Literature context: ma) ATCC Cat# HTB-22; RRID:CVCL_0031 Human NPC Differentiated from E
Although the value of proteomics has been demonstrated, cost and scale are typically prohibitive, and gene expression profiling remains dominant for characterizing cellular responses to perturbations. However, high-throughput sentinel assays provide an opportunity for proteomics to contribute at a meaningful scale. We present a systematic library resource (90 drugs × 6 cell lines) of proteomic signatures that measure changes in the reduced-representation phosphoproteome (P100) and changes in epigenetic marks on histones (GCP). A majority of these drugs elicited reproducible signatures, but notable cell line- and assay-specific differences were observed. Using the "connectivity" framework, we compared signatures across cell types and integrated data across assays, including a transcriptional assay (L1000). Consistent connectivity among cell types revealed cellular responses that transcended lineage, and consistent connectivity among assays revealed unexpected associations between drugs. We further leveraged the resource against public data to formulate hypotheses for treatment of multiple myeloma and acute lymphocytic leukemia. This resource is publicly available at https://clue.io/proteomics.
Literature context: ntal Models: Cell LinesMCF-7ATCCHTB-22SK-BR3ATCCHTB-30BT-549ATCCHTB-12
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant and heterogeneous stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that two cell-surface molecules, CD10 and GPR77, specifically define a CAF subset correlated with chemoresistance and poor survival in multiple cohorts of breast and lung cancer patients. CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote tumor formation and chemoresistance by providing a survival niche for cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mechanistically, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs are driven by persistent NF-κB activation via p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, which is maintained by complement signaling via GPR77, a C5a receptor. Furthermore, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote successful engraftment of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and targeting these CAFs with a neutralizing anti-GPR77 antibody abolishes tumor formation and restores tumor chemosensitivity. Our study reveals a functional CAF subset that can be defined and isolated by specific cell-surface markers and suggests that targeting the CD10+GPR77+ CAF subset could be an effective therapeutic strategy against CSC-driven solid tumors.
Literature context: x) Catalog number: ATCC HTB-22; RRID:CVCL_0031
Current understanding of aggressive human basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains incomplete. In this study, we show endothelial lipase (LIPG) is aberrantly overexpressed in basal-like TNBCs. We demonstrate that LIPG is required for in vivo tumorigenicity and metastasis of TNBC cells. LIPG possesses a lipase-dependent function that supports cancer cell proliferation and a lipase-independent function that promotes invasiveness, stemness and basal/epithelial-mesenchymal transition features of TNBC. Mechanistically, LIPG executes its oncogenic function through its involvement in interferon-related DTX3L-ISG15 signaling, which regulates protein function and stability by ISGylation. We show that DTX3L, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, is required for maintaining LIPG protein levels in TNBC cells by inhibiting proteasome-mediated LIPG degradation. Inactivation of LIPG impairs DTX3L-ISG15 signaling, indicating the existence of DTX3L-LIPG-ISG15 signaling. We further reveal LIPG-ISG15 signaling is lipase-independent. We demonstrate that DTX3L-LIPG-ISG15 signaling is essential for malignancies of TNBC cells. Targeting this pathway provides a novel strategy for basal-like TNBC therapy.
