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Anti-NG2 Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan antibody

RRID:AB_91789

Antibody ID

AB_91789

Target Antigen

NG2 Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan non-human primate, h, m, r, mk

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# AB5320, RRID:AB_91789)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; ELISA; Western Blot; ELISA, IC, IH, IP, WB

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Cancer Lipid Metabolism Confers Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

  • Iwamoto H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsic and evasive antiangiogenic drug (AAD) resistance is frequently developed in cancer patients, and molecular mechanisms underlying AAD resistance remain largely unknown. Here we describe AAD-triggered, lipid-dependent metabolic reprogramming as an alternative mechanism of AAD resistance. Unexpectedly, tumor angiogenesis in adipose and non-adipose environments is equally sensitive to AAD treatment. AAD-treated tumors in adipose environment show accelerated growth rates in the presence of a minimal number of microvessels. Mechanistically, AAD-induced tumor hypoxia initiates the fatty acid oxidation metabolic reprogramming and increases uptake of free fatty acid (FFA) that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1) significantly compromises the FFA-induced cell proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of CPT1 function sensitizes AAD therapeutic efficacy and enhances its anti-tumor effects. Together, we propose an effective cancer therapy concept by combining drugs that target angiogenesis and lipid metabolism.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - G0802266(United Kingdom)

Muscarinic receptor M3R signaling prevents efficient remyelination by human and mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

  • Welliver RR
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscarinic receptor antagonists act as potent inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation and accelerate remyelination. However, the use of muscarinic antagonists in the clinic is limited by poor understanding of the operant receptor subtype, and questions regarding possible species differences between rodents and humans. Based on high selective expression in human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), we hypothesized that M3R is the functionally relevant receptor. Lentiviral M3R knock-down in human primary CD140a/PDGFαR+ OPCs resulted in enhanced differentiation in vitro and substantially reduced the calcium response following muscarinic agonist treatment. Importantly, following transplantation in hypomyelinating shiverer/rag2 mice, M3R knock-down improved remyelination by human OPCs. Furthermore, conditional M3R ablation in adult NG2-expressing OPCs increased oligodendrocyte differentiation and led to improved spontaneous remyelination in mice. Together, we demonstrate that M3R receptor mediates muscarinic signaling in human OPCs that act to delay differentiation and remyelination, suggesting that M3 receptors are viable targets for human demyelinating disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe identification of drug targets aimed at improving remyelination in patients with demyelination disease is a key step in development of effective regenerative therapies to treat diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Muscarinic receptor antagonists have been identified as effective potentiators of remyelination but the receptor subtypes that mediate these receptors are unclear. In this study, Welliver et al. show that genetic M3R ablation in both mouse and human cells results in improved remyelination and is mediated by acceleration of oligodendrocyte commitment from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Therefore, M3R therefore represents an attractive target for induced remyelination in human disease.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1000847(United Kingdom)
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001412(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016056(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM095459(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS104021(United States)

A Glial Signature and Wnt7 Signaling Regulate Glioma-Vascular Interactions and Tumor Microenvironment.

  • Griveau A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation. Experimentally, Olig2 promotes Wnt7b expression, a finding that correlates in human glioma profiling. Targeted Wnt7a/7b deletion or pharmacologic Wnt inhibition blocks Olig2+ glioma single-cell vessel co-option and enhances responses to temozolomide. Finally, Olig2 and Wnt7 become upregulated after anti-VEGF treatment in preclinical models and patients. Thus, glial-encoded pathways regulate distinct glioma-vascular microenvironmental interactions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ES016005(United States)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Form 3D Clusters Following Intraventricular Transplantation.

  • Jungwirth N
  • J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an immune privileged cell type with numerous regeneration-promoting effects. The in vivo behavior of MSC and underlying mechanisms leading to their regenerative effects are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to comparatively investigate the in vivo behavior of canine (cMSC), human (hMSC), and murine MSC (mMSC) following intra-cerebroventricular transplantation. At 7 days post transplantation (dpt), clusters of cMSC, hMSC, and mMSC were detected within the ventricular system. At 49 dpt, cMSC-transplanted mice showed clusters mostly consisting of extracellular matrix lacking transplanted MSC. Similarly, hMSC-transplanted mice lacked MSC clusters at 49 dpt. Xenogeneic MSC transplantation was associated with a local T lymphocyte-dominated immune reaction at both time points. Interestingly, no associated inflammation was observed following syngeneic mMSC transplantation. In conclusion, transplanted MSC formed intraventricular cell clusters and exhibited a short life span in vivo. Xenogeneically in contrast to syngeneically transplanted MSC triggered a T cell-mediated graft rejection indicating that MSCs are not as immune privileged as previously assumed. However, MSC may mediate their effects by a "hit and run" mechanism and future studies will show whether syngeneically or xenogeneically transplanted MSCs exert better therapeutic effects in animals with CNS disease.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - BA 815/14-1,()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - STA 518/4-1()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - TI 309/4-2()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20RR016474(United States)

Oligodendrocyte death, neuroinflammation, and the effects of minocycline in a rodent model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION).

