Literature context: CVCL_1926COS-7ATCCCat#CRL-1651, RRID:CVCL_0224Experimental Models: Organisms/S
The corpus callosum is the largest commissure in the brain, whose main function is to ensure communication between homotopic regions of the cerebral cortex. During fetal development, corpus callosum axons (CCAs) grow toward and across the brain midline and then away on the contralateral hemisphere to their targets. A particular feature of this circuit, which raises a key developmental question, is that the outgoing trajectory of post-crossing CCAs is mirror-symmetric with the incoming trajectory of pre-crossing axons. Here, we show that post-crossing CCAs switch off their response to axon guidance cues, among which the secreted Semaphorin-3C (Sema3C), that act as attractants for pre-crossing axons on their way to the midline. This change is concomitant with an upregulation of the surface protein Ephrin-B1, which acts in CCAs to inhibit Sema3C signaling via interaction with the Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) receptor. This silencing activity is independent of Eph receptors and involves a N-glycosylation site (N-139) in the extracellular domain of Ephrin-B1. Together, our results reveal a molecular mechanism, involving interaction between the two unrelated guidance receptors Ephrin-B1 and Nrp1, that is used to control the navigation of post-crossing axons in the corpus callosum.
Literature context: last) cells obtained from ATCC (RRID:CVCL_0224) were cultured in DMEM (Gibco)
Kinesin-4 motors play important roles in cell division, microtubule organization, and signaling. Understanding how motors perform their functions requires an understanding of their mechanochemical and motility properties. We demonstrate that KIF27 can influence microtubule dynamics, suggesting a conserved function in microtubule organization across the kinesin-4 family. However, kinesin-4 motors display dramatically different motility characteristics: KIF4 and KIF21 motors are fast and processive, KIF7 and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue Costal2 (Cos2) are immotile, and KIF27 is slow and processive. Neither KIF7 nor KIF27 can cooperate for fast processive transport when working in teams. The mechanistic basis of immotile KIF7 behavior arises from an inability to release adenosine diphosphate in response to microtubule binding, whereas slow processive KIF27 behavior arises from a slow adenosine triphosphatase rate and a high affinity for both adenosine triphosphate and microtubules. We suggest that evolutionarily selected sequence differences enable immotile KIF7 and Cos2 motors to function not as transporters but as microtubule-based tethers of signaling complexes.
Literature context: Models: Cell LinesCOS7 cellsATCCCRL-1651293T cellsATCCCRL-3216VMP1 KO CO
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of biogenesis of the isolation membrane (IM, autophagosome precursor) and forms extensive contacts with IMs during their expansion into double-membrane autophagosomes. Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the formation and/or maintenance of the ER/IM contact. The integral ER proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAPs) participate in establishing ER contacts with multiple membranes by interacting with different tethers. Here, we demonstrate that VAPs also modulate ER/IM contact formation. Depletion of VAPs impairs progression of IMs into autophagosomes. Upon autophagy induction, VAPs are recruited to autophagosome formation sites on the ER, a process mediated by their interactions with FIP200 and PI(3)P. VAPs directly interact with FIP200 and ULK1 through their conserved FFAT motifs and stabilize the ULK1/FIP200 complex at the autophagosome formation sites on the ER. The formation of ULK1 puncta is significantly reduced by VAPA/B depletion. VAPs also interact with WIPI2 and enhance the formation of the WIPI2/FIP200 ER/IM tethering complex. Depletion of VMP1, which increases the ER/IM contact, greatly elevates the interaction of VAPs with these autophagy proteins. The VAPB P56S mutation, which is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, reduces the ULK1/FIP200 interaction and impairs autophagy at an early step, similar to the effect seen in VAPA/B-depleted cells. Our study reveals that VAPs directly interact with multiple ATG proteins, thereby contributing to ER/IM contact formation for autophagosome biogenesis.