Literature context: adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 (RRID:CVCL_0031) was obtained from ECACC on 12
Literature context: RL-12584, RRID:CVCL_0031), were pur
Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in an ATP-dependent reaction. Here, we found higher expression of GLUL in the breast cancer patients was associated with larger tumor size and higher level of HER2 expression. In addition, GLUL was heterogeneously expressed in various breast cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GLUL in SK-BR-3 cells were obviously higher than that in the other types of breast cancer cells. Results showed GLUL knockdown in SK-BR-3 cells could significantly decrease the proliferation ability. Furthermore, GLUL knockdown markedly inhibited the p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways in SK-BR-3 cells. Thus, GLUL may represent a novel target for selectively inhibiting p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways and the proliferation potential of breast cancer cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2018-2025, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: ne MCF-7 (RRID:CVCL_0031) were grown in RPMI 1640 medium
Over 80% of multiple-tested siRNAs and shRNAs targeting CD95 or CD95 ligand (CD95L) induce a form of cell death characterized by simultaneous activation of multiple cell death pathways preferentially killing transformed and cancer stem cells. We now show these si/shRNAs kill cancer cells through canonical RNAi by targeting the 3'UTR of critical survival genes in a unique form of off-target effect we call DISE (death induced by survival gene elimination). Drosha and Dicer-deficient cells, devoid of most miRNAs, are hypersensitive to DISE, suggesting cellular miRNAs protect cells from this form of cell death. By testing 4666 shRNAs derived from the CD95 and CD95L mRNA sequences and an unrelated control gene, Venus, we have identified many toxic sequences - most of them located in the open reading frame of CD95L. We propose that specific toxic RNAi-active sequences present in the genome can kill cancer cells.
Literature context: TCCHTB-122Human: MCF-7 cellsATCCHTB-22Human: SK-MEL-28 cellsATCCHTB-72
Targeted cancer therapies that use genetics are successful, but principles for selectively targeting tumor metabolism that is also dependent on the environment remain unknown. We now show that differences in rate-controlling enzymes during the Warburg effect (WE), the most prominent hallmark of cancer cell metabolism, can be used to predict a response to targeting glucose metabolism. We establish a natural product, koningic acid (KA), to be a selective inhibitor of GAPDH, an enzyme we characterize to have differential control properties over metabolism during the WE. With machine learning and integrated pharmacogenomics and metabolomics, we demonstrate that KA efficacy is not determined by the status of individual genes, but by the quantitative extent of the WE, leading to a therapeutic window in vivo. Thus, the basis of targeting the WE can be encoded by molecular principles that extend beyond the status of individual genes.
Literature context: MCF7 ATCC Cat. # HTB-22; RRID:CVCL_0031 BT474 ATCC Cat. # HTB-20; RRID:
Proper organization of the mitotic spindle is key to genetic stability, but molecular components of inter-microtubule bridges that crosslink kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) are still largely unknown. Here we identify a kinase-independent function of class II phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase α (PI3K-C2α) acting as limiting scaffold protein organizing clathrin and TACC3 complex crosslinking K-fibers. Downregulation of PI3K-C2α causes spindle alterations, delayed anaphase onset, and aneuploidy, indicating that PI3K-C2α expression is required for genomic stability. Reduced abundance of PI3K-C2α in breast cancer models initially impairs tumor growth but later leads to the convergent evolution of fast-growing clones with mitotic checkpoint defects. As a consequence of altered spindle, loss of PI3K-C2α increases sensitivity to taxane-based therapy in pre-clinical models and in neoadjuvant settings.
Literature context: l-Ho, IPC298, H1299, A2780, and MCF7 (obtained from ECACC, DSMZ, and
MdmX overexpression contributes to the development of cancer by inhibiting tumor suppressor p53. A switch in the alternative splicing of MdmX transcript, leading to the inclusion of exon 6, has been identified as the primary mechanism responsible for increased MdmX protein levels in human cancers, including melanoma. However, there are no approved drugs, which could translate these new findings into clinical applications. We analyzed the anti-melanoma activity of enoxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic inhibiting the growth of some human cancers in vitro and in vivo by promoting miRNA maturation. We found that enoxacin inhibited the growth and viability of human melanoma cell lines much stronger than a structurally related fluoroquinolone ofloxacin, which only weakly modulates miRNA processing. A microarray analysis identified a set of miRNAs significantly dysregulated in enoxacin-treated A375 melanoma cells. They had the potential to target multiple signaling pathways required for cancer cell growth, among them the RNA splicing. Recent studies showed that interfering with cellular splicing machinery can result in MdmX downregulation in cancer cells. We, therefore, hypothesized that enoxacin could, by modulating miRNAs targeting splicing machinery, activate p53 in melanoma cells overexpressing MdmX. We found that enoxacin and ciprofloxacin, a related fluoroquinolone capable of promoting microRNA processing, but not ofloxacin, strongly activated wild type p53-dependent transcription in A375 melanoma without causing significant DNA damage. On the molecular level, the drugs promoted MdmX exon 6 skipping, leading to a dose-dependent downregulation of MdmX. Not only in melanoma, but also in MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells overexpressing MdmX. Together, our results suggest that some clinically approved fluoroquinolones could potentially be repurposed as activators of p53 tumor suppressor in cancers overexpressing MdmX oncoprotein and that p53 activation might contribute to the previously reported activity of enoxacin towards human cancer cells.