  • Mehrabian Z
  • Mol. Vis.
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Purpose: Optic nerve (ON) damage following nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and its models is associated with neurodegenerative inflammation. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative antibiotic believed to exert a neuroprotective effect by selective alteration and activation of the neuroinflammatory response. We evaluated minocycline's post-induction ability to modify early and late post-ischemic inflammatory responses and its retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-neuroprotective ability. Methods: We used the rodent NAION (rNAION) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals received either vehicle or minocycline (33 mg/kg) daily intraperitoneally for 28 days. Early (3 days) ON-cytokine responses were evaluated, and oligodendrocyte death was temporally evaluated using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. Cellular inflammation was evaluated with immunohistochemistry, and RGC preservation was compared with stereology of Brn3a-positive cells in flat mounted retinas. Results: Post-rNAION, oligodendrocytes exhibit a delayed pattern of apoptosis extending over a month, with extrinsic monocyte infiltration occurring only in the primary rNAION lesion and progressive distal microglial activation. Post-induction minocycline failed to improve retinal ganglion cell survival compared with the vehicle treated (893.14 vs. 920.72; p>0.9). Cytokine analysis of the rNAION lesion 3 days post-induction revealed that minocycline exert general inflammatory suppression without selective upregulation of cytokines associated with the proposed alternative or neuroprotective M2 inflammatory pathway. Conclusions: The pattern of cytokine release, extended temporal window of oligodendrocyte death, and progressive microglial activation suggests that selective neuroimmunomodulation, rather than general inflammatory suppression, may be required for effective repair strategies in ischemic optic neuropathies.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015304()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS065926(United States)

The Stem Cell Factor Sox2 Is a Positive Timer of Oligodendrocyte Development in the Postnatal Murine Spinal Cord.

  • Zhang S
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination in the central nervous system takes place predominantly during the postnatal development of humans and rodents by myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently reported that Sox2 is essential for developmental myelination in the murine brain and spinal cord. It is still controversial regarding the role of Sox2 in oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Analyses of a series of cell- and stage-specific Sox2 mutants reveal that Sox2 plays a biphasic role in regulating oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Sox2 controls the number of OPCs for subsequent differentiation through regulating their proliferation. In addition, Sox2 regulates the timing of OL differentiation and modulates the rate of oligodendrogenesis. Our experimental data prove that Sox2 is an intrinsic positive timer of oligodendroglial lineage progression and suggest that interventions affecting oligodendroglial Sox2 expression may be therapeutic for overcoming OPC differentiation arrest in dysmyelinating and demyelinating disorders.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - NS093559()
  • National Institutes of Health - NS094559()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK 57682(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 84307()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children (US) - 85200()
  • The National key programme of Research and Development, China - 2016YFC0503200()

Pericyte ALK5/TIMP3 Axis Contributes to Endothelial Morphogenesis in the Developing Brain.

  • Dave JM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The murine embryonic blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes (PCs), and basement membrane. Although PCs are critical for inducing vascular stability, signaling pathways in PCs that regulate EC morphogenesis during BBB development remain unexplored. Herein, we find that murine embryos lacking the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5 (Alk5) in brain PCs (mutants) develop gross germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH). The germinal matrix (GM) is a highly vascularized structure rich in neuronal and glial precursors. We show that GM microvessels of mutants display abnormal dilation, reduced PC coverage, EC hyperproliferation, reduced basement membrane collagen, and enhanced perivascular matrix metalloproteinase activity. Furthermore, ALK5-depleted PCs downregulate tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and TIMP3 administration to mutants improves endothelial morphogenesis and attenuates GMH-IVH. Overall, our findings reveal a key role for PC ALK5 in regulating brain endothelial morphogenesis and a substantial therapeutic potential for TIMP3 during GMH-IVH.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL125815()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL133016()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI49371(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS088854()

Reducing Pericyte-Derived Scarring Promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.

  • Dias DO
  • Cell
  • 2018 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

CNS injury often severs axons. Scar tissue that forms locally at the lesion site is thought to block axonal regeneration, resulting in permanent functional deficits. We report that inhibiting the generation of progeny by a subclass of pericytes led to decreased fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition after spinal cord injury in mice. Regeneration of raphespinal and corticospinal tract axons was enhanced and sensorimotor function recovery improved following spinal cord injury in animals with attenuated pericyte-derived scarring. Using optogenetic stimulation, we demonstrate that regenerated corticospinal tract axons integrated into the local spinal cord circuitry below the lesion site. The number of regenerated axons correlated with improved sensorimotor function recovery. In conclusion, attenuation of pericyte-derived fibrosis represents a promising therapeutic approach to facilitate recovery following CNS injury.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 DE000698-10(United States)

Sox2 Is Essential for Oligodendroglial Proliferation and Differentiation during Postnatal Brain Myelination and CNS Remyelination.

  • Zhang S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the CNS, myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined. We now report that Sox2 is an essential positive regulator of developmental myelination in the postnatal murine brain of both sexes. Stage-specific paradigms of genetic disruption demonstrated that Sox2 regulated brain myelination by coordinating upstream OPC population supply and downstream OL differentiation. Transcriptomic analyses further supported a crucial role of Sox2 in brain developmental myelination. Consistently, oligodendroglial Sox2-deficient mice developed severe tremors and ataxia, typical phenotypes indicative of hypomyelination, and displayed severe impairment of motor function and prominent deficits of brain OL differentiation and myelination persisting into the later CNS developmental stages. We also found that Sox2 was required for efficient OPC proliferation and expansion and OL regeneration during remyelination in the adult brain and spinal cord. Together, our genetic evidence reveals an essential role of Sox2 in brain myelination and CNS remyelination, and suggests that manipulation of Sox2 and/or Sox2-mediated downstream pathways may be therapeutic in promoting CNS myelin repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Promoting myelin formation and repair has translational significance in treating myelin-related neurological disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis in which brain developmental myelin formation and myelin repair are severely affected, respectively. In this report, analyses of a series of genetic conditional knock-out systems targeting different oligodendrocyte stages reveal a previously unappreciated role of Sox2 in coordinating upstream proliferation and downstream differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells in the mouse brain during developmental myelination and CNS remyelination. Our study points to the potential of manipulating Sox2 and its downstream pathways to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration and CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900950(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()

Age-Dependent Decline in Fate Switch from NG2 Cells to Astrocytes After Olig2 Deletion.

