Literature context: y of Manchester)N/AA549ATCCCat# CCL-185DT40s (WT and FANCD2 variants)Mi
Components of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways play a vital role in protecting newly replicated DNA from uncontrolled nucleolytic degradation, safeguarding genome stability. Here we report that histone methylation by the lysine methyltransferase SETD1A is crucial for protecting stalled replication forks from deleterious resection. Depletion of SETD1A sensitizes cells to replication stress and leads to uncontrolled DNA2-dependent resection of damaged replication forks. The ability of SETD1A to prevent degradation of these structures is mediated by its ability to catalyze methylation on Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) at replication forks, which enhances FANCD2-dependent histone chaperone activity. Suppressing H3K4 methylation or expression of a chaperone-defective FANCD2 mutant leads to loss of RAD51 nucleofilament stability and severe nucleolytic degradation of replication forks. Our work identifies epigenetic modification and histone mobility as critical regulatory mechanisms in maintaining genome stability by restraining nucleases from irreparably damaging stalled replication forks.
Literature context: s per lung.Cell cultureNCIH460, A549 human lung cancer cells and nor
Some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between cancer incidence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated experimental evidences for this inverse relationship. In the co-expression network analysis using the microarray data and GEO profile of gene expression omnibus data analysis, we showed that the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a tumor promoting protein was significantly increased in human squamous lung cancer, but decreased in mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) containing AD patient. We also found in animal model that mutant PS2 transgenic mice displayed a reduced incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced lung tumor development compared to wildtype transgenic mice. Agreed with network and GEO profile study, we also revealed that significantly reduced expression of PRDX6 and activity of iPLA2 in these animal models. PS2 mutations increased their interaction with PRDX6, thereby increasing iPLA2 cleavage via increased γ-secretase leading to loss of PRDX6 activity. However, knockdown or inhibition of γ-secretase abolished the inhibitory effect of mutant PSs. Moreover, PS2 mutant skin fibroblasts derived from patients with AD showed diminished iPLA2 activity by the elevated γ-secretase activity. Thus, the present data suggest that PS2 mutations suppress lung tumor development by inhibiting the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 via a γ-secretase cleavage mechanism and may explain the inverse relationship between cancer and AD incidence.
Literature context: A549 ATCC Cat# CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 H358 ATCC Cat# CRL-5807; RRID:
Cancer cell survival is dependent on oxidative-stress defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate during tumorigenesis. Here, we show a non-canonical oxidative-stress defense mechanism through TRPA1, a neuronal redox-sensing Ca2+-influx channel. In TRPA1-enriched breast and lung cancer spheroids, TRPA1 is critical for survival of inner cells that exhibit ROS accumulation. Moreover, TRPA1 promotes resistance to ROS-producing chemotherapies, and TRPA1 inhibition suppresses xenograft tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity. TRPA1 does not affect redox status but upregulates Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways. NRF2, an oxidant-defense transcription factor, directly controls TRPA1 expression, thus providing an orthogonal mechanism for protection against oxidative stress together with canonical ROS-neutralizing mechanisms. These findings reveal an oxidative-stress defense program involving TRPA1 that could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.
Literature context: and 1 mM sodium pyruvate. A549 (RRID:CVCL_0023) human alveolar adenocarcinoma
The cell line OVCAR-4 was recently ranked as one of the most representative cell lines for high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, little work has been done to assess the susceptibility of OVCAR-4 cells and tumors to the more common types of molecular targeting. Proteome profiles suggest OVCAR-4 express high levels of integrin αvβ3 receptors. Using flow cytometry with fluorescent antibodies we determined that OVCAR-4 cells have high number of integrin αvβ3 receptors ([9.8 ± 2.5] × 104/cell) compared to the well-characterized cell line U87-MG ([5.2 ± 1.4] × 104/cell). However, OVCAR-4 cells also have roughly three times the surface area of U87-MG cells, so the average αvβ3 receptor density is actually lower (11 ± 3 versus 18 ± 6 receptors/µm2). A series of new fluorescent molecular probes was prepared with structures comprised of a deep-red squaraine fluorophore (∼680 nm emission) covalently attached to zero, one, or two cyclic pentapeptide cRGD sequences for integrin targeting. Microscopy studies showed that uptake of the divalent probe into cultured OVCAR-4 cells was 2.2 ± 0.4 higher than the monovalent probe, which in turn was 2.2 ± 0.4 higher than the untargeted probe. This probe targeting trend was also seen in OVCAR-4 mouse tumor models. The results suggest that clinically relevant OVCAR-4 cells can be targeted using molecular probes based on αvβ3 integrin receptor antagonists such as the cRGD peptide. Furthermore, deep-red fluorescent cRGD-squaraine probes have potential as targeted stains of cancerous tissue associated with HGSOC in surgery and pathology settings.