Literature context: pithecus aethiops: COS-7ATCCCat#CRL-1651Mouse: Aidaâˆ’/âˆ’ MEFsThis paperN/A
The efficiency of intestinal absorption of dietary fat constitutes a primary determinant accounting for individual vulnerability to obesity. However, how fat absorption is controlled and contributes to obesity remains unclear. Here, we show that inhibition of endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) increases the abundance of triacylglycerol synthesis enzymes and fat absorption in small intestine. The C2-domain protein AIDA acts as an essential factor for the E3-ligase HRD1 of ERAD to downregulate rate-limiting acyltransferases GPAT3, MOGAT2, and DGAT2. Aida-/- mice, when grown in a thermal-neutral condition or fed high-fat diet, display increased intestinal fatty acid re-esterification, circulating and tissue triacylglycerol, accompanied with severely increased adiposity without enhancement of adipogenesis. Intestine-specific knockout of Aida largely phenocopies its whole-body knockout, strongly indicating that increased intestinal TAG synthesis is a primary impetus to obesity. The AIDA-mediated ERAD system may thus represent an anti-thrifty mechanism impinging on the enzymes for intestinal fat absorption and systemic fat storage.
Literature context: RRID:CVCL_0224 Experimental Models: Organisms/
The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.
Literature context: monkey kidney epithelial cells (RRID:CVCL_0224) were seeded at a density of 10
Drebrin is a major F-actin binding protein in dendritic spines that is critically involved in the regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis, pathology, and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drebrin-binding protein involved in spine morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We confirmed the beta subunit of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIβ) as a drebrin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system, and investigated the drebrin-CaMKIIβ relationship in dendritic spines using rat hippocampal neurons. Drebrin knockdown resulted in diffuse localization of CaMKIIβ in dendrites during the resting state, suggesting that drebrin is involved in the accumulation of CaMKIIβ in dendritic spines. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that drebrin knockdown increased the stable fraction of CaMKIIβ, indicating the presence of drebrin-independent, more stable CaMKIIβ. NMDA receptor activation also increased the stable fraction in parallel with drebrin exodus from dendritic spines. These findings suggest that CaMKIIβ can be classified into distinct pools: CaMKIIβ associated with drebrin, CaMKIIβ associated with post-synaptic density (PSD), and CaMKIIβ free from PSD and drebrin. CaMKIIβ appears to be anchored to a protein complex composed of drebrin-binding F-actin during the resting state. NMDA receptor activation releases CaMKIIβ from drebrin resulting in CaMKIIβ association with PSD.
Literature context: Voeltz (U of Colorado, Boulder) RRID:CVCL_0224 U2OS cells Human bone osteosarc
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane contact sites (MCSs) are crucial regulatory hubs in cells, playing roles in signaling, organelle dynamics, and ion and lipid homeostasis. Previous work demonstrated that the highly conserved yeast Ltc/Lam sterol transporters localize and function at ER MCSs. Our analysis of the human family members, GRAMD1a and GRAMD2a, demonstrates that they are ER-PM MCS proteins, which mark separate regions of the plasma membrane (PM) and perform distinct functions in vivo. GRAMD2a, but not GRAMD1a, co-localizes with the E-Syt2/3 tethers at ER-PM contacts in a PIP lipid-dependent manner and pre-marks the subset of PI(4,5)P2-enriched ER-PM MCSs utilized for STIM1 recruitment. Data from an analysis of cells lacking GRAMD2a suggest that it is an organizer of ER-PM MCSs with pleiotropic functions including calcium homeostasis. Thus, our data demonstrate the existence of multiple ER-PM domains in human cells that are functionally specialized by GRAM-domain containing proteins.
Literature context: e obtained from ATCC (CRL-1651; RRID:CVCL_0224) and 293A cells (a HEK 293 subc
Gradients of PtdIns4P between organelle membranes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are thought to drive counter-transport of other lipids via non-vesicular traffic. This novel pathway requires the SAC1 phosphatase to degrade PtdIns4P in a 'cis' configuration at the ER to maintain the gradient. However, SAC1 has also been proposed to act in 'trans' at membrane contact sites, which could oppose lipid traffic. It is therefore crucial to determine which mode SAC1 uses in living cells. We report that acute inhibition of SAC1 causes accumulation of PtdIns4P in the ER, that SAC1 does not enrich at membrane contact sites, and that SAC1 has little activity in 'trans', unless a linker is added between its ER-anchored and catalytic domains. The data reveal an obligate 'cis' activity of SAC1, supporting its role in non-vesicular lipid traffic and implicating lipid traffic more broadly in inositol lipid homeostasis and function.