  • Zuo H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 cells are a resident glial progenitor cell population that is uniformly distributed throughout the developing and mature mammalian CNS. Those in the postnatal CNS generate exclusively myelinating and non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and are thus equated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Prenatally, NG2 cells in the ventral gray matter of the forebrain generate protoplasmic astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. The fate conversion from NG2 cells into protoplasmic astrocytes is dependent on downregulation of the key oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2. We showed previously that constitutive deletion of Olig2 in NG2 cells converts NG2 cells in the neocortex into protoplasmic astrocytes at the expense of oligodendrocytes. In this study, we show that postnatal deletion of Olig2 caused NG2 cells in the neocortex but not in other gray matter regions to become protoplasmic astrocytes. However, NG2 cells in the neocortex became more resistant to astrocyte fate switch over the first 3 postnatal weeks. Fewer NG2 cells differentiated into astrocytes and did so with longer latency after Olig2 deletion at postnatal day 18 (P18) compared with deletion at P2. The high-mobility group transcription factor Sox10 was not downregulated for at least 1 month after Olig2 deletion at P18 despite an early transient upregulation of the astrocyte transcription factor NFIA. Furthermore, inhibiting cell proliferation in slice culture reduced astrocyte differentiation from Olig2-deleted perinatal NG2 cells, suggesting that cell division might facilitate nuclear reorganization needed for astrocyte transformation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT NG2 cells are glial progenitor cells that retain a certain degree of lineage plasticity. In the normal postnatal neocortex, they generate mostly oligodendrocyte lineage cells. When the oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2 is deleted in NG2 cells in the neocortex, they switch their fate to protoplasmic astrocytes. However, the efficiency of the fate switch decreases with age over the first 3 postnatal weeks and is reduced when cell proliferation is inhibited. As the neocortex matures, sustained expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage-specific key transcription factor Sox10 becomes less dependent on Olig2. Together, our findings suggest a gradual stabilization of the oligodendrocyte lineage genes and loss of lineage plasticity during the first 3 weeks after birth, possibly due to nuclear reorganization.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - 1DP2OD007188(United States)

GAT-1 mediated GABA uptake in rat oligodendrocytes.

  • Fattorini G
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stimulated by the results of a recent paper on the effects of tiagabine, a selective inhibitor of the main GABA transporter GAT-1, on oligodendrogenesis, we verified the possibility that GAT-1 may be expressed in oligodendrocytes using immunocytochemical methods and functional assays. Light microscopic analysis of the subcortical white matter of all animals revealed the presence of numerous GAT-1+ cells of different size (from 3 to 29 µm) and morphology. An electron microscope analysis revealed that, besides fibrous astrocytes and interstitial neurons, GAT-1 immunoreactivity was present in immature and mature oligodendrocytes. Co-localization studies between GAT-1 and markers specific for oligodendrocytes (NG2 and RIP) showed that about 12% of GAT-1 positive cells in the white matter were immature oligodendrocytes, while about 15% were mature oligodendrocytes. In vitro functional assays showed that oligodendrocytes exhibit tiagabine-sensitive Na+ -dependent GABA uptake. Although relationships between GABA and oligodendrocytes have been known for many years, this is the first demonstration that GAT-1 is expressed in oligodendrocytes. The present results on the one hand definitely closes the era of "neuronal" and "glial" GABA transporters, on the other they suggest that oligodendrocytes may contribute to pathophysiology of the several diseases in which GAT-1 have been implicated to date. GLIA 2017;65:514-522.

LRP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis in oligodendrocytes and is required for proper CNS myelin development and repair.

  • Lin JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1-deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits. Mechanistic studies revealed a decrease in peroxisomal biogenesis factor-2 and fewer peroxisomes in OL processes. Treatment of Lrp1-/- OPCs with cholesterol or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ with pioglitazone alone is not sufficient to promote differentiation; however, when combined, cholesterol and pioglitazone enhance OPC differentiation into mature OLs. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel role for Lrp1 in peroxisome biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and OPC differentiation during white matter development and repair.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA148761(United States)

The Wnt Inhibitor Apcdd1 Coordinates Vascular Remodeling and Barrier Maturation of Retinal Blood Vessels.

  • Mazzoni J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coordinating angiogenesis with acquisition of tissue-specific properties in endothelial cells is essential for vascular function. In the retina, endothelial cells form a blood-retina barrier by virtue of tight junctions and low transcytosis. While the canonical Norrin/Fz4/Lrp5/6 pathway is essential for angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, and barrier maturation, how these diverse processes are coordinated remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Apcdd1, a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is expressed in retinal endothelial cells during angiogenesis and barrier formation. Apcdd1-deficient mice exhibit a transient increase in vessel density at ages P10-P12 due to delayed vessel pruning. Moreover, Apcdd1 mutant endothelial cells precociously form the paracellular component of the barrier. Conversely, mice that overexpress Apcdd1 in retina endothelial cells have reduced vessel density but increased paracellular barrier permeability. Apcdd1 thus serves to precisely modulate Wnt/Norrin signaling activity in the retinal endothelium and coordinate the timing of both vascular pruning and barrier maturation.

Gli1+ Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are a Key Driver of Bone Marrow Fibrosis and an Important Cellular Therapeutic Target.

