Drosophila wing development and SMOC in mammalian joint formation.

One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes.

  • Gudernova I
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context: T3 cells (RRID:CVCL_0594) and 293 T


In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters. The efficacy of the developed, fully synthetic reporters was demonstrated by the identification of novel targets for two clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and osimertinib. A universal reporter system for in-cell protein kinase profiling will facilitate repurposing of existing anti-cancer drugs and identification of novel inhibitors in high-throughput screening studies.

Dynamic Remodeling of Membrane Composition Drives Cell Cycle through Primary Cilia Excision.

  • Phua SC
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context: CRL-1658; RRID:CVCL_0594 NIH/3T3-Fl


The life cycle of a primary cilium begins in quiescence and ends prior to mitosis. In quiescent cells, the primary cilium insulates itself from contiguous dynamic membrane processes on the cell surface to function as a stable signaling apparatus. Here, we demonstrate that basal restriction of ciliary structure dynamics is established by the cilia-enriched phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase, Inpp5e. Growth induction displaces ciliary Inpp5e and accumulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in distal cilia. This change triggers otherwise-forbidden actin polymerization in primary cilia, which excises cilia tips in a process we call cilia decapitation. While cilia disassembly is traditionally thought to occur solely through resorption, we show that an acute loss of IFT-B through cilia decapitation precedes resorption. Finally, we propose that cilia decapitation induces mitogenic signaling and constitutes a molecular link between the cilia life cycle and cell-division cycle. This newly defined ciliary mechanism may find significance in cell proliferation control during normal development and cancer.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR054396()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK102910()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - DP2 GM105448()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM095941()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM112988()

EGFR Dynamics Change during Activation in Native Membranes as Revealed by NMR.

  • Kaplan M
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 17

Literature context: CRL-1658; RRID:CVCL-0594 Software a


The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents one of the most common target proteins in anti-cancer therapy. To directly examine the structural and dynamical properties of EGFR activation by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in native membranes, we have developed a solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)-based approach supported by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). In contrast to previous crystallographic results, our experiments show that the ligand-free state of the extracellular domain (ECD) is highly dynamic, while the intracellular kinase domain (KD) is rigid. Ligand binding restricts the overall and local motion of EGFR domains, including the ECD and the C-terminal region. We propose that the reduction in conformational entropy of the ECD by ligand binding favors the cooperative binding required for receptor dimerization, causing allosteric activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase.

Ebola Virus Glycoprotein with Increased Infectivity Dominated the 2013-2016 Epidemic.

  • Diehl WE
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 3

Literature context: L-94Cf2ThATCCCRL-1430NIH/3T3ATCCCRL-1658MDTFGreg TowersN/ARecombinant DN


The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic enabled an unprecedented number of viral mutations to occur over successive human-to-human transmission events, increasing the probability that adaptation to the human host occurred during the outbreak. We investigated one nonsynonymous mutation, Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mutant A82V, for its effect on viral infectivity. This mutation, located at the NPC1-binding site on EBOV GP, occurred early in the 2013-2016 outbreak and rose to high frequency. We found that GP-A82V had heightened ability to infect primate cells, including human dendritic cells. The increased infectivity was restricted to cells that have primate-specific NPC1 sequences at the EBOV interface, suggesting that this mutation was indeed an adaptation to the human host. GP-A82V was associated with increased mortality, consistent with the hypothesis that the heightened intrinsic infectivity of GP-A82V contributed to disease severity during the EVD epidemic.