Literature context: ithelial cells (A549) ATCC A549 RRID:CVCL_0023 Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells
Influenza virus intimately associates with host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and mRNA processing machinery. Here, we use mammalian native elongating transcript sequencing (mNET-seq) to examine Pol II behavior during viral infection. We show that influenza virus executes a two-pronged attack on host transcription. First, viral infection causes decreased Pol II gene occupancy downstream of transcription start sites. Second, virus-induced cellular stress leads to a catastrophic failure of Pol II termination at poly(A) sites, with transcription often continuing for tens of kilobases. Defective Pol II termination occurs independently of the ability of the viral NS1 protein to interfere with host mRNA processing. Instead, this termination defect is a common effect of diverse cellular stresses and underlies the production of previously reported downstream-of-gene transcripts (DoGs). Our work has implications for understanding not only host-virus interactions but also fundamental aspects of mammalian transcription.
Literature context: Cell LinesA549 (Lung, Male)ATCCCRM-CCL-185C32 (Skin, Male)ATCCCRL-1585COLO
Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in vascular biology. One example of this is the local regulation of vascular resistance via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Impairment of this process is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and a precursor to a wide array of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Yet the molecules responsible for sensing flow (shear stress) within endothelial cells remain largely unknown. We designed a 384-well screening system that applies shear stress on cultured cells. We identified a mechanosensitive cell line that exhibits shear stress-activated calcium transients, screened a focused RNAi library, and identified GPR68 as necessary and sufficient for shear stress responses. GPR68 is expressed in endothelial cells of small-diameter (resistance) arteries. Importantly, Gpr68-deficient mice display markedly impaired acute FMD and chronic flow-mediated outward remodeling in mesenteric arterioles. Therefore, GPR68 is an essential flow sensor in arteriolar endothelium and is a critical signaling component in cardiovascular pathophysiology.
Literature context: carcinoma) ATCC Cat# CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 Human MCF7 (breast adenocarcino
Although the value of proteomics has been demonstrated, cost and scale are typically prohibitive, and gene expression profiling remains dominant for characterizing cellular responses to perturbations. However, high-throughput sentinel assays provide an opportunity for proteomics to contribute at a meaningful scale. We present a systematic library resource (90 drugs × 6 cell lines) of proteomic signatures that measure changes in the reduced-representation phosphoproteome (P100) and changes in epigenetic marks on histones (GCP). A majority of these drugs elicited reproducible signatures, but notable cell line- and assay-specific differences were observed. Using the "connectivity" framework, we compared signatures across cell types and integrated data across assays, including a transcriptional assay (L1000). Consistent connectivity among cell types revealed cellular responses that transcended lineage, and consistent connectivity among assays revealed unexpected associations between drugs. We further leveraged the resource against public data to formulate hypotheses for treatment of multiple myeloma and acute lymphocytic leukemia. This resource is publicly available at https://clue.io/proteomics.
Literature context: RRID:CVCL_0023 Human: H157 ATCC Cat# CRL-5802;
Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.
Literature context: er A549 cells (Male)ATCCATCC #: CRM-CCL-185Human ZR75-1 SIX1 KO cells (Fema
Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) facilitates tumor growth, and drugs targeting aerobic glycolysis are being developed. However, how the Warburg effect is directly regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that transcription factor SIX1 directly increases the expression of many glycolytic genes, promoting the Warburg effect and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. SIX1 regulates glycolysis through HBO1 and AIB1 histone acetyltransferases. Cancer-related SIX1 mutation increases its ability to promote aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. SIX1 glycolytic function is directly repressed by microRNA-548a-3p, which is downregulated, inversely correlates with SIX1, and is a good predictor of prognosis in breast cancer patients. Thus, the microRNA-548a-3p/SIX1 axis strongly links aerobic glycolysis to carcinogenesis and may become a promising cancer therapeutic target.
Literature context: Human: A549 ATCC CRM-CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 Experimental Models: Organisms/
When mammalian cells are deprived of glutamine, exogenous asparagine rescues cell survival and growth. Here we report that this rescue results from use of asparagine in protein synthesis. All mammalian cell lines tested lacked cytosolic asparaginase activity and could not utilize asparagine to produce other amino acids or biosynthetic intermediates. Instead, most glutamine-deprived cell lines are capable of sufficient glutamine synthesis to maintain essential amino acid uptake and production of glutamine-dependent biosynthetic precursors, with the exception of asparagine. While experimental introduction of cytosolic asparaginase could enhance the synthesis of glutamine and increase tricarboxylic acid cycle anaplerosis and the synthesis of nucleotide precursors, cytosolic asparaginase suppressed the growth and survival of cells in glutamine-depleted medium in vitro and severely compromised the in vivo growth of tumor xenografts. These results suggest that the lack of asparaginase activity represents an evolutionary adaptation to allow mammalian cells to survive pathophysiologic variations in extracellular glutamine.
Literature context: HTB-30BT-549ATCCHTB-122DA549ATCCCRM-CCL-185NCI-H1299ATCCCRL-5803Experimenta
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant and heterogeneous stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that two cell-surface molecules, CD10 and GPR77, specifically define a CAF subset correlated with chemoresistance and poor survival in multiple cohorts of breast and lung cancer patients. CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote tumor formation and chemoresistance by providing a survival niche for cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mechanistically, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs are driven by persistent NF-κB activation via p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, which is maintained by complement signaling via GPR77, a C5a receptor. Furthermore, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote successful engraftment of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and targeting these CAFs with a neutralizing anti-GPR77 antibody abolishes tumor formation and restores tumor chemosensitivity. Our study reveals a functional CAF subset that can be defined and isolated by specific cell-surface markers and suggests that targeting the CD10+GPR77+ CAF subset could be an effective therapeutic strategy against CSC-driven solid tumors.