  • Schneider RK
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) develops in various hematological and non-hematological conditions and is a central pathological feature of myelofibrosis. Effective cell-targeted therapeutics are needed, but the cellular origin of BMF remains elusive. Here, we show using genetic fate tracing in two murine models of BMF that Gli1+ mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited from the endosteal and perivascular niche to become fibrosis-driving myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1+ cells abolished BMF and rescued bone marrow failure. Pharmacological targeting of Gli proteins with GANT61 inhibited Gli1+ cell expansion and myofibroblast differentiation and attenuated fibrosis severity. The same pathway is also active in human BMF, and Gli1 expression in BMF significantly correlates with the severity of the disease. In addition, GANT61 treatment reduced the myofibroblastic phenotype of human MSCs isolated from patients with BMF, suggesting that targeting of Gli proteins could be a relevant therapeutic strategy.

Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex.

  • Bifari F
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2+ neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036715(United States)

Pericytes of Multiple Organs Do Not Behave as Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo.

  • Guimarães-Camboa N
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pericytes are widely believed to function as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent tissue-resident progenitors with great potential for regenerative medicine. Cultured pericytes isolated from distinct tissues can differentiate into multiple cell types in vitro or following transplantation in vivo. However, the cell fate plasticity of endogenous pericytes in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tbx18 selectively marks pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in multiple organs of adult mouse. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified Tbx18-expressing cells behaved as MSCs in vitro. However, lineage-tracing experiments using an inducible Tbx18-CreERT2 line revealed that pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells maintained their identity in aging and diverse pathological settings and did not significantly contribute to other cell lineages. These results challenge the current view of endogenous pericytes as multipotent tissue-resident progenitors and suggest that the plasticity observed in vitro or following transplantation in vivo arises from artificial cell manipulations ex vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA095287()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - DP1 HL117649()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL070867()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL119967()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL123747()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL130452()
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD006428()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS047101()

miR-219 Cooperates with miR-338 in Myelination and Promotes Myelin Repair in the CNS.

  • Wang H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

A lack of sufficient oligodendrocyte myelination contributes to remyelination failure in demyelinating disorders. miRNAs have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis; however, their functions in myelin regeneration remained elusive. Through developmentally regulated targeted mutagenesis, we demonstrate that miR-219 alleles are critical for CNS myelination and remyelination after injury. Further deletion of miR-338 exacerbates the miR-219 mutant hypomyelination phenotype. Conversely, miR-219 overexpression promotes precocious oligodendrocyte maturation and regeneration processes in transgenic mice. Integrated transcriptome profiling and biotin-affinity miRNA pull-down approaches reveal stage-specific miR-219 targets in oligodendrocytes and further uncover a novel network for miR-219 targeting of differentiation inhibitors including Lingo1 and Etv5. Inhibition of Lingo1 and Etv5 partially rescues differentiation defects of miR-219-deficient oligodendrocyte precursors. Furthermore, miR-219 mimics enhance myelin restoration following lysolecithin-induced demyelination as well as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, principal animal models of multiple sclerosis. Together, our findings identify context-specific miRNA-regulated checkpoints that control myelinogenesis and a therapeutic role for miR-219 in CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065808()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072427()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075243()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087474()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS096359()

Cardiac Fibroblasts Adopt Osteogenic Fates and Can Be Targeted to Attenuate Pathological Heart Calcification.

  • Pillai ICL
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mammalian tissues calcify with age and injury. Analogous to bone formation, osteogenic cells are thought to be recruited to the affected tissue and induce mineralization. In the heart, calcification of cardiac muscle leads to conduction system disturbances and is one of the most common pathologies underlying heart blocks. However the cell identity and mechanisms contributing to pathological heart muscle calcification remain unknown. Using lineage tracing, murine models of heart calcification and in vivo transplantation assays, we show that cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) adopt an osteoblast cell-like fate and contribute directly to heart muscle calcification. Small-molecule inhibition of ENPP1, an enzyme that is induced upon injury and regulates bone mineralization, significantly attenuated cardiac calcification. Inhibitors of bone mineralization completely prevented ectopic cardiac calcification and improved post injury heart function. Taken together, these findings highlight the plasticity of fibroblasts in contributing to ectopic calcification and identify pharmacological targets for therapeutic development.

Heterogeneity of astrocyte and NG2 cell insertion at the node of ranvier.

  • Serwanski DR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes. However, the prevalence of the two types of glia at the node has remained unknown. We have used specific cell surface markers to examine the association of NG2 cells and astrocytes with the nodes of Ranvier in the optic nerve, corpus callosum, and spinal cord of young adult mice or rats. We show that more than 95% of the nodes in all three regions contained astrocyte processes, while 33-49% of nodes contained NG2 cell processes. NG2 cell processes were associated more frequently with larger nodes. A few nodes were devoid of glial apposition. Electron microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of dual glial insertion at some nodes and further revealed that NG2 cell processes contacted the nodal membrane at discrete points, while astrocytes had broader processes that surrounded the nodes. The study provides the first systematic quantitative analysis of glial cell insertions at central nodes of Ranvier. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:535-552, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Conditional Deletion of the L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Affects Postnatal Myelination in Mice.

  • Cheli VT
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2KO) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals showed an important decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons. The reduced myelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, using a triple transgenic mouse in which all of the Cav1.2KO OPCs were tracked by a Cre reporter, we found that Cav1.2KO OPCs produce less mature oligodendrocytes than control cells. Finally, live-cell imaging in early postnatal brain slices revealed that the migration and proliferation of subventricular zone OPCs is decreased in the Cav1.2KO mice. These results indicate that the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 modulates oligodendrocyte development and suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VOCCs in OPCs is necessary for normal myelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Overall, it is clear that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage exhibit remarkable plasticity with regard to the expression of Ca2+ channels and that perturbation of Ca2+ homeostasis likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis underlying demyelinating diseases. To determine whether voltage-gated Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, we used a conditional knock-out mouse for voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our results indicate that voltage-operated Ca2+ channels can modulate oligodendrocyte development in the postnatal brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in oligodendroglial cells is critical for normal myelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches to intervene in neurodegenerative diseases in which myelin is lost or damaged.