Literature context: RRID:CVCL_0224 Primary glia cells isolated at
Regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) number at synapses is a major mechanism for controlling synaptic strength during homeostatic scaling in response to global changes in neural activity. We show that the secreted guidance cue semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its neuropilin-2 (Npn-2)/plexinA3 (PlexA3) holoreceptor mediate homeostatic plasticity in cortical neurons. Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling is essential for cell surface AMPAR homeostatic downscaling in response to an increase in neuronal activity, Npn-2 associates with AMPARs, and Sema3F regulates this interaction. Therefore, Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling controls both synapse development and synaptic plasticity.
Literature context: hi etÂ al., 1999)N/ACOS7RIKEN BRCRCB0539Primers (restriction sites are u
Fucosylation is a glycan modification critically involved in cancer and inflammation. Although potent fucosylation inhibitors are useful for basic and clinical research, only a few inhibitors have been developed. Here, we focus on a fucose analog with an alkyne group, 6-alkynyl-fucose (6-Alk-Fuc), which is used widely as a detection probe for fucosylated glycans, but is also suggested for use as a fucosylation inhibitor. Our glycan analysis using lectin and mass spectrometry demonstrated that 6-Alk-Fuc is a potent and general inhibitor of cellular fucosylation, with much higher potency than the existing inhibitor, 2-fluoro-fucose (2-F-Fuc). The action mechanism was shown to deplete cellular GDP-Fuc, and the direct target of 6-Alk-Fuc is FX (encoded by TSTA3), the bifunctional GDP-Fuc synthase. We also show that 6-Alk-Fuc halts hepatoma invasion. These results highlight the unappreciated role of 6-Alk-Fuc as a fucosylation inhibitor and its potential use for basic and clinical science.
Literature context: ovine serum (FBS). COS-7 cells (CRL-1651) were obtained from ATCC and we
Lysosomal distribution is linked to the role of lysosomes in many cellular functions, including autophagosome degradation, cholesterol homeostasis, antigen presentation, and cell invasion. Alterations in lysosomal positioning contribute to different human pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and lysosomal storage diseases. Here we report the identification of a novel mechanism of lysosomal trafficking regulation. We found that the lysosomal transmembrane protein TMEM55B recruits JIP4 to the lysosomal surface, inducing dynein-dependent transport of lysosomes toward the microtubules minus-end. TMEM55B overexpression causes lysosomes to collapse into the cell center, whereas depletion of either TMEM55B or JIP4 results in dispersion toward the cell periphery. TMEM55B levels are transcriptionally upregulated following TFEB and TFE3 activation by starvation or cholesterol-induced lysosomal stress. TMEM55B or JIP4 depletion abolishes starvation-induced retrograde lysosomal transport and prevents autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Overall our data suggest that the TFEB/TMEM55B/JIP4 pathway coordinates lysosome movement in response to a variety of stress conditions.
Literature context: lture medium, while COS7 cells (RRID:CVCL_0224) were propagated in Dulbeccoâ€™s
Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection/AIDS has significantly extended the life expectancy of HIV-1-infected individuals and reduced HIV-1 transmission at very high rates. However, certain individuals who initially achieve viral suppression to undetectable levels may eventually suffer treatment failure mainly due to adverse effects and the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Here, we report GRL-142, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing an unprecedented 6-5-5-ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran, which has extremely potent activity against all HIV-1 strains examined with IC50 values of attomolar-to-picomolar concentrations, virtually no effects on cellular growth, extremely high genetic barrier against the emergence of drug-resistant variants, and favorable intracellular and central nervous system penetration. GRL-142 forms optimum polar, van der Waals, and halogen bond interactions with HIV-1 protease and strongly blocks protease dimerization, demonstrating that combined multiple optimizing elements significantly enhance molecular and atomic interactions with a target protein and generate unprecedentedly potent and practically favorable agents.
