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Anti-O4, clone 81 (also referred to in the literature as mAB O4) antibody

RRID:AB_94872

Antibody ID

AB_94872

Target Antigen

O4 clone 81 (also referred to in the literature as mAB O4) chicken/bird, ch, h, m, r

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# MAB345, RRID:AB_94872)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IgM; IgM Immunohistochemistry; Immunocytochemistry; IC, IH

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Millipore

Dual Requirement of CHD8 for Chromatin Landscape Establishment and Histone Methyltransferase Recruitment to Promote CNS Myelination and Repair.

  • Zhao C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Disruptive mutations in chromatin remodeler CHD8 cause autism spectrum disorders, exhibiting widespread white matter abnormalities; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show that cell-type specific Chd8 deletion in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in neurons, results in myelination defects, revealing a cell-intrinsic dependence on CHD8 for oligodendrocyte lineage development, myelination and post-injury remyelination. CHD8 activates expression of BRG1-associated SWI/SNF complexes that in turn activate CHD7, thus initiating a successive chromatin remodeling cascade that orchestrates oligodendrocyte lineage progression. Genomic occupancy analyses reveal that CHD8 establishes an accessible chromatin landscape, and recruits MLL/KMT2 histone methyltransferase complexes distinctively around proximal promoters to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Inhibition of histone demethylase activity partially rescues myelination defects of CHD8-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that CHD8 exhibits a dual function through inducing a cascade of chromatin reprogramming and recruiting H3K4 histone methyltransferases to establish oligodendrocyte identity, suggesting potential strategies of therapeutic intervention for CHD8-associated white matter defects.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH087592(United States)

Oligodendroglia are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage after neurotrauma in vivo.

  • Giacci MK
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of function following injury to the central nervous system is worsened by secondary degeneration of neurons and glia surrounding the injury and initiated by oxidative damage. However, it is not yet known which cellular populations and structures are most vulnerable to oxidative damage in vivo Using Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), oxidative damage was semi-quantified within cellular subpopulations and structures of optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration, following a partial transection of the optic nerve in adult female PVG rats. Simultaneous assessment of cellular subpopulations and structures revealed oligodendroglia as the most vulnerable to DNA oxidation following injury. 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to label cells that proliferated in the first 3 days after injury. Injury led to increases in DNA, protein and lipid damage in OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes at 3 days, regardless of proliferative state, associated with a decline in the numbers of OPCs at 7 days. O4+ pre-oligodendrocytes also exhibited increased lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, EdU+ mature oligodendrocytes derived after injury demonstrated increased early susceptibility to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. However, EdU- mature oligodendrocytes with high 8OHdG immunoreactivity were more likely to be caspase3+. By day 28, newly derived mature oligodendrocytes had significantly reduced MYRF mRNA indicating that the myelination potential of these cells may be reduced. The proportion of caspase3+ oligodendrocytes remained higher in EdU- cells. Innovative use of NanoSIMS together with traditional immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation have enabled the first demonstration of subpopulation specific oligodendroglial vulnerability to oxidative damage, due to secondary degeneration in vivo.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTInjury to the central nervous system is characterised by oxidative damage in areas adjacent to the injury. However, the cellular subpopulations and structures most vulnerable to this damage remain to be elucidated. Here we use powerful NanoSIMS techniques to show increased oxidative damage in oligodendroglia and axons and to demonstrate that cells early in the oligodendroglial lineage are the most vulnerable to DNA oxidation. Further immunohistochemical and in situ hybridisation investigation reveals that mature oligodendrocytes derived after injury are more vulnerable to oxidative damage than their counterparts existing at the time of injury and have reduced MYRF mRNA, yet pre-existing oligodendrocytes are more likely to die.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-061436(United States)

mfat-1 transgene protects cultured adult neural stem cells against cobalt chloride-mediated hypoxic injury by activating Nrf2/ARE pathways.

  • Yu J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability in adults. Adult neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for both structural and functional neurological recovery. However, for the treatment to work, adult NSCs must be protected against hypoxic-ischemic damage in the ischemic penumbra. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the mfat-1 transgene on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced hypoxic-ischemic injury in cultured adult NSCs as well as its underlying mechanisms. The results show that in the CoCl2 -induced hypoxic-ischemic injury model, the mfat-1 transgene enhanced the viability of adult NSCs and suppressed CoCl2 -mediated apoptosis of adult NSCs. Additionally, the mfat-1 transgene promoted the proliferation of NSCs as shown by increased bromodeoxyuridine labeling of adult NSCs. This process was related to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed a much higher expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream genes (HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC). Taken together, our findings show that the mfat-1 transgene restored the CoCl2 -inhibited viability and proliferation of NSCs by activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements (ARE) signal pathway to inhibit oxidative stress injury. Further investigation of the function of the mfat-1 transgene in adult protective mechanisms may accelerate the development of adult NSC replacement therapy for ischemic stroke.