Literature context: rly StegmaierN/AHuman: MCF-7ATCCHTB-22Human: WM2664ATCCCRL-1676Human:
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating malignancy with few therapeutic options. We identify PRMT5 in an in vivo GBM shRNA screen and show that PRMT5 knockdown or inhibition potently suppresses in vivo GBM tumors, including patient-derived xenografts. Pathway analysis implicates splicing in cellular PRMT5 dependency, and we identify a biomarker that predicts sensitivity to PRMT5 inhibition. We find that PRMT5 deficiency primarily disrupts the removal of detained introns (DIs). This impaired DI splicing affects proliferation genes, whose downregulation coincides with cell cycle defects, senescence and/or apoptosis. We further show that DI programs are evolutionarily conserved and operate during neurogenesis, suggesting that they represent a physiological regulatory mechanism. Collectively, these findings reveal a PRMT5-regulated DI-splicing program as an exploitable cancer vulnerability.
Literature context: breast carcinoma cellsATCCCat# HTB-22MCF-7 p53-Venus cellsBatchelor e
In response to stresses, cells often halt normal cellular processes, yet stress-specific pathways must bypass such inhibition to generate effective responses. We investigated how cells redistribute global transcriptional activity in response to DNA damage. We show that an oscillatory increase of p53 levels in response to double-strand breaks drives a counter-oscillatory decrease of MYC levels. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of newly synthesized transcripts, we found that p53-mediated reduction of MYC suppressed general transcription, with the most highly expressed transcripts reduced to a greater extent. In contrast, upregulation of p53 targets was relatively unaffected by MYC suppression. Reducing MYC during the DNA damage response was important for cell-fate regulation, as counteracting MYC repression reduced cell-cycle arrest and elevated apoptosis. Our study shows that global inhibition with specific activation of transcriptional pathways is important for the proper response to DNA damage; this mechanism may be a general principle used in many stress responses.
Literature context: RID: CVCL_0063; ATCC) and MCF7 (RRID: CVCL_0031; ATCC) cells were maintained in
Thorough preclinical target validation is essential for the success of drug discovery efforts. In this study, we combined chemical and genetic perturbants, including the development of a novel selective maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) inhibitor HTH-01-091, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MELK knockout, a novel chemical-induced protein degradation strategy, RNA interference and CRISPR interference to validate MELK as a therapeutic target in basal-like breast cancers (BBC). In common culture conditions, we found that small molecule inhibition, genetic deletion, or acute depletion of MELK did not significantly affect cellular growth. This discrepancy to previous findings illuminated selectivity issues of the widely used MELK inhibitor OTSSP167, and potential off-target effects of MELK-targeting short hairpins. The different genetic and chemical tools developed here allow for the identification and validation of any causal roles MELK may play in cancer biology, which will be required to guide future MELK drug discovery efforts. Furthermore, our study provides a general framework for preclinical target validation.