Glial Cell Calcium Signaling Mediates Capillary Regulation of Blood Flow in the Retina.

  • Biesecker KR
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The brain is critically dependent on the regulation of blood flow to nourish active neurons. One widely held hypothesis of blood flow regulation holds that active neurons stimulate Ca(2+) increases in glial cells, triggering glial release of vasodilating agents. This hypothesis has been challenged, as arteriole dilation can occur in the absence of glial Ca(2+) signaling. We address this controversy by imaging glial Ca(2+) signaling and vessel dilation in the mouse retina. We find that sensory stimulation results in Ca(2+) increases in the glial endfeet contacting capillaries, but not arterioles, and that capillary dilations often follow spontaneous Ca(2+) signaling. In IP3R2(-/-) mice, where glial Ca(2+) signaling is reduced, light-evoked capillary, but not arteriole, dilation is abolished. The results show that, independent of arterioles, capillaries actively dilate and regulate blood flow. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that glial Ca(2+) signaling regulates capillary but not arteriole blood flow. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We show that a Ca(2+)-dependent glial cell signaling mechanism is responsible for regulating capillary but not arteriole diameter. This finding resolves a long-standing controversy regarding the role of glial cells in regulating blood flow, demonstrating that glial Ca(2+) signaling is both necessary and sufficient to dilate capillaries. While the relative contributions of capillaries and arterioles to blood flow regulation remain unclear, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate capillary blood flow may ultimately lead to the development of therapies for treating diseases where blood flow regulation is disrupted, including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetic retinopathy. This finding may also aid in revealing the underlying neuronal activity that generates BOLD fMRI signals.

Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development.

  • Ramo K
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - K01 MH109747(United States)

Minocycline mitigates the gliogenic effects of proinflammatory cytokines on neural stem cells.

  • Vay SU
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mobilizing endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain is designed to enhance the brain's regenerative capacity after cerebral lesions, e.g., as a result of stroke. Cerebral ischemia elicits neuroinflammatory processes affecting NSCs in multiple ways, the precise mechanisms of which currently remain elusive. An inhibitory effect of minocycline on microglia activation, a hallmark of postischemic neuroinflammation, has already been demonstrated in clinical trials, showing minocycline to be safe and potentially effective in ischemic stroke. Here we investigate the direct effects of minocycline and of proinflammatory cytokines on the differentiation potential of NSCs in vitro and in vivo. Primary fetal rat NSCs were treated with minocycline plus a combination of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6. The differentiation fate of NSCs was assessed immunocytochemically. To investigate the effects of minocycline and inflammation in vivo, minocycline or lipopolysaccharides were injected intraperitoneally into adult rats, with subsequent immunohistochemistry. Minocycline alone did not affect the differentiation potential of NSCs in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, proinflammatory cytokines accelerated the differentiation of NSCs, promoting an astrocytic fate while inhibiting neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. It is interesting to note that minocycline counteracted this cytokine-induced rapid astrocytic differentiation and restored the neurogenic and oligodendrogliogenic potential of NSCs. Data suggest that minocycline antagonizes the rapid glial differentiation induced by proinflammatory cytokines following cerebral ischemia but without having a direct effect on the differentiation potential of NSCs. Thus, minocycline constitutes a promising drug for stroke research, counteracting the detrimental effects of postischemic neuroinflammation in multiple ways.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR056296(United States)

Physiologically normal 5% O2 supports neuronal differentiation and resistance to inflammatory injury in neural stem cell cultures.

  • Sun X
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Nov 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have demonstrated that neural stem cell (NSC) culture at physiologically normoxic conditions (2-5% O2) is advantageous in terms of neuronal differentiation and survival. Neuronal differentiation is accompanied by a remarkable shift to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared with preferentially glycolytic metabolism of proliferating cells. However, metabolic changes induced by growth in a normoxic (5%) O2 culture environment in NSCs have been minimally explored. This study demonstrates that culturing under 5% O2 conditions results in higher levels of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, decreased glycolysis, and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species in NSC cultures. Inflammation is one of the major environmental factors limiting postinjury NSC neuronal differentiation and survival. Our results show that NSCs differentiated under 5% O2 conditions possess better resistance to in vitro inflammatory injury compared with those exposed to 20% O2. The present work demonstrates that lower, more physiologically normal O2 levels support metabolic changes induced during NSC neuronal differentiation and provide increased resistance to inflammatory injury, thus highlighting O2 tension as an important determinant of cell fate and survival in various stem cell therapies.

TACE/ADAM17 is essential for oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination.

  • Palazuelos J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several studies have elucidated the significance of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase proteins (ADAMs) in PNS myelination, but there is no evidence if they also play a role in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Our study identifies ADAM17, also called tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), as a novel key modulator of oligodendrocyte (OL) development and CNS myelination. Genetic deletion of TACE in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPs) induces premature cell cycle exit and reduces OL cell survival during postnatal myelination of the subcortical white matter (SCWM). These cellular and molecular changes lead to deficits in SCWM myelination and motor behavior. Mechanistically, TACE regulates oligodendrogenesis by modulating the shedding of EGFR ligands TGFα and HB-EGF and, consequently, EGFR signaling activation in OL lineage cells. Constitutive TACE depletion in OPs in vivo leads to similar alterations in CNS myelination and motor behavior as to what is observed in the EGFR hypofunctional mouse line EgfrWa2. EGFR overexpression in TACE-deficient OPs restores OL survival and development. Our study reveals an essential function of TACE in oligodendrogenesis, and demonstrates how this molecule modulates EGFR signaling activation to regulate postnatal CNS myelination.