R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Survival for Correct Myelination in the Central Nervous System.

  • Sanz-Rodriguez M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and effective neural transmission of information requires correct axonal myelination. Modifications in myelination alter axonal capacity to transmit electric impulses and enable pathological conditions. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLs) myelinate axons, a complex process involving various cellular interactions. However, we know little about the mechanisms that orchestrate correct myelination. Here, we demonstrate that OLs express R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Using female and male mutant mice to delete these proteins, we found that activation of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways was weaker in mice lacking one or both of these GTPases, suggesting that both proteins coordinate the activity of these two pathways. Loss of R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 diminishes the number of OLs in major myelinated CNS tracts and increases the proportion of immature OLs. In R-Ras1-/- and R-Ras2-/--null mice, OLs show aberrant morphologies and fail to differentiate correctly into myelin-forming phenotypes. The smaller OL population and abnormal OL maturation induce severe hypomyelination, with shorter nodes of Ranvier in R-Ras1-/- and/or R-Ras2-/- mice. These defects explain the slower conduction velocity of myelinated axons that we observed in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Together, these results suggest that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are upstream elements that regulate the survival and differentiation of progenitors into OLs through the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways for proper myelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 play essential roles in regulating myelination in vivo and control fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and differentiation through synergistic activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. Mice lacking R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 show a diminished OL population with a higher proportion of immature OLs, explaining the observed hypomyelination in main CNS tracts. In vivo electrophysiology recordings demonstrate a slower conduction velocity of nerve impulses in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Therefore, R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are essential for proper axonal myelination and accurate neural transmission.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011010-06(United States)

Sox2 Is Essential for Oligodendroglial Proliferation and Differentiation during Postnatal Brain Myelination and CNS Remyelination.

  • Zhang S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the CNS, myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined. We now report that Sox2 is an essential positive regulator of developmental myelination in the postnatal murine brain of both sexes. Stage-specific paradigms of genetic disruption demonstrated that Sox2 regulated brain myelination by coordinating upstream OPC population supply and downstream OL differentiation. Transcriptomic analyses further supported a crucial role of Sox2 in brain developmental myelination. Consistently, oligodendroglial Sox2-deficient mice developed severe tremors and ataxia, typical phenotypes indicative of hypomyelination, and displayed severe impairment of motor function and prominent deficits of brain OL differentiation and myelination persisting into the later CNS developmental stages. We also found that Sox2 was required for efficient OPC proliferation and expansion and OL regeneration during remyelination in the adult brain and spinal cord. Together, our genetic evidence reveals an essential role of Sox2 in brain myelination and CNS remyelination, and suggests that manipulation of Sox2 and/or Sox2-mediated downstream pathways may be therapeutic in promoting CNS myelin repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Promoting myelin formation and repair has translational significance in treating myelin-related neurological disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis in which brain developmental myelin formation and myelin repair are severely affected, respectively. In this report, analyses of a series of genetic conditional knock-out systems targeting different oligodendrocyte stages reveal a previously unappreciated role of Sox2 in coordinating upstream proliferation and downstream differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells in the mouse brain during developmental myelination and CNS remyelination. Our study points to the potential of manipulating Sox2 and its downstream pathways to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration and CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900950(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()

miR-219 Cooperates with miR-338 in Myelination and Promotes Myelin Repair in the CNS.

  • Wang H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

A lack of sufficient oligodendrocyte myelination contributes to remyelination failure in demyelinating disorders. miRNAs have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis; however, their functions in myelin regeneration remained elusive. Through developmentally regulated targeted mutagenesis, we demonstrate that miR-219 alleles are critical for CNS myelination and remyelination after injury. Further deletion of miR-338 exacerbates the miR-219 mutant hypomyelination phenotype. Conversely, miR-219 overexpression promotes precocious oligodendrocyte maturation and regeneration processes in transgenic mice. Integrated transcriptome profiling and biotin-affinity miRNA pull-down approaches reveal stage-specific miR-219 targets in oligodendrocytes and further uncover a novel network for miR-219 targeting of differentiation inhibitors including Lingo1 and Etv5. Inhibition of Lingo1 and Etv5 partially rescues differentiation defects of miR-219-deficient oligodendrocyte precursors. Furthermore, miR-219 mimics enhance myelin restoration following lysolecithin-induced demyelination as well as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, principal animal models of multiple sclerosis. Together, our findings identify context-specific miRNA-regulated checkpoints that control myelinogenesis and a therapeutic role for miR-219 in CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065808()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072427()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075243()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087474()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS096359()

Characterization of oligodendroglial populations in mouse demyelinating disease using flow cytometry: clues for MS pathogenesis.