Literature context: CRL-2170A549 cell lineATCCCat# CCL-185H441 (NCI-H441) cell lineATCCCat
KRASG12C was recently identified to be potentially druggable by allele-specific covalent targeting of Cys-12 in vicinity to an inducible allosteric switch II pocket (S-IIP). Success of this approach requires active cycling of KRASG12C between its active-GTP and inactive-GDP conformations as accessibility of the S-IIP is restricted only to the GDP-bound state. This strategy proved feasible for inhibiting mutant KRAS in vitro; however, it is uncertain whether this approach would translate to in vivo. Here, we describe structure-based design and identification of ARS-1620, a covalent compound with high potency and selectivity for KRASG12C. ARS-1620 achieves rapid and sustained in vivo target occupancy to induce tumor regression. We use ARS-1620 to dissect oncogenic KRAS dependency and demonstrate that monolayer culture formats significantly underestimate KRAS dependency in vivo. This study provides in vivo evidence that mutant KRAS can be selectively targeted and reveals ARS-1620 as representing a new generation of KRASG12C-specific inhibitors with promising therapeutic potential.
Literature context: (Reeves etÂ al., 2002)N/AA549ATCCCCL-185Hep3BATCCHB-8064HeLaATCCCCL-2Hep
Fucosylation is a glycan modification critically involved in cancer and inflammation. Although potent fucosylation inhibitors are useful for basic and clinical research, only a few inhibitors have been developed. Here, we focus on a fucose analog with an alkyne group, 6-alkynyl-fucose (6-Alk-Fuc), which is used widely as a detection probe for fucosylated glycans, but is also suggested for use as a fucosylation inhibitor. Our glycan analysis using lectin and mass spectrometry demonstrated that 6-Alk-Fuc is a potent and general inhibitor of cellular fucosylation, with much higher potency than the existing inhibitor, 2-fluoro-fucose (2-F-Fuc). The action mechanism was shown to deplete cellular GDP-Fuc, and the direct target of 6-Alk-Fuc is FX (encoded by TSTA3), the bifunctional GDP-Fuc synthase. We also show that 6-Alk-Fuc halts hepatoma invasion. These results highlight the unappreciated role of 6-Alk-Fuc as a fucosylation inhibitor and its potential use for basic and clinical science.
Literature context: A549 ATCC RRID:CVCL_0023 HeLa Cold Spring Harbor Laborat
The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p.i. This delayed activation of ISGs required IRF3 and coincided with an ∼10-fold increase in IRF3 from protein stabilization. The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates the stabilities of these key activators of innate immune responses, as shown directly for IRF3.
Literature context: s ATCC CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 Canine kidney: MDCK cells ATCC
TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway. This activity can be inhibited by the viral NS1 protein. TRIM25 inhibition of viral RNA synthesis results from its binding to viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs), the structures containing individual viral RNA segments, the viral polymerase, and multiple viral nucleoproteins. TRIM25 binding does not inhibit initiation of capped-RNA-primed viral mRNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. Rather, the onset of RNA chain elongation is inhibited because TRIM25 prohibits the movement of RNA into the polymerase complex.
Literature context: A-549 ATCC RRID:CVCL_0023 NCI-H1299 ATCC RRID: CVCL_0060
Combining DNA-demethylating agents (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors [DNMTis]) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) holds promise for enhancing cancer immune therapy. Herein, pharmacologic and isoform specificity of HDACis are investigated to guide their addition to a DNMTi, thus devising a new, low-dose, sequential regimen that imparts a robust anti-tumor effect for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using in-vitro-treated NSCLC cell lines, we elucidate an interferon α/β-based transcriptional program with accompanying upregulation of antigen presentation machinery, mediated in part through double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction. This is accompanied by suppression of MYC signaling and an increase in the T cell chemoattractant CCL5. Use of this combination treatment schema in mouse models of NSCLC reverses tumor immune evasion and modulates T cell exhaustion state towards memory and effector T cell phenotypes. Key correlative science metrics emerge for an upcoming clinical trial, testing enhancement of immune checkpoint therapy for NSCLC.
Literature context: TCCCCL-2THP-1ATCCTIB-202A549ATCCCRM-CCL-185Flag-tagged Tetherin inducible A
Tetherin (BST2/CD317) is an interferon-inducible antiviral factor known for its ability to block the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Yet its role in type I interferon (IFN) signaling remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Tetherin is a negative regulator of RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-mediated type I IFN signaling by targeting MAVS. The induction of Tetherin by type I IFN accelerates MAVS degradation via ubiquitin-dependent selective autophagy in human cells. Moreover, Tetherin recruits E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to catalyze K27-linked ubiquitin chains on MAVS at lysine 7, which serves as a recognition signal for NDP52-dependent autophagic degradation. Taken together, our findings reveal a negative feedback loop of RLR signaling generated by Tetherin-MARCH8-MAVS-NDP52 axis and provide insights into a better understanding of the crosstalk between selective autophagy and optimal deactivation of type I IFN signaling.