Literature context: Models: Cell LinesCOS7 cellsATCCCRL-1651HeLa cellsATCCCCL-2WT MEF cellsT
During autophagosome formation in mammalian cells, isolation membranes (IMs; autophagosome precursors) dynamically contact the ER. Here, we demonstrated that the ER-localized metazoan-specific autophagy protein EPG-3/VMP1 controls ER-IM contacts. Loss of VMP1 causes stable association of IMs with the ER, thus blocking autophagosome formation. Interaction of WIPI2 with the ULK1/FIP200 complex and PI(3)P contributes to the formation of ER-IM contacts, and these interactions are enhanced by VMP1 depletion. VMP1 controls contact formation by promoting SERCA (sarco[endo]plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase) activity. VMP1 interacts with SERCA and prevents formation of the SERCA/PLN/SLN inhibitory complex. VMP1 also modulates ER contacts with lipid droplets, mitochondria, and endosomes. These ER contacts are greatly elevated by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. Calmodulin acts as a sensor/effector to modulate the ER contacts mediated by VMP1/SERCA. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the establishment and disassociation of ER-IM contacts and reveals that VMP1 modulates SERCA activity to control ER contacts.
Literature context: COS-7 (RRID:CVCL_0224) cells and HEK293T cells (RRID:
Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing. Post-crossing commissural axon turning is completely randomized along the A-P axis when Wntless, which is essential for Wnt secretion, is conditionally knocked out in the floor plate. This regulatory link between Shh and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling may also occur in other developmental processes.
Literature context: COS-7 ATCC Cat# CRL-1651; RRID:CVCL_0224 HEK293T ATCC Cat# CRL-3216; RRI
Neuroligin-neurexin (NL-NRX) complexes are fundamental synaptic organizers in the central nervous system. An accurate spatial and temporal control of NL-NRX signaling is crucial to balance excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and perturbations are linked with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. MDGA proteins bind NLs and control their function and interaction with NRXs via unknown mechanisms. Here, we report crystal structures of MDGA1, the NL1-MDGA1 complex, and a spliced NL1 isoform. Two large, multi-domain MDGA molecules fold into rigid triangular structures, cradling a dimeric NL to prevent NRX binding. Structural analyses guided the discovery of a broad, splicing-modulated interaction network between MDGA and NL family members and helped rationalize the impact of autism-linked mutations. We demonstrate that expression levels largely determine whether MDGAs act selectively or suppress the synapse organizing function of multiple NLs. These results illustrate a potentially brain-wide regulatory mechanism for NL-NRX signaling modulation.
Literature context: 0). COS-7 cells (ATCC CRL-1651, RRID:CVCL_0224) were grown in RPMI lacking phe
Like all other secretory proteins, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by its signal peptide during synthesis. Proper gp160 folding in the ER requires core glycosylation, disulfide-bond formation and proline isomerization. Signal-peptide cleavage occurs only late after gp160 chain termination and is dependent on folding of the soluble subunit gp120 to a near-native conformation. We here detail the mechanism by which co-translational signal-peptide cleavage is prevented. Conserved residues from the signal peptide and residues downstream of the canonical cleavage site form an extended alpha-helix in the ER membrane, which covers the cleavage site, thus preventing cleavage. A point mutation in the signal peptide breaks the alpha helix allowing co-translational cleavage. We demonstrate that postponed cleavage of gp160 enhances functional folding of the molecule. The change to early cleavage results in decreased viral fitness compared to wild-type HIV.
Literature context: CRL-1651; RRID:CVCL_0224 U-2 OS ATC
Numerous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) were recently engineered from bacterial photoreceptors but lack of their systematic comparison makes researcher's choice rather difficult. Here we evaluated side-by-side several modern NIR FPs, such as blue-shifted smURFP and miRFP670, and red-shifted mIFP and miRFP703. We found that among all NIR FPs, miRFP670 had the highest fluorescence intensity in various mammalian cells. For instance, in common HeLa cells miRFP703, mIFP, and smURFP were 2-, 9-, and 53-fold dimmer than miRFP670. Either co-expression of heme oxygenase or incubation of cells with heme precursor weakly affected NIR fluorescence, however, in the latter case elevated cellular autofluorescence. Exogenously added chromophore substantially increased smURFP brightness but only slightly enhanced brightness of other NIR FPs. mIFP showed intermediate, while monomeric miRFP670 and miRFP703 exhibited high binding efficiency of endogenous biliverdin chromophore. This feature makes them easy to use as GFP-like proteins for spectral multiplexing with FPs of visible range.