Literature context: tracted from MCF7 (ATCC HTB-22, RRID:CVCL_0031) cell line. Several fragments o
The atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous (Ds) have been found to underlie planar cell polarity (PCP) in many tissues. Theoretical models suggest that polarity can arise from localized feedbacks on Fat-Ds complexes at the cell boundary. However, there is currently no direct evidence for the existence or mechanism of such feedbacks. To directly test the localized feedback model, we developed a synthetic biology platform based on mammalian cells expressing the human Fat4 and Ds1. We show that Fat4-Ds1 complexes accumulate on cell boundaries in a threshold-like manner and exhibit dramatically slower dynamics than unbound Fat4 and Ds1. This suggests a localized feedback mechanism based on enhanced stability of Fat4-Ds1 complexes. We also show that co-expression of Fat4 and Ds1 in the same cells is sufficient to induce polarization of Fat4-Ds1 complexes. Together, these results provide direct evidence that localized feedbacks on Fat4-Ds1 complexes can give rise to PCP.
Literature context: -7 (RRID:CVCL_0031), MDA-MB-231 (RRID:CVCL_0062),
TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63. Also, the expression of CCDC3 is positively correlated with TAp63 levels, but conversely with ΔNp63 levels, during adipocyte differentiation. Interestingly, CCDC3, as a secreted protein, targets liver cancer cells and increases long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but decreases ceramide in the cells. CCDC3 alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and steatosis formation in transgenic CCDC3 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) by reducing the expression of hepatic PPARγ and its target gene CIDEA as well as other genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Similar results are reproduced by hepatic expression of ectopic CCDC3 in mice on HFD. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CCDC3 modulates liver lipid metabolism by inhibiting liver de novo lipogenesis as a downstream player of the p63 network.
Literature context: MZACC 582MDA-MB-231ATCC Â®HTB-26â„¢MCF7ATCCÂ®HTB-22â„¢HT29ATCCÂ®HTB-38â„¢SW480ATCCÂ®CCL-22
Targeting of human cancer stem cells (CSCs) requires the identification of vulnerabilities unique to CSCs versus healthy resident stem cells (SCs). Unfortunately, dysregulated pathways that support transformed CSCs, such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling, are also critical regulators of healthy SCs. Using the ICG-001 and CWP family of small molecules, we reveal Sam68 as a previously unappreciated modulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling within CSCs. Disruption of CBP-β-catenin interaction via ICG-001/CWP induces the formation of a Sam68-CBP complex in CSCs that alters Wnt signaling toward apoptosis and differentiation induction. Our study identifies Sam68 as a regulator of human CSC vulnerability.
Literature context: uman: MDA-MB-231 cellsATCCHTB-26Human: MCF-7 cellsATCCHTB-22Human: MDA-MB-231 cells, shMICAL
Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway. Focusing on Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion, we identified an interaction between the F-actin-disassembly enzyme Mical and the Abl tyrosine kinase. Biochemical assays revealed Abl phosphorylates Mical to directly amplify Mical Redox-mediated F-actin disassembly. Genetic assays revealed that Abl allows growth factors and Semaphorin/Plexin repellents to combinatorially increase Mical-mediated F-actin disassembly, cellular remodeling, and repulsive axon guidance. Similar roles for Mical in growth factor/Abl-related cancer cell behaviors further revealed contexts in which characterized positive effectors of growth/guidance stimulate such negative cellular effects as F-actin disassembly/repulsion.
Literature context: 37ATCCATCC CRL-2336MCF7ATCCATCC HTB-22MDA-MB-468ATCCATCC HTB-132MRC5AT
Interactions between stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells generate signals for cancer progression, therapy resistance, and inflammatory responses. Although endogenous RNAs acting as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may represent one such signal, these RNAs must remain unrecognized under non-pathological conditions. We show that triggering of stromal NOTCH-MYC by breast cancer cells results in a POL3-driven increase in RN7SL1, an endogenous RNA normally shielded by RNA binding proteins SRP9/14. This increase in RN7SL1 alters its stoichiometry with SRP9/14 and generates unshielded RN7SL1 in stromal exosomes. After exosome transfer to immune cells, unshielded RN7SL1 drives an inflammatory response. Upon transfer to breast cancer cells, unshielded RN7SL1 activates the PRR RIG-I to enhance tumor growth, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Corroborated by evidence from patient tumors and blood, these results demonstrate that regulation of RNA unshielding couples stromal activation with deployment of RNA DAMPs that promote aggressive features of cancer. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: egative - RRID:CVCL_0031) were grow
Molecular recognition reagents are key tools for understanding biological processes and are used universally by scientists to study protein expression, localisation and interactions. Antibodies remain the most widely used of such reagents and many show excellent performance, although some are poorly characterised or have stability or batch variability issues, supporting the use of alternative binding proteins as complementary reagents for many applications. Here we report on the use of Affimer proteins as research reagents. We selected 12 diverse molecular targets for Affimer selection to exemplify their use in common molecular and cellular applications including the (a) selection against various target molecules; (b) modulation of protein function in vitro and in vivo; (c) labelling of tumour antigens in mouse models; and (d) use in affinity fluorescence and super-resolution microscopy. This work shows that Affimer proteins, as is the case for other alternative binding scaffolds, represent complementary affinity reagents to antibodies for various molecular and cell biology applications.