Literature context: al epithelial cells (A549, ATTC CCL-185) were maintained, and NTHi infe
The respiratory pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) that requires efficient treatments. A previous screening for host genes differentially expressed upon NTHi infection identified sirtuin-1, which encodes a NAD-dependent deacetylase protective against emphysema and is activated by resveratrol. This polyphenol concomitantly reduces NTHi viability, therefore highlighting its therapeutic potential against NTHi infection at the COPD airway. In this study, resveratrol antimicrobial effect on NTHi was shown to be bacteriostatic and did not induce resistance development in vitro. Analysis of modulatory properties on the NTHi-host airway epithelial interplay showed that resveratrol modulates bacterial invasion but not subcellular location, reduces inflammation without targeting phosphodiesterase 4B gene expression, and dampens β defensin-2 gene expression in infected cells. Moreover, resveratrol therapeutics against NTHi was evaluated in vivo on mouse respiratory and zebrafish septicemia infection model systems, showing to decrease NTHi viability in a dose-dependent manner and reduce airway inflammation upon infection, and to have a significant bacterial clearing effect without signs of host toxicity, respectively. This study presents resveratrol as a therapeutic of particular translational significance due to the attractiveness of targeting both infection and overactive inflammation at the COPD airway.
Literature context: helial) ATCC ATCC Cat# CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 Human: HeLa (cervix epithelial)
Respiratory and arthropod-borne viral infections are a global threat due to the lack of effective antivirals and vaccines. A potential strategy is to target host proteins required for viruses but non-essential for the host. To identify such proteins, we performed a genome-wide knockout screen in human haploid cells and identified the calcium pump SPCA1. SPCA1 is required by viruses from the Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families, including measles, dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Calcium transport activity is required for SPCA1 to promote virus spread. SPCA1 regulates proteases within the trans-Golgi network that require calcium for their activity and are critical for virus glycoprotein maturation. Consistent with these findings, viral glycoproteins fail to mature in SPCA1-deficient cells preventing viral spread, which is evident even in cells with partial loss of SPCA1. Thus, SPCA1 is an attractive antiviral host target for a broad spectrum of established and emerging viral infections.
Literature context: CCRL-5985H460ATCCHTB-177A549ATCCCCL-185H2009ATCCCRL-5911H1975ATCCCRL-59
The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activation rewires biochemical networks in cancer cells that may create special vulnerabilities. Here, we use chemical proteomics to map druggable proteins that are selectively expressed in KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. Principal among these is NR0B1, an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that we show engages in a multimeric protein complex to regulate the transcriptional output of KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. We further identify small molecules that covalently target a conserved cysteine within the NR0B1 protein interaction domain, and we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt NR0B1 complexes and impair the anchorage-independent growth of KEAP1-mutant cancer cells. Our findings designate NR0B1 as a druggable transcriptional regulator that supports NRF2-dependent lung cancers.
Literature context: ell culture29384,85, A549 (ATCC CCL 18586, and HeLa (ATCC CCL 287) cell
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous mutation of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Disease severity inversely correlates to the amount of SMN protein produced from the homologous SMN2 gene. We show that SMN protein is naturally released in exosomes from all cell types examined. Fibroblasts from patients or a mouse model of SMA released exosomes containing reduced levels of SMN protein relative to normal controls. Cells overexpressing SMN protein released exosomes with dramatically elevated levels of SMN protein. We observed enhanced quantities of exosomes in the medium from SMN-depleted cells, and in serum from a mouse model of SMA and a patient with Type 3 SMA, suggesting that SMN-depletion causes a deregulation of exosome release or uptake. The quantity of SMN protein contained in the serum-derived exosomes correlated with the genotype of the animal, with progressively less protein in carrier and affected animals compared to wildtype mice. SMN protein was easily detectable in exosomes isolated from human serum, with a reduction in the amount of SMN protein in exosomes from a patient with Type 3 SMA compared to a normal control. Our results suggest that exosome-derived SMN protein may serve as an effective biomarker for SMA.
Literature context: inoma cells ATCC RRID:CVCL_0023 Biological Samples
The intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects effector proteins into macrophages in order to establish and replicate within the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Once generated, the LCV interacts with mitochondria through unclear mechanisms. We show that Legionella uses both T4SS-independent and T4SS-dependent mechanisms to respectively interact with mitochondria and induce mitochondrial fragmentation that ultimately alters mitochondrial metabolism. The T4SS effector MitF, a Ran GTPase activator, is required for fission of the mitochondrial network. These effects of MitF occur through accumulation of mitochondrial DNM1L, a GTPase critical for fission. Furthermore mitochondrial respiration is abruptly halted in a T4SS-dependent manner, while T4SS-independent upregulation of cellular glycolysis remains elevated. Collectively, these alterations in mitochondrial dynamics promote a Warburg-like phenotype in macrophages that favors bacterial replication. Hence the rewiring of cellular bioenergetics to create a replication permissive niche in host cells is a virulence strategy of L. pneumophila.