Characterization of oligodendroglial populations in mouse demyelinating disease using flow cytometry: clues for MS pathogenesis.

  • Robinson AP
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Sep 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Characterizing and enumerating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage (OLCs) is crucial for understanding demyelination and therapeutic benefit in models of demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Here we describe a novel method for the rapid, unbiased analysis of mouse OLCs using flow cytometry. The assay was optimized to maximize viable yield of OLCs and maintain OLC antigen integrity. Panels of antibodies were assembled for simultaneous analysis of seven antigens on individual cells allowing for characterization of oligodendroglial cells throughout the lineage. We verified the utility of the assay with cultured OLCs and through a time course of developmental myelination. Next we employed the assay to characterize OLC populations in two well-characterized models of demyelination: cuprizone-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE we observed a dramatic loss of mature oligodendrocytes coincident with a dramatic expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) at the onset of disease suggesting an attempt of the host to repair myelin. This expanded OPC pool was maintained through remission and relapse suggesting an arrest in differentiation in the face of the chronic autoimmune T cell-mediated inflammatory response. These robust, reproducible changes in OLCs through disease provide a rapid quantitative global analysis of myelin-producing cells in the adult mouse brain and important information regarding effects of disease on oligodendroglial proliferation/differentiation which is useful for defining the pathogenesis and therapy of MS.

TGFβ signaling regulates the timing of CNS myelination by modulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle exit through SMAD3/4/FoxO1/Sp1.

  • Palazuelos J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Research on myelination has focused on identifying molecules capable of inducing oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in an effort to develop strategies that promote functional myelin regeneration in demyelinating disorders. Here, we show that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is crucial for allowing oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cell cycle withdrawal, and therefore, for oligodendrogenesis and postnatal CNS myelination. Enhanced oligodendrogenesis and subcortical white matter (SCWM) myelination was detected after TGFβ gain of function, while TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) deletion in OPs prevents their development into mature myelinating OLs, leading to SCWM hypomyelination in mice. TGFβ signaling modulates OP cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation through the transcriptional modulation of c-myc and p21 gene expression, mediated by the interaction of SMAD3/4 with Sp1 and FoxO1 transcription factors. Our study is the first to demonstrate an autonomous and crucial role of TGFβ signaling in OL development and CNS myelination, and may provide new avenues in the treatment of demyelinating diseases.

Sustained alterations of hypothalamic tanycytes during posttraumatic hypopituitarism in male mice.

  • Osterstock G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of hypopituitarism, which compromises patients' recovery, quality of life, and life span. To date, there are no means other than standardized animal studies to provide insights into the mechanisms of posttraumatic hypopituitarism. We have found that GH levels were impaired after inducing a controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Furthermore, GHRH stimulation enhanced GH to lower level in injured than in control or sham mice. Because many characteristics were unchanged in the pituitary glands of CCI mice, we looked for changes at the hypothalamic level. Hypertrophied astrocytes were seen both within the arcuate nucleus and the median eminence, two pivotal structures of the GH axis, spatially remote to the injury site. In the arcuate nucleus, GHRH neurons were unaltered. In the median eminence, injured mice exhibited unexpected alterations. First, the distributions of claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 between tanycytes were disorganized, suggesting tight junction disruptions. Second, endogenous IgG was increased in the vicinity of the third ventricle, suggesting abnormal barrier properties after CCI. Third, intracerebroventricular injection of a fluorescent-dextran derivative highly stained the hypothalamic parenchyma only after CCI, demonstrating an increased permeability of the third ventricle edges. This alteration of the third ventricle might jeopardize the communication between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. In conclusion, the phenotype of CCI mice had similarities to the posttraumatic hypopituitarism seen in humans with intact pituitary gland and pituitary stalk. It is the first report of a pathological status in which tanycyte dysfunctions appear as a major acquired syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM055040(United States)

Alterations in sulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycans following controlled cortical impact injury in mice.

  • Yi JH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play a pivotal role in many neuronal growth mechanisms including axon guidance and the modulation of repair processes following injury to the spinal cord or brain. Many actions of CSPGs in the central nervous system (CNS) are governed by the specific sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains attached to CSPG core proteins. To elucidate the role of CSPGs and sulfated GAG chains following traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact injury of mild to moderate severity was performed over the left sensory motor cortex in mice. Using immunoblotting and immunostaining, we found that TBI resulted in an increase in the CSPGs neurocan and NG2 expression in a tight band surrounding the injury core, which overlapped with the presence of 4-sulfated CS GAGs but not with 6-sulfated GAGs. This increase was observed as early as 7 days post injury (dpi), and persisted for up to 28 dpi. Labeling with markers against microglia/macrophages, NG2+ cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes showed that these cells were all localized in the area, suggesting multiple origins of chondroitin-4-sulfate increase. TBI also caused a decrease in the expression of aggrecan and phosphacan in the pericontusional cortex with a concomitant reduction in the number of perineuronal nets. In summary, we describe a dual response in CSPGs whereby they may be actively involved in complex repair processes following TBI.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - R24 OD010435(United States)

The astrocytic lineage marker calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1): phenotypic heterogeneity of newly born Camsap1-expressing cells in injured mouse brain.