Literature context: 6Human: MCF-10AATCCCat#CRL-10317Human: MCF7ATCCCat#HTB-22Human: hTERT-RPE1ATCCCat#CRL-400
Mutations truncating a single copy of the tumor suppressor, BRCA2, cause cancer susceptibility. In cells bearing such heterozygous mutations, we find that a cellular metabolite and ubiquitous environmental toxin, formaldehyde, stalls and destabilizes DNA replication forks, engendering structural chromosomal aberrations. Formaldehyde selectively depletes BRCA2 via proteasomal degradation, a mechanism of toxicity that affects very few additional cellular proteins. Heterozygous BRCA2 truncations, by lowering pre-existing BRCA2 expression, sensitize to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency induced by transient exposure to natural concentrations of formaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, an alcohol catabolite detoxified by ALDH2, precipitates similar effects. Ribonuclease H1 ameliorates replication fork instability and chromosomal aberrations provoked by aldehyde-induced BRCA2 haploinsufficiency, suggesting that BRCA2 inactivation triggers spontaneous mutagenesis during DNA replication via aberrant RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). These findings suggest a model wherein carcinogenesis in BRCA2 mutation carriers can be incited by compounds found pervasively in the environment and generated endogenously in certain tissues with implications for public health.
Literature context: ntal Models: Cell LinesMCF-7ATCCHTB-22HEK293TATCCCRL-3216Oligonucleoti
The molecular mechanisms underlying the opposing functions of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in breast cancer development remain poorly understood. Here we report that, in breast cancer cells, liganded GR represses a large ERα-activated transcriptional program by binding, in trans, to ERα-occupied enhancers. This abolishes effective activation of these enhancers and their cognate target genes, and it leads to the inhibition of ERα-dependent binding of components of the MegaTrans complex. Consistent with the effects of SUMOylation on other classes of nuclear receptors, dexamethasone (Dex)-induced trans-repression of the estrogen E2 program appears to depend on GR SUMOylation, which leads to stable trans-recruitment of the GR-N-CoR/SMRT-HDAC3 corepressor complex on these enhancers. Together, these results uncover a mechanism by which competitive recruitment of DNA-binding nuclear receptors/transcription factors in trans to hot spot enhancers serves as an effective biological strategy for trans-repression, with clear implications for breast cancer and other diseases.
Literature context: ls: Cell Lineshuman: MCF7our labATCCÂ® HTB-22human: DLD-1ATCCATCCÂ® CCL-221hum
During microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, two endonucleolytic reactions convert stem-loop-structured precursors into mature miRNAs. These processing steps can be posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we have used a proteomics-based pull-down approach to map and characterize the interactome of a multitude of pre-miRNAs. We identify ∼180 RBPs that interact specifically with distinct pre-miRNAs. For functional validation, we combined RNAi and CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout experiments to analyze RBP-dependent changes in miRNA levels. Indeed, a large number of the investigated candidates, including splicing factors and other mRNA processing proteins, have effects on miRNA processing. As an example, we show that TRIM71/LIN41 is a potent regulator of miR-29a processing and its inactivation directly affects miR-29a targets. We provide an extended database of RBPs that interact with pre-miRNAs in extracts of different cell types, highlighting a widespread layer of co- and posttranscriptional regulation of miRNA biogenesis.