Literature context: lung adenocarcinoma (A549, cn: CCL-185, ATCC), malignant melanoma (Me2
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are involved in human diseases, such as allergy, atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis, but their function in human cancer remains unclear. Here we show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), ILC2s are increased and hyper-activated through the interaction of CRTH2 and NKp30 with elevated tumour-derived PGD2 and B7H6, respectively. ILC2s, in turn, activate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) via IL-13 secretion. Upon treating APL with all-trans retinoic acid and achieving complete remission, the levels of PGD2, NKp30, ILC2s, IL-13 and M-MDSCs are restored. Similarly, disruption of this tumour immunosuppressive axis by specifically blocking PGD2, IL-13 and NKp30 partially restores ILC2 and M-MDSC levels and results in increased survival. Thus, using APL as a model, we uncover a tolerogenic pathway that may represent a relevant immunosuppressive, therapeutic targetable, mechanism operating in various human tumour types, as supported by our observations in prostate cancer.Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) modulate inflammatory and allergic responses, but their function in cancer immunity is still unclear. Here the authors show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia, tumour-activated ILC2s secrete IL-13 to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells and support tumour growth.
Literature context: , RRID:CVCL_0023 MDCK ATCC ATCC Cat# CCL-34, RRI
Many viral RNAs are modified by methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A). m6A is thought to regulate RNA splicing, stability, translation, and secondary structure. Influenza A virus (IAV) expresses m6A-modified RNAs, but the effects of m6A on this segmented RNA virus remain unclear. We demonstrate that global inhibition of m6A addition inhibits IAV gene expression and replication. In contrast, overexpression of the cellular m6A "reader" protein YTHDF2 increases IAV gene expression and replication. To address whether m6A residues modulate IAV RNA function in cis, we mapped m6A residues on the IAV plus (mRNA) and minus (vRNA) strands and used synonymous mutations to ablate m6A on both strands of the hemagglutinin (HA) segment. These mutations inhibited HA mRNA and protein expression while leaving other IAV mRNAs and proteins unaffected, and they also resulted in reduced IAV pathogenicity in mice. Thus, m6A residues in IAV transcripts enhance viral gene expression.
Literature context: lines A549 (ATCC Cat# CCL-185, RRID:CVCL_0023), NCI-H292 (ATCC Cat# CRL-1848,
The mammalian runt-related factor 1 (RUNX1) is a master transcription factor that regulates lineage specification of hematopoietic stem cells. RUNX1 translocations result in the development of myeloid leukemias. Recently, RUNX1 has been implicated as a tumor suppressor in other cancers. We postulated RUNX1 expression may be associated with lung adenocarcinoma etiology and/or progression. We evaluated the association of RUNX1 mRNA expression with overall survival data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), a publically available database. Compared to high expression levels, Low RUNX1 levels from lung adenocarcinomas were associated with a worse overall survival (Hazard Ratio = 2.014 (1.042-3.730 95% confidence interval), log-rank p = 0.035) compared to those that expressed high RUNX1 levels. Further immunohistochemical examination of 85 surgical specimens resected at the University of Vermont Medical Center identified that low RUNX1 protein expression was associated with larger tumors (p = 0.038). Gene expression network analysis was performed on the same subset of TCGA cases that demonstrated differential survival by RUNX1 expression. This analysis, which reveals regulatory relationships, showed that reduced RUNX1 levels were closely linked to upregulation of the transcription factor E2F1. To interrogate this relationship, RUNX1 was depleted in a lung cancer cell line that expresses high levels of RUNX1. Loss of RUNX1 resulted in enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion. RUNX1 depletion also resulted in increased mRNA expression of E2F1 and multiple E2F1 target genes. Our data implicate loss of RUNX1 as driver of lung adenocarcinoma aggression, potentially through deregulation of the E2F1 pathway.
Literature context: coma), A549 (ATCC: CRM-CCL-185, RRID:CVCL_0023, Homo sapiens, lung epithelial)
Most vertebrate and plant RNA and small DNA viruses suppress genomic CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies, apparently mimicking host mRNA composition. Artificially increasing CpG/UpA dinucleotides attenuates viruses through an entirely unknown mechanism. Using the echovirus 7 (E7) model in several cell types, we show that the restriction in E7 replication in mutants with increased CpG/UpA dinucleotides occurred immediately after viral entry, with incoming virions failing to form replication complexes. Sequences of CpG/UpA-high virus stocks showed no evidence of increased mutational errors that would render them replication defective, these viral RNAs were not differentially sequestered in cytoplasmic stress granules nor did they induce a systemic antiviral state. Importantly, restriction was not mediated through effects on translation efficiency since replicons with high CpG/UpA sequences inserted into a non-coding region were similarly replication defective. Host-cells thus possess intrinsic defence pathways that prevent replication of viruses with increased CpG/UpA frequencies independently of codon usage.
Literature context: ) (A549: ATCC Cat# CRM-CCL-185, RRID:CVCL_0023; HCT116: ATCC Cat# CCL-247, RRI
Many mammalian cancer cell lines depend on glutamine as a major tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerotic substrate to support proliferation. However, some cell lines that depend on glutamine anaplerosis in culture rely less on glutamine catabolism to proliferate in vivo. We sought to understand the environmental differences that cause differential dependence on glutamine for anaplerosis. We find that cells cultured in adult bovine serum, which better reflects nutrients available to cells in vivo, exhibit decreased glutamine catabolism and reduced reliance on glutamine anaplerosis compared to cells cultured in standard tissue culture conditions. We find that levels of a single nutrient, cystine, accounts for the differential dependence on glutamine in these different environmental contexts. Further, we show that cystine levels dictate glutamine dependence via the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT/SLC7A11. Thus, xCT/SLC7A11 expression, in conjunction with environmental cystine, is necessary and sufficient to increase glutamine catabolism, defining important determinants of glutamine anaplerosis and glutaminase dependence in cancer.
