Literature context: ntal Models: Cell LinesNMuMGATCCCRL-1636NIH 3T3ATCCCRL-1658E14 mouse ES
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway comprises multiple ligands and receptors that interact promiscuously with one another and typically appear in combinations. This feature is often explained in terms of redundancy and regulatory flexibility, but it has remained unclear what signal-processing capabilities it provides. Here, we show that the BMP pathway processes multi-ligand inputs using a specific repertoire of computations, including ratiometric sensing, balance detection, and imbalance detection. These computations operate on the relative levels of different ligands and can arise directly from competitive receptor-ligand interactions. Furthermore, cells can select different computations to perform on the same ligand combination through expression of alternative sets of receptor variants. These results provide a direct signal-processing role for promiscuous receptor-ligand interactions and establish operational principles for quantitatively controlling cells with BMP ligands. Similar principles could apply to other promiscuous signaling pathways.
Literature context: Cat#CRL-3216HepG2ATCCCat#HB-8065NMuMGATCCCat#CRL-1636M12ATCCCat#CRL-2826HCT116ATCCCat
Cytosolic nucleic acid sensing elicits interferon production for primary antiviral defense through cascades controlled by protein ubiquitination and Ser/Thr phosphorylation. Here we show that TBK1, a core kinase of antiviral pathways, is inhibited by tyrosine phosphorylation. The Src family kinases (SFKs) Lck, Hck, and Fgr directly phosphorylate TBK1 at Tyr354/394, to prevent TBK1 dimerization and activation. Accordingly, antiviral sensing and resistance were substantially enhanced in Lck/Hck/Fgr triple knockout cells and ectopic expression of Lck/Hck/Fgr dampened the antiviral defense in cells and zebrafish. Small-molecule inhibitors of SFKs, which are conventional anti-tumor therapeutics, enhanced antiviral responses and protected zebrafish and mice from viral attack. Viral infection induced the expression of Lck/Hck/Fgr through TBK1-mediated mobilization of IRF3, thus constituting a negative feedback loop. These findings unveil the negative regulation of TBK1 via tyrosine phosphorylation and the functional integration of SFKs into innate antiviral immunity.
Literature context: he NMuMG (RRID:CVCL_0075) cell line
Many lines of evidence have indicated that both genetic and non-genetic determinants can contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity and influence cancer outcomes. Among the best described sub-population of cancer cells generated by non-genetic mechanisms are cells characterized by a CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker profile. Here, we report that human CD44+/CD24- cancer cells are genetically highly unstable because of intrinsic defects in their DNA-repair capabilities. In fact, in CD44+/CD24- cells, constitutive activation of the TGF-beta axis was both necessary and sufficient to reduce the expression of genes that are crucial in coordinating DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consequently, we observed that cancer cells that reside in a CD44+/CD24- state are characterized by increased accumulation of DNA copy number alterations, greater genetic diversity and improved adaptability to drug treatment. Together, these data suggest that the transition into a CD44+/CD24- cell state can promote intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, spur tumor evolution and increase tumor fitness.