  • Yoshioka N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1) has been recognized as a new marker for astrocytic lineage cells and is expressed on mature astrocytes in the adult brain (Yamamoto et al. [2009] J. Neurosci. Res. 87:503–513). In the present study, we found that newly born Camsap1-expressing cells exhibited regional heterogeneity in an early phase after stab injury of the mouse brain. In the surrounding area of the lesion site, Camsap1 was expressed on quiescent astrocytes. At 3 days after injury, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was upregulated on glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes. Some of these astrocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) together with re-expression of the embryonic cytoskeleton protein nestin. In the neighboring region of the lesion cavity, Camsap1 was expressed on GFAP-negative cells. At 3 days after injury, GFAP-ir astrocytes were absent around the lesion cavity. At this stage, NG2-ir cells immunopositive for Camsap1 and immunonegative for GFAP were distributed in border of the lesion cavity. By 10 days, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was exclusively detected on GFAP-ir reactive astrocytes devoid of NG2 immunoreactivity. BrdU pulse-chase labeling assay suggested the differentiation of Camsap1+/NG2+ cells into Camsap1+/GFAP+ astrocytes. In the subependymal zone of the lateral ventricle, Camsap1-ir cells increased after injury. Camsap1 immunoreactivity was distributed on ependymal and subependymal cells bearing various astrocyte markers, and BrdU incorporation was enhanced on such Camsap1-ir cells after injury. These results suggest that newly born reactive astrocytes are derived from heterogeneous Camsap1-expressing cells in the injured brain.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK084352(United States)

[Determination of chelerythrine in Chelidonium majus by RP-HPLC].

  • Sun N
  • Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
  • 2009 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for determination of the content of chelerythrine in Chelidonium majus. METHOD: Chelerythrine was extracted from the fine powder of the crade with drug methanol and determined by HPLC. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-1% triethylamine (25:75) (adjusted pH to 3 using phosphoric acid) and the detection wavelength was set at 268 nm. RESULT: The linear range of calibration curve was 0.051 6-0.516 0 microg (r = 1.000). The average recovery (n = 6) was 103.0% with RSD of 1.2%. Chelerythrine in the sample solution was stable in 8 h and the ruggedness was perfect among 3 different chromatographic columns. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, sensitive and reliable.

NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone.

  • Komitova M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 cells in the mouse SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), and olfactory bulb granule cell layer (OB GCL), which constitute a neurogenic niche in the postnatal forebrain. NG2 cells in the SVZ and RMS expressed the oligodendrocyte precursor cell antigen platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha but did not express antigens known to be expressed by neuronogenic cells in the SVZ, such as doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, beta-tubulin, Dlx2, or GFAP. More than 99.5% of the proliferating cells in the SVZ were NG2 negative. In the olfactory bulb, NG2 cells were found to generate primarily oligodendrocytes and a small number of astrocytes but not neurons. In the SVZ and RMS, NG2 cells were sparse and made up a much smaller fraction of the cells compared with the surrounding nonneurogenic parenchyma. Parenchymal NG2 cells were often located along the border of the SVZ and RMS. The abundance of NG2 cells increased in the distal parts of the RMS and especially in the OB GCL, where NG2 cell processes were seen in close proximity to many maturing interneurons. Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

CD11c/EYFP transgene illuminates a discrete network of dendritic cells within the embryonic, neonatal, adult, and injured mouse brain.

  • Bulloch K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The CD11c enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mouse was constructed to identify dendritic cells in the periphery (Lindquist et al. [2004] Nat. Immunol. 5:1243-1250). In this study, we used this mouse to characterize dendritic cells within the CNS. Our anatomic results showed discrete populations of EYFP(+) brain dendritic cells (EYFP(+) bDC) that colocalized with a small fraction of microglia immunoreactive for Mac-1, Iba-1, CD45, and F4/80 but not for NeuN, Dcx, NG2 proteoglycan, or GFAP. EYFP(+) bDC, isolated by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS), expressed mRNA for the Itgax (CD11c) gene, whereas FACS anlaysis of EYFP(+) bDC cultures revealed the presence of CD11c protein. Light microscopy studies revealed that EYFP(+) bDC were present in the embryonic CNS when the blood-brain barrier is formed and postnatally when brain cells are amenable to culturing. In adult male mice, EYFP(+) bDC distribution was prominent within regions of the CNS that 1) are subject to structural plasticity and neurogenesis, 2) receive sensory and humoral input from the external environment, and 3) lack a blood-brain barrier. Ultrastructural analysis of EYFP(+) bDC in adult neurogenic niches showed their proximity to developing neurons and a morphology characteristic of immune/microglia cells. Kainic acid-induced seizures revealed that EYFP(+) bDC responded to damage of the hippocampus and displayed morphologies similar to those described for seizure-activated EGFP(+) microglia in the hippocampus of cfms (CSF-1R) EGFP mice. Collectively, these findings suggest a new member of the dendritic cell family residing among the heterogeneous microglia population.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM 074746(United States)

Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 identifies a specific subpopulation of angiogenic blood vessels following contusive spinal cord injury in the adult mouse.

  • Benton RL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), disruption and plasticity of the microvasculature within injured spinal tissue contribute to the pathological cascades associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary injury. Conversely, preserved vascular function most likely results in tissue sparing and subsequent functional recovery. It has been difficult to identify subclasses of damaged or regenerating blood vessels at the cellular level. Here, adult mice received a single intravenous injection of the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) at 1-28 days following a moderate thoracic (T9) contusion. Vascular binding of IB4 was maximally observed 7 days following injury, a time associated with multiple pathologic aspects of the intrinsic adaptive angiogenesis, with numbers of IB4 vascular profiles decreasing by 21 days postinjury. Quantitative assessment of IB4 binding shows that it occurs within the evolving lesion epicenter, with affected vessels expressing a temporally specific dysfunctional tight junctional phenotype as assessed by occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 immunoreactivities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intravascular lectin delivery following SCI is a useful approach not only for observing the functional status of neovascular formation but also for definitively identifying specific subpopulations of reactive spinal microvascular elements.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087988(United States)

Vesicular glutamate transporters define two sets of glutamatergic afferents to the somatosensory thalamus and two thalamocortical projections in the mouse.