RAD51 promotes homology-directed repair (HDR), replication fork reversal, and stalled fork protection. Defects in these functions cause genomic instability and tumorigenesis but also generate hypersensitivity to cancer therapeutics. Here we describe the identification of RADX as an RPA-like, single-strand DNA binding protein. RADX is recruited to replication forks, where it prevents fork collapse by regulating RAD51. When RADX is inactivated, excessive RAD51 activity slows replication elongation and causes double-strand breaks. In cancer cells lacking BRCA2, RADX deletion restores fork protection without restoring HDR. Furthermore, RADX inactivation confers chemotherapy and PARP inhibitor resistance to cancer cells with reduced BRCA2/RAD51 pathway function. By antagonizing RAD51 at forks, RADX allows cells to maintain a high capacity for HDR while ensuring that replication functions of RAD51 are properly regulated. Thus, RADX is essential to achieve the proper balance of RAD51 activity to maintain genome stability.
Literature context: B-126Human: MDA-MB-231ATCCHTB-26Human: A549ATCCCCL-185Human: HEK293TATCCCRL-3216Mouse:
Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Literature context: (RRID:CVCL_0023) were prov
The turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensures the correct biological activity of its distinct domains. In mammalian cells, the ER is degraded via a selective autophagy pathway (ER-phagy), mediated by two specific receptors: FAM134B, responsible for the turnover of ER sheets and SEC62 that regulates ER recovery following stress. Here, we identified reticulon 3 (RTN3) as a specific receptor for the degradation of ER tubules. Oligomerization of the long isoform of RTN3 is sufficient to trigger fragmentation of ER tubules. The long N-terminal region of RTN3 contains several newly identified LC3-interacting regions (LIR). Binding to LC3s/GABARAPs is essential for the fragmentation of ER tubules and their delivery to lysosomes. RTN3-mediated ER-phagy requires conventional autophagy components, but is independent of FAM134B. None of the other reticulon family members have the ability to induce fragmentation of ER tubules during starvation. Therefore, we assign a unique function to RTN3 during autophagy.
Literature context: CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 Bax+/+Bak+
Cytotoxic compounds are important drugs and research tools. Here, we introduce a method, scalable time-lapse analysis of cell death kinetics (STACK), to quantify the kinetics of compound-induced cell death in mammalian cells at the population level. STACK uses live and dead cell markers, high-throughput time-lapse imaging, and mathematical modeling to determine the kinetics of population cell death over time. We used STACK to profile the effects of over 1,800 bioactive compounds on cell death in two human cancer cell lines, resulting in a large and freely available dataset. 79 potent lethal compounds common to both cell lines caused cell death with widely divergent kinetics. 13 compounds triggered cell death within hours, including the metallophore zinc pyrithione. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that this rapid onset lethal phenotype was caused in human cancer cells by metabolic disruption and ATP depletion. These results provide the first comprehensive survey of cell death kinetics and analysis of rapid-onset lethal compounds.
Literature context: 7Experimental Models: Cell LinesA549ATCCCCL-185293TATCCCRL-3216MDCKA
The nuclear RNA exosome is an essential multi-subunit complex that controls RNA homeostasis. Congenital mutations in RNA exosome genes are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the role of the RNA exosome in the cellular response to pathogens. Here, using NGS and human and mouse genetics, we show that influenza A virus (IAV) ribogenesis and growth are suppressed by impaired RNA exosome activity. Mechanistically, the nuclear RNA exosome coordinates the initial steps of viral transcription with RNAPII at host promoters. The viral polymerase complex co-opts the nuclear RNA exosome complex and cellular RNAs en route to 3' end degradation. Exosome deficiency uncouples chromatin targeting of the viral polymerase complex and the formation of cellular:viral RNA hybrids, which are essential RNA intermediates that license transcription of antisense genomic viral RNAs. Our results suggest that evolutionary arms races have shaped the cellular RNA quality control machinery.
Literature context: CCL-185; RRID:CVCL_0023 HeLa ATCC
The mammalian sex chromosomes have undergone profound changes during their evolution from an ancestral pair of autosomes [1-4]. Specifically, the X chromosome has acquired a paradoxical sex-biased function by redistributing gene contents [5, 6] and has generated a disproportionately high number of retrogenes that are located on autosomes and exhibit male-biased expression patterns . Several selection-based models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including a model of sexual antagonism driving X inactivation (SAXI) [6-8] and a compensatory mechanism based on meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) [6, 8-11]. However, experimental evidence correlating the function of X-chromosome-derived autosomal retrogenes with evolutionary forces remains limited [12-17]. Here, we show that the deficiency of Rpl10l, a murine autosomal retrogene of Rpl10 with testis-specific expression, disturbs ribosome biogenesis in late-prophase spermatocytes and prohibits the transition from prophase into metaphase of the first meiotic division, resulting in male infertility. Rpl10l expression compensates for the lack of Rpl10, which exhibits a broad expression pattern but is subject to MSCI during spermatogenesis. Importantly, ectopic expression of RPL10L prevents the death of cultured RPL10-deficient somatic cells, and Rpl10l-promoter-driven transgenic expression of Rpl10 in spermatocytes restores spermatogenesis and fertility in Rpl10l-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that Rpl10l plays an essential role during the meiotic stage of spermatogenesis by compensating for MSCI-mediated transcriptional silencing of Rpl10. These data provide direct evidence for the compensatory hypothesis and add novel insight into the evolution of X-chromosome-derived autosomal retrogenes and their role in male fertility.