Literature context: ed kidney fibroblast (COS-7)ATCCCRL-1651Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cell
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.
Literature context: cells (RRID:CVCL_0224)) were pla
Hair cells of the cochlea are mechanosensors for the perception of sound. Mutations in the LRTOMT gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the catecholamine methyltransferase COMT that is linked to schizophrenia, cause deafness. Here, we show that Tomt/Comt2, the murine ortholog of LRTOMT, has an unexpected function in the regulation of mechanotransduction by hair cells. The role of mTOMT in hair cells is independent of mTOMT methyltransferase function and mCOMT cannot substitute for mTOMT function. Instead, mTOMT binds to putative components of the mechanotransduction channel in hair cells and is essential for the transport of some of these components into the mechanically sensitive stereocilia of hair cells. Our studies thus suggest functional diversification between mCOMT and mTOMT, where mTOMT is critical for the assembly of the mechanotransduction machinery of hair cells. Defects in this process are likely mechanistically linked to deafness caused by mutations in LRTOMT/Tomt.
Literature context: LinesCOS-7 kidney FibroblastATCCATCC-CRL-1651Experimental Models: Organisms/S
Histone replacement by transition proteins (TPs) and protamines (Prms) constitutes an essential step for the successful production of functional male gametes, yet nothing is known on the underlying functional interplay between histones, TPs, and Prms. Here, by studying spermatogenesis in the absence of a spermatid-specific histone variant, H2A.L.2, we discover a fundamental mechanism involved in the transformation of nucleosomes into nucleoprotamines. H2A.L.2 is synthesized at the same time as TPs and enables their loading onto the nucleosomes. TPs do not displace histones but rather drive the recruitment and processing of Prms, which are themselves responsible for histone eviction. Altogether, the incorporation of H2A.L.2 initiates and orchestrates a series of successive transitional states that ultimately shift to the fully compacted genome of the mature spermatozoa. Hence, the current view of histone-to-nucleoprotamine transition should be revisited and include an additional step with H2A.L.2 assembly prior to the action of TPs and Prms.
SCP1 as a nuclear transcriptional regulator acts globally to silence neuronal genes and to affect the dephosphorylation of RNA Pol ll. However, we report the first finding and description of SCP1 as a plasma membrane-localized protein in various cancer cells using EGFP- or other epitope-fused SCP1. Membrane-located SCP1 dephosphorylates AKT at serine 473, leading to the abolishment of serine 473 phosphorylation that results in suppressed angiogenesis and a decreased risk of tumorigenesis. Consistently, we observed increased AKT phosphorylation and angiogenesis followed by enhanced tumorigenesis in Ctdsp1 (which encodes SCP1) gene - knockout mice. Importantly, we discovered that the membrane localization of SCP1 is crucial for impeding angiogenesis and tumor growth, and this localization depends on palmitoylation of a conserved cysteine motif within its NH2 terminus. Thus, our study discovers a novel mechanism underlying SCP1 shuttling between the plasma membrane and nucleus, which constitutes a unique pathway in transducing AKT signaling that is closely linked to angiogenesis and tumorigenesis.
Literature context: CRL-1651, RRID:CVCL_0224). 0.4 Ã— 10
Arrhythmogenesis from aberrant electrical remodeling is a primary cause of death among patients with heart disease. Amongst a multitude of remodeling events, reduced expression of the ion channel subunit KChIP2 is consistently observed in numerous cardiac pathologies. However, it remains unknown if KChIP2 loss is merely a symptom or involved in disease development. Using rat and human derived cardiomyocytes, we identify a previously unobserved transcriptional capacity for cardiac KChIP2 critical in maintaining electrical stability. Through interaction with genetic elements, KChIP2 transcriptionally repressed the miRNAs miR-34b and miR-34c, which subsequently targeted key depolarizing (INa) and repolarizing (Ito) currents altered in cardiac disease. Genetically maintaining KChIP2 expression or inhibiting miR-34 under pathologic conditions restored channel function and moreover, prevented the incidence of reentrant arrhythmias. This identifies the KChIP2/miR-34 axis as a central regulator in developing electrical dysfunction and reveals miR-34 as a therapeutic target for treating arrhythmogenesis in heart disease.