  • Robinson AP
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Sep 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Characterizing and enumerating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage (OLCs) is crucial for understanding demyelination and therapeutic benefit in models of demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Here we describe a novel method for the rapid, unbiased analysis of mouse OLCs using flow cytometry. The assay was optimized to maximize viable yield of OLCs and maintain OLC antigen integrity. Panels of antibodies were assembled for simultaneous analysis of seven antigens on individual cells allowing for characterization of oligodendroglial cells throughout the lineage. We verified the utility of the assay with cultured OLCs and through a time course of developmental myelination. Next we employed the assay to characterize OLC populations in two well-characterized models of demyelination: cuprizone-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE we observed a dramatic loss of mature oligodendrocytes coincident with a dramatic expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) at the onset of disease suggesting an attempt of the host to repair myelin. This expanded OPC pool was maintained through remission and relapse suggesting an arrest in differentiation in the face of the chronic autoimmune T cell-mediated inflammatory response. These robust, reproducible changes in OLCs through disease provide a rapid quantitative global analysis of myelin-producing cells in the adult mouse brain and important information regarding effects of disease on oligodendroglial proliferation/differentiation which is useful for defining the pathogenesis and therapy of MS.

Induction of early neural precursors and derivation of tripotent neural stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells under xeno-free conditions.

  • Nguyen HX
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can differentiate into many cell types and are important for regenerative medicine; however, further work is needed to reliably differentiate hESC and hiPSC into neural-restricted multipotent derivatives or specialized cell types under conditions that are free from animal products. Toward this goal, we tested the transition of hESC and hiPSC lines onto xeno-free (XF) / feeder-free conditions and evaluated XF substrate preference, pluripotency, and karyotype. Critically, XF transitioned H9 hESC, Shef4 hESC, and iPS6-9 retained pluripotency (Oct-4 and NANOG), proliferation (MKI67 and PCNA), and normal karyotype. Subsequently, XF transitioned hESC and hiPSC were induced with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to generate neuralized spheres containing primitive neural precursors, which could differentiate into astrocytes and neurons, but not oligoprogenitors. Further neuralization of spheres via LIF supplementation and attachment selection on CELLstart substrate generated adherent human neural stem cells (hNSC) with normal karyotype and high proliferation potential under XF conditions. Interestingly, adherent hNSC derived from H9, Shef4, and iPS6-9 differentiated into significant numbers of O4+ oligoprogenitors (∼20-30%) with robust proliferation; however, very few GalC+ cells were observed (∼2-4%), indicative of early oligodendrocytic lineage commitment. Overall, these data demonstrate the transition of multiple hESC and hiPSC lines onto XF substrate and media conditions, and a reproducible neuralization method that generated neural derivatives with multipotent cell fate potential and normal karyotype.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 249845(International)
  • Wellcome Trust - 100329(United Kingdom)

Effects of developmental age, brain region, and time in culture on long-term proliferation and multipotency of neural stem cell populations.

  • Gritti A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the murine subventricular zone (SVZ) niche allow life-long neurogenesis. During the first postnatal month and throughout aging, the decrease of neuroblasts and the rise of astrocytes results in diminished neurogenesis and increased astrocyte:neuron ratio. Also, a different neurogenic activity characterizes the SVZ periventricular region (LV, lateral ventricle) as compared to its rostral extension (RE). In order to investigate whether and to what extent these physiological modifications may be ascribed to intrinsic changes of the endogenous NSC/progenitor features, we performed a functional analysis on NSCs isolated and cultured from LV and RE tissues at distinct postnatal stages that are marked by striking modifications to the SVZ niche in vivo. We evaluated the effect of age and brain region on long-term proliferation and multipotency, and characterized the cell type composition of NSC-derived progeny, comparing this make-up to that of region- and age-matched primary neural cultures. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of prolonged in vitro expansion on NSC functional properties. We documented age- and region-dependent differences on the clonogenic efficiency and on the long-term proliferative capacity of NSCs. Also, we found age- and region-dependent quantitative changes in the cell composition of NSC progeny (decreased quantity of neurons and oligodendrocytes; increased amount of astroglial cells) and these differences were maintained in long-term cultured NSC populations. Overall, these data strengthen the hypothesis that age- and region-dependent differences in neurogenesis (observed in vivo) may be ascribed to the changes in the intrinsic developmental program of the NSC populations.