Literature context: ATCCÂ® CCL-2human: A549ATCCATCCÂ® CCL-185human: SK-MEL-28ATCCATCCÂ® HTB-72
During microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, two endonucleolytic reactions convert stem-loop-structured precursors into mature miRNAs. These processing steps can be posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we have used a proteomics-based pull-down approach to map and characterize the interactome of a multitude of pre-miRNAs. We identify ∼180 RBPs that interact specifically with distinct pre-miRNAs. For functional validation, we combined RNAi and CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout experiments to analyze RBP-dependent changes in miRNA levels. Indeed, a large number of the investigated candidates, including splicing factors and other mRNA processing proteins, have effects on miRNA processing. As an example, we show that TRIM71/LIN41 is a potent regulator of miR-29a processing and its inactivation directly affects miR-29a targets. We provide an extended database of RBPs that interact with pre-miRNAs in extracts of different cell types, highlighting a widespread layer of co- and posttranscriptional regulation of miRNA biogenesis.
Literature context: ollection RRID:CVCL_0023 H1299 Amer
Pharmacological ascorbate has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer agent when combined with radiation and chemotherapy. The anti-cancer effects of ascorbate are hypothesized to involve the autoxidation of ascorbate leading to increased steady-state levels of H2O2; however, the mechanism(s) for cancer cell-selective toxicity remain unknown. The current study shows that alterations in cancer cell mitochondrial oxidative metabolism resulting in increased levels of O2⋅- and H2O2 are capable of disrupting intracellular iron metabolism, thereby selectively sensitizing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and glioblastoma (GBM) cells to ascorbate through pro-oxidant chemistry involving redox-active labile iron and H2O2. In addition, preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrate the feasibility, selective toxicity, tolerability, and potential efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate in GBM and NSCLC therapy.
Literature context: and A549 (RRID:CVCL_0023) cells wer
p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.
Literature context: thod (Pierce). A549 cells (RRID:CVCL_0023) were treated with 10 Î¼M MG132
Influenza virus infections have a significant impact on global human health. Individuals with suppressed immunity, or suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions such as COPD, are particularly susceptible to influenza. Here we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) five has a pivotal role in restricting influenza A virus in the airway epithelium, through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Socs5-deficient mice exhibit heightened disease severity, with increased viral titres and weight loss. Socs5 levels were differentially regulated in response to distinct influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H11N9) and were reduced in primary epithelial cells from COPD patients, again correlating with increased susceptibility to influenza. Importantly, restoration of SOCS5 levels restricted influenza virus infection, suggesting that manipulating SOCS5 expression and/or SOCS5 targets might be a novel therapeutic approach to influenza.
Literature context: A549 (RRID:CVCL_0023), H1650 (R
Many lines of evidence have indicated that both genetic and non-genetic determinants can contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity and influence cancer outcomes. Among the best described sub-population of cancer cells generated by non-genetic mechanisms are cells characterized by a CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker profile. Here, we report that human CD44+/CD24- cancer cells are genetically highly unstable because of intrinsic defects in their DNA-repair capabilities. In fact, in CD44+/CD24- cells, constitutive activation of the TGF-beta axis was both necessary and sufficient to reduce the expression of genes that are crucial in coordinating DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consequently, we observed that cancer cells that reside in a CD44+/CD24- state are characterized by increased accumulation of DNA copy number alterations, greater genetic diversity and improved adaptability to drug treatment. Together, these data suggest that the transition into a CD44+/CD24- cell state can promote intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, spur tumor evolution and increase tumor fitness.
Literature context: CCL-185, RRID:CVCL_0023), H1299 (A
Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat a variety of solid tumors but improvements in the therapeutic ratio are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to assess the Chk1 kinase inhibitor, MK-8776, for its ability to radiosensitize human tumor cells. Cells derived from NSCLC and HNSCC cancers were tested for radiosensitization by MK-8776. The ability of MK-8776 to abrogate the radiation-induced G2 block was determined using flow cytometry. Effects on repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were determined on the basis of rad51, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. Clonogenic survival analyses indicated that MK-8776 radiosensitized p53-defective tumor cells but not lines with wild-type p53. Abrogation of the G2 block was evident in both p53-defective cells and p53 wild-type lines indicating no correlation with radiosensitization. However, only p53-defective cells entered mitosis harboring unrepaired DSBs. MK-8776 appeared to inhibit repair of radiation-induced DSBs at early times after irradiation. A comparison of MK-8776 to the wee1 inhibitor, MK-1775, suggested both similarities and differences in their activities. In conclusion, MK-8776 radiosensitizes tumor cells by mechanisms that include abrogation of the G2 block and inhibition of DSB repair. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of MK-8776 in combination with radiation.