Literature context: broblastKageyama etÂ al., 2014N/ACOS-7Ma etÂ al., 2011N/AExperimental M
Mitochondrial fission mediated by the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is an attractive drug target in numerous maladies that range from heart disease to neurodegenerative disorders. The compound mdivi-1 is widely reported to inhibit Drp1-dependent fission, elongate mitochondria, and mitigate brain injury. Here, we show that mdivi-1 reversibly inhibits mitochondrial complex I-dependent O2 consumption and reverse electron transfer-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at concentrations (e.g., 50 μM) used to target mitochondrial fission. Respiratory inhibition is rescued by bypassing complex I using yeast NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1. Unexpectedly, respiratory impairment by mdivi-1 occurs without mitochondrial elongation, is not mimicked by Drp1 deletion, and is observed in Drp1-deficient fibroblasts. In addition, mdivi-1 poorly inhibits recombinant Drp1 GTPase activity (Ki > 1.2 mM). Overall, these results suggest that mdivi-1 is not a specific Drp1 inhibitor. The ability of mdivi-1 to reversibly inhibit complex I and modify mitochondrial ROS production may contribute to effects observed in disease models.
Literature context: (RRID:CVCL_0224) cells wer
BACKGROUND: The fate of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been inferred indirectly from the activity of ER-localized thiol oxidases and peroxiredoxins, in vitro, and the consequences of their genetic manipulation, in vivo. Over the years hints have suggested that glutathione, puzzlingly abundant in the ER lumen, might have a role in reducing the heavy burden of H2O2 produced by the luminal enzymatic machinery for disulfide bond formation. However, limitations in existing organelle-targeted H2O2 probes have rendered them inert in the thiol-oxidizing ER, precluding experimental follow-up of glutathione's role in ER H2O2 metabolism. RESULTS: Here we report on the development of TriPer, a vital optical probe sensitive to changes in the concentration of H2O2 in the thiol-oxidizing environment of the ER. Consistent with the hypothesized contribution of oxidative protein folding to H2O2 production, ER-localized TriPer detected an increase in the luminal H2O2 signal upon induction of pro-insulin (a disulfide-bonded protein of pancreatic β-cells), which was attenuated by the ectopic expression of catalase in the ER lumen. Interfering with glutathione production in the cytosol by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or enhancing its localized destruction by expression of the glutathione-degrading enzyme ChaC1 in the lumen of the ER further enhanced the luminal H2O2 signal and eroded β-cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: A tri-cysteine system with a single peroxidatic thiol enables H2O2 detection in oxidizing milieux such as that of the ER. Tracking ER H2O2 in live pancreatic β-cells points to a role for glutathione in H2O2 turnover.
Literature context: #RCB0539, RRID:CVCL_0224) were main
Neurons communicate with each other through their axons and dendrites. However, a full characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in axon and dendrite formation is still incomplete. Neurite outgrowth requires the supply of membrane components for surface expansion. Two membrane sources for axon outgrowth are suggested: Golgi secretary vesicles and endocytic recycling endosomes. In non-neuronal cells, trafficking of secretary vesicles from Golgi is regulated by Rab8, a member of Rab small GTPases, and that of recycling endosomes is by Rab11, another member of Rabs. However, whether these vesicles are coordinately or independently transported in growing axons is unknown. Herein, we find that GRAB, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab8, is a novel regulator of axon outgrowth. Knockdown of GRAB suppressed axon outgrowth of cultured mouse brain cortical neurons. GRAB mediates the interaction between Rab11A and Rab8A, and this activity is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser169 and Ser180 by Cdk5-p35. The nonphosphorylatable GRAB mutant S169/180A promoted axonal outgrowth to a greater extent than did the phosphomimetic GRAB mutant S169/180D. Phosphorylation of GRAB suppressed its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and its ability to recruit Rab8A- to Rab11A-positive endosomes. In vivo function of GRAB and its Cdk5-phophorylation were shown in migration and process formation of developing neurons in embryonic mouse brains. These results indicate that GRAB regulates axonal outgrowth via activation and recruitment of Rab8A- to Rab11A-positive endosomes in a Cdk5-dependent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: While axon outgrowth requires membrane supply for surface expansion, the molecular mechanisms regulating the membrane transport in growing axons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that GRAB, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab8, is a novel regulator of axon outgrowth. GRAB promotes the axonal membrane transport by mediating the interaction between Rab11 and Rab8 in neurons. The activity of GRAB is regulated by phosphorylation with Cdk5. We describe an in vivo role for GRAB and its Cdk5 phosphorylation during neuronal migration and process formation in embryonic brains. Thus, the membrane supply for axonal outgrowth is regulated by Cdk5 through the Rab11-GRAB-Rab8 cascade.