Literature context: tibodiesMCF7 cells (HTB-22) and HeLa (CCL-2) cells were obtained from ATCC. Human
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process involved in the elimination of proteins and organelles. It is also used to combat infection with pathogenic microbes. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila manipulates autophagy by delivering the effector protein RavZ to deconjugate Atg8/LC3 proteins coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on autophagosomal membranes. To understand how RavZ recognizes and deconjugates LC3-PE, we prepared semisynthetic LC3 proteins and elucidated the structures of the RavZ:LC3 interaction. Semisynthetic LC3 proteins allowed the analysis of structure-function relationships. RavZ extracts LC3-PE from the membrane before deconjugation. RavZ initially recognizes the LC3 molecule on membranes via its N-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif. The RavZ α3 helix is involved in extraction of the PE moiety and docking of the acyl chains into the lipid-binding site of RavZ that is related in structure to that of the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14. Thus, Legionella has evolved a novel mechanism to specifically evade host autophagy.
Literature context: an: SK-BR-3ATCCCat#HTB-30Human: MCF-7ATCCCat#HTB-22Human: MDA-MB-468A
Selenomabs are engineered monoclonal antibodies with one or more translationally incorporated selenocysteine residues. The unique reactivity of the selenol group of selenocysteine permits site-specific conjugation of drugs. Compared with other natural and unnatural amino acid and carbohydrate residues that have been used for the generation of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates, selenocysteine is particularly reactive, permitting fast, single-step, and efficient reactions under near physiological conditions. Using a tailored conjugation chemistry, we generated highly stable selenomab-drug conjugates and demonstrated their potency and selectivity in vitro and in vivo. These site-specific antibody-drug conjugates built on a selenocysteine interface revealed broad therapeutic utility in liquid and solid malignancy models.
Literature context: ental Models: Cell LinesMCF7ATCCATCC HTB-22MCF7/FRTThis studyN/AMCF7/FRT/TR
Transcription and translation are two main pillars of gene expression. Due to the different timings, spots of action, and mechanisms of regulation, these processes are mainly regarded as distinct and generally uncoupled, despite serving a common purpose. Here, we sought for a possible connection between transcription and translation. Employing an unbiased screen of multiple human promoters, we identified a positive effect of TATA box on translation and a general coupling between mRNA expression and translational efficiency. Using a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated approach, genome-wide analyses, and in vitro experiments, we show that the rate of transcription regulates the efficiency of translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that m6A modification of mRNAs is co-transcriptional and depends upon the dynamics of the transcribing RNAPII. Suboptimal transcription rates lead to elevated m6A content, which may result in reduced translation. This study uncovers a general and widespread link between transcription and translation that is governed by epigenetic modification of mRNAs.
Literature context: 86012803, RRID:CVCL_0031 Oligonucle
USP2a is a deubiquitinase responsible for stabilization of cyclin D1, a crucial regulator of cell-cycle progression and a proto-oncoprotein overexpressed in numerous cancer types. Here we report that lithocholic acid (LCA) derivatives are inhibitors of USP proteins, including USP2a. The most potent LCA derivative, LCA hydroxyamide (LCAHA), inhibits USP2a, leading to a significant Akt/GSK3β-independent destabilization of cyclin D1, but does not change the expression of p27. This leads to the defects in cell-cycle progression. As a result, LCAHA inhibits the growth of cyclin D1-expressing, but not cyclin D1-negative cells, independently of the p53 status. We show that LCA derivatives may be considered as future therapeutics for the treatment of cyclin D1-addicted p53-expressing and p53-defective cancer types.