Literature context: lus cellsSmith, 1977A549; RRID: CVCL_0023Human hepatoma cell lineNakabaya
The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa was the largest recorded. It began following the cross-species transmission of EBOV from an animal reservoir, most likely bats, into humans, with phylogenetic analysis revealing the co-circulation of several viral lineages. We hypothesized that this prolonged human circulation led to genomic changes that increased viral transmissibility in humans. We generated a synthetic glycoprotein (GP) construct based on the earliest reported isolate and introduced amino acid substitutions that defined viral lineages. Mutant GPs were used to generate a panel of pseudoviruses, which were used to infect different human and bat cell lines. These data revealed that specific amino acid substitutions in the EBOV GP have increased tropism for human cells, while reducing tropism for bat cells. Such increased infectivity may have enhanced the ability of EBOV to transmit among humans and contributed to the wide geographic distribution of some viral lineages.
Literature context: on. A549 (RRID:CVCL_0023), AU565 (R
TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to the mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD). Together, our studies reveal that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations, contrary to current beliefs, act beyond p53 loss to promote tumorigenesis, and could inform the development of strategies to target cancers driven by these prevalent mutations.
Literature context: tal Models: Cell LinesA549 cellsATCC/Duke Cancer Center Cell Culture FacilityCCL-185Experimental Models: Organisms/S
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds the human genome at >10,000 sites but only regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. To determine the functional effect of each site, we measured the glucocorticoid (GC) responsive activity of nearly all GR binding sites (GBSs) captured using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in A549 cells. 13% of GBSs assayed had GC-induced activity. The responsive sites were defined by direct GR binding via a GC response element (GRE) and exclusively increased reporter-gene expression. Meanwhile, most GBSs lacked GC-induced reporter activity. The non-responsive sites had epigenetic features of steady-state enhancers and clustered around direct GBSs. Together, our data support a model in which clusters of GBSs observed with ChIP-seq reflect interactions between direct and tethered GBSs over tens of kilobases. We further show that those interactions can synergistically modulate the activity of direct GBSs and may therefore play a major role in driving gene activation in response to GCs.
Literature context: es. A549 (RRID:CVCL_0023), HepG2 (R
Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of microRNAs in mediating p53's tumor suppression functions. Here, we report miR-139-5p as another new p53 microRNA target. p53 induced the transcription of miR-139-5p, which in turn suppressed the protein levels of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), an oncogenic protein involved in multiple tumor promoting processes. Knockdown of p53 reversed these effects. Also, overexpression of miR-139-5p decreased PDE4D levels and increased cellular cAMP levels, leading to BIM-mediated cell growth arrest. Furthermore, our analysis of human colorectal tumor specimens revealed significant inverse correlation between the expression of miR-139-5p and that of PDE4D. Finally, overexpression of miR-139-5p suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors, accompanied by decrease in PDE4D and increase in BIM. These results demonstrate that p53 inactivates oncogenic PDE4D by inducing the expression of miR-139-5p.
Literature context: -CCL-185, RRID:CVCL_0023) were grow
Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Previous studies have identified interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) as an interferon-stimulated gene family. However, the role of IFITMs in HTNV infection is unclear. In this study, we observed that IFITM3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs12252 C allele and CC genotype associated with the disease severity and HTNV load in the plasma of HFRS patients. In vitro experiments showed that the truncated protein produced by the rs12252 C allele exhibited an impaired anti-HTNV activity. We also proved that IFITM3 was able to inhibit HTNV infection in both HUVEC and A549 cells by overexpression and RNAi assays, likely via a mechanism of inhibiting virus entry demonstrated by binding and entry assay. Localization of IFITM3 in late endosomes was also observed. In addition, we demonstrated that the transcription of IFITM3 is negatively regulated by an lncRNA negative regulator of interferon response (NRIR). Taken together, we conclude that IFITM3, negatively regulated by NRIR, inhibits HTNV infection, and its SNP rs12252 correlates with the plasma HTNV load and the disease severity of patients with HFRS.
Literature context: 122, NCI-H2009, HCC78, HCC1833, A549, 293T, and AALE cells were esta
The NKX2-1 transcription factor, a regulator of normal lung development, is the most significantly amplified gene in human lung adenocarcinoma. To study the transcriptional impact of NKX2-1 amplification, we generated an expression signature associated with NKX2-1 amplification in human lung adenocarcinoma and analyzed DNA-binding sites of NKX2-1 by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation. Integration of these expression and cistromic analyses identified LMO3, itself encoding a transcription regulator, as a candidate direct transcriptional target of NKX2-1. Further cistromic and overexpression analyses indicated that NKX2-1 can cooperate with the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA1 to regulate LMO3 gene expression. RNAi analysis of NKX2-1-amplified cells compared with nonamplified cells demonstrated that LMO3 mediates cell survival downstream from NKX2-1. Our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory network of NKX2-1 and suggest that LMO3 is a transcriptional signal transducer in NKX2-1-amplified lung adenocarcinomas.