Literature context: ssas,Â VA;Â RRID:CVCL_0224). All cell
Transverse (T)-tubules make-up a specialized network of tubulated muscle cell membranes involved in excitation-contraction coupling for power of contraction. Little is known about how T-tubules maintain highly organized structures and contacts throughout the contractile system despite the ongoing muscle remodeling that occurs with muscle atrophy, damage and aging. We uncovered an essential role for autophagy in T-tubule remodeling with genetic screens of a developmentally regulated remodeling program in Drosophila abdominal muscles. Here, we show that autophagy is both upregulated with and required for progression through T-tubule disassembly stages. Along with known mediators of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, our screens uncovered an unexpected shared role for Rab2 with a broadly conserved function in autophagic clearance. Rab2 localizes to autophagosomes and binds to HOPS complex members, suggesting a direct role in autophagosome tethering/fusion. Together, the high membrane flux with muscle remodeling permits unprecedented analysis both of T-tubule dynamics and fundamental trafficking mechanisms.
Literature context: CRL-1651, RRID:CVCL_0224) cultured
Pharmacological targeting of transcription factors holds great promise for the development of new therapeutics, but strategies based on blockade of DNA binding, nuclear shuttling, or individual protein partner recruitment have yielded limited success to date. Transcription factors typically engage in complex interaction networks, likely masking the effects of specifically inhibiting single protein-protein interactions. Here, we used a combination of genomic, proteomic and biophysical methods to discover a suite of protein-protein interactions involving the SOX18 transcription factor, a known regulator of vascular development and disease. We describe a small-molecule that is able to disrupt a discrete subset of SOX18-dependent interactions. This compound selectively suppressed SOX18 transcriptional outputs in vitro and interfered with vascular development in zebrafish larvae. In a mouse pre-clinical model of breast cancer, treatment with this inhibitor significantly improved survival by reducing tumour vascular density and metastatic spread. Our studies validate an interactome-based molecular strategy to interfere with transcription factor activity, for the development of novel disease therapeutics.
Literature context: 1 (RRID:CVCL_0229), COS-7 (RRID:CVCL_0224), and HEK 293T (RRID:CVCL_0063)
Destabilization of a non-enveloped virus generates a membrane transport-competent viral particle. Here we probe polyomavirus SV40 endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport, a decisive infection step where destabilization initiates this non-enveloped virus for membrane penetration. We find that a member of the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) called EMC1 promotes SV40 ER membrane transport and infection. Surprisingly, EMC1 does so by using its predicted transmembrane residue D961 to bind to and stabilize the membrane-embedded partially destabilized SV40, thereby preventing premature viral disassembly. EMC1-dependent stabilization enables SV40 to engage a cytosolic extraction complex that ejects the virus into the cytosol. Thus EMC1 acts as a molecular chaperone, bracing the destabilized SV40 in a transport-competent state. Our findings reveal the novel principle that coordinated destabilization-stabilization drives membrane transport of a non-enveloped virus.
Literature context: mber 2-4; RRID:CVCL_0224) were obta
While the aging process is central to the pathogenesis of age-dependent diseases, it is poorly understood at the molecular level. We identified a mouse mutant with accelerated aging in the retina as well as pathologies observed in age-dependent retinal diseases, suggesting that the responsible gene regulates retinal aging, and its impairment results in age-dependent disease. We determined that a mutation in the transmembrane 135 (Tmem135) is responsible for these phenotypes. We observed localization of TMEM135 on mitochondria, and imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in mutant Tmem135 as well as Tmem135 overexpressing cells, indicating that TMEM135 is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, mutant retina showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through TMEM135 is critical for protection from environmental stress and controlling the progression of retinal aging. Our study identified TMEM135 as a critical link between aging and age-dependent diseases.