Literature context: (RRID:CVCL_0031) cells wer
The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase forms multi-subunit TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), which exhibit distinct substrate specificities. Sin1 is one of the TORC2-specific subunit essential for phosphorylation and activation of certain AGC-family kinases. Here, we show that Sin1 is dispensable for the catalytic activity of TORC2, but its conserved region in the middle (Sin1CRIM) forms a discrete domain that specifically binds the TORC2 substrate kinases. Sin1CRIM fused to a different TORC2 subunit can recruit the TORC2 substrate Gad8 for phosphorylation even in the sin1 null mutant of fission yeast. The solution structure of Sin1CRIM shows a ubiquitin-like fold with a characteristic acidic loop, which is essential for interaction with the TORC2 substrates. The specific substrate-recognition function is conserved in human Sin1CRIM, which may represent a potential target for novel anticancer drugs that prevent activation of the mTORC2 substrates such as AKT.
Literature context: he MCF-7 (RRID:CVCL_0031) cell line
Many lines of evidence have indicated that both genetic and non-genetic determinants can contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity and influence cancer outcomes. Among the best described sub-population of cancer cells generated by non-genetic mechanisms are cells characterized by a CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker profile. Here, we report that human CD44+/CD24- cancer cells are genetically highly unstable because of intrinsic defects in their DNA-repair capabilities. In fact, in CD44+/CD24- cells, constitutive activation of the TGF-beta axis was both necessary and sufficient to reduce the expression of genes that are crucial in coordinating DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consequently, we observed that cancer cells that reside in a CD44+/CD24- state are characterized by increased accumulation of DNA copy number alterations, greater genetic diversity and improved adaptability to drug treatment. Together, these data suggest that the transition into a CD44+/CD24- cell state can promote intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, spur tumor evolution and increase tumor fitness.
Literature context: cells ATCC: HTB-22 Cat#HTB-22; RRID:CVCL_0031 Human: UACC812 cells ATCC: CRL-
Signaling networks downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases are among the most extensively studied biological networks, but new approaches are needed to elucidate causal relationships between network components and understand how such relationships are influenced by biological context and disease. Here, we investigate the context specificity of signaling networks within a causal conceptual framework using reverse-phase protein array time-course assays and network analysis approaches. We focus on a well-defined set of signaling proteins profiled under inhibition with five kinase inhibitors in 32 contexts: four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, UACC812, BT20, and BT549) under eight stimulus conditions. The data, spanning multiple pathways and comprising ∼70,000 phosphoprotein and ∼260,000 protein measurements, provide a wealth of testable, context-specific hypotheses, several of which we experimentally validate. Furthermore, the data provide a unique resource for computational methods development, permitting empirical assessment of causal network learning in a complex, mammalian setting.
Literature context: (RRID: CVCL_0063), MCF7 (RRID: CVCL_0031), and SW684 (RRID: CVCL_1726) c
TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to the mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD). Together, our studies reveal that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations, contrary to current beliefs, act beyond p53 loss to promote tumorigenesis, and could inform the development of strategies to target cancers driven by these prevalent mutations.
Literature context: 31 (RRID:CVCL-0062), MCF7 (RRID:CVCL-0031), LoVo (RRID:CVCL-0399), SW480
TP53 is conventionally thought to prevent cancer formation and progression to metastasis, while mutant TP53 has transforming activities. However, in the clinic, TP53 mutation status does not accurately predict cancer progression. Here we report, based on clinical analysis corroborated with experimental data, that the p53 isoform Δ133p53β promotes cancer cell invasion, regardless of TP53 mutation status. Δ133p53β increases risk of cancer recurrence and death in breast cancer patients. Furthermore Δ133p53β is critical to define invasiveness in a panel of breast and colon cell lines, expressing WT or mutant TP53. Endogenous mutant Δ133p53β depletion prevents invasiveness without affecting mutant full-length p53 protein expression. Mechanistically WT and mutant Δ133p53β induces EMT. Our findings provide explanations to 2 long-lasting and important clinical conundrums: how WT TP53 can promote cancer cell invasion and reciprocally why mutant TP53 gene does not systematically induce cancer progression.