  • Graziano A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (VP) receives two major sets of excitatory inputs, one from the ascending somatosensory pathways originating in the dorsal horn, dorsal column nuclei, and trigeminal nuclei, and the other originating from the cerebral cortex. Both systems use glutamate as neurotransmitter, as do the thalamocortical axons relaying somatosensory information from the VP to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The synapses formed by these projection systems differ anatomically, physiologically, and in their capacity for short-term synaptic plasticity. Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles and its release at central synapses depend on two isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters, VGluT1 and VGluT2. Despite ample evidence of their complementary distribution, some instances exist of co-localization in the same brain areas or at the same synapses. In the thalamus, the two transcripts coexist in cells of the VP and other nuclei but not in the posterior or intralaminar nuclei. We show that the two isoforms are completely segregated at VP synapses, despite their widespread expression throughout the dorsal and ventral thalamus. We present immunocytochemical, ultrastructural, gene expression, and connectional evidence that VGluT1 in the VP is only found at corticothalamic synapses, whereas VGluT2 is only found at terminals made by axons originating in the spinal cord and brainstem. By contrast, the two VGluT isoforms are co-localized in thalamocortical axon terminals targeting layer IV, but not in those targeting layer I, suggesting the presence of two distinct projection systems related to the core/matrix pattern of organization of thalamocortical connectivity described in other mammals.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029430(United States)

Glial influence on nerve fiber formation from rat ventral mesencephalic organotypic tissue cultures.

  • Berglöf E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rat fetal ventral mesencephalic organotypic cultures have demonstrated two morphologically different dopamine nerve fiber growth patterns, in which the initial nerve fibers are formed in the absence of astrocytes and the second wave is guided by astrocytes. In this study, the presence of subpopulations of dopamine neurons, other neuronal populations, and glial cells was determined. We used "roller-drum" organotypic cultures, and the results revealed that beta-tubulin-positive/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-negative nerve fibers were present as early as 1 day in vitro (DIV). A similar growth pattern produced by TH-positive neurons was present from 2 DIV. These neurites grew to reach distances over 4 mm and over time appeared to be degenerating. Thin, vimentin-positive processes were found among these nerve fibers. As the first growth was retracted, a second outgrowth was initiated and formed on migrating astrocytes. TH- and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1)-positive nerve fibers formed both the nonglia-associated and the glia-associated outgrowth. In cultures with membrane inserts, only the glia-associated outgrowth was found. Vimentin-positive cells preceded migration of NG2-positive oligodendrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglia. Oligodendrocytes appeared not to be involved in guiding neuritic growth, but microglia was absent over areas dense with TH-positive neurons. In conclusion, in "roller-drum" cultures, nerve fibers are generally formed in two sequences. The early-formed nerve fibers grow in the presence of thin, vimentin-positive processes. The second nerve fiber outgrowth is formed on astroglia, with no correlation to the presence of oligodendrocytes or microglia. ALDH1-positive nerve fibers, presumably derived from A9 dopamine neurons, participate in formation of both sequences of outgrowth.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA031833(United States)

Fate of endogenous stem/progenitor cells following spinal cord injury.

  • Horky LL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adult mammalian spinal cord contains neural stem and/or progenitor cells that slowly multiply throughout life and differentiate exclusively into glia. The contribution of adult progenitors to repair has been highlighted in recent studies, demonstrating extensive cell proliferation and gliogenesis following central nervous system (CNS) trauma. The present experiments aimed to determine the relative roles of endogenously dividing progenitor cells versus quiescent progenitor cells in posttraumatic gliogenesis. Using the mitotic indicator bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and a retroviral vector, we found that, in the adult female Fisher 344 rat, endogenously dividing neural progenitors are acutely vulnerable in response to T8 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury. We then studied the population of cells that divide postinjury in the injury epicenter by delivering BrdU or retrovirus at 24 hours after spinal cord injury. Animals were euthanized at five timepoints postinjury, ranging from 6 hours to 9 weeks after BrdU delivery. At all timepoints, we observed extensive proliferation of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells. BrdU+ incorporation was noted to be prominent in NG2-immunoreactive progenitors that matured into oligodendrocytes, and in a transient population of microglia. Using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) hematopoietic chimeric mouse, we determined that 90% of the dividing cells in this early proliferation event originate from the spinal cord, whereas only 10% originate from the bone marrow. Our results suggest that dividing, NG2-expressing progenitor cells are vulnerable to injury, but a separate, immature population of neural stem and/or progenitor cells is activated by injury and rapidly divides to replace this vulnerable population.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004719-03(United States)

Postnatal cellular contributions of the hippocampus subventricular zone to the dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, fimbria, and cerebral cortex.

  • Navarro-Quiroga I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The rodent dentate gyrus (DG) is formed in the embryo when progenitor cells migrate from the dentate neuroepithelium to establish a germinal zone in the hilus and a secondary germinal matrix, near the fimbria, called the hippocampal subventricular zone (HSVZ). The developmental plasticity of progenitors within the HSVZ is not well understood. To delineate the migratory routes and fates of progenitors within this zone, we injected a replication-incompetent retrovirus, encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), into the HSVZ of postnatal day 5 (P5) mice. Between P6 and P45, retrovirally-infected EGFP(+) of progenitors migrated into the DG, established a reservoir of progenitor cells, and differentiated into neurons and glia. By P6-7, EGFP(+) cells were observed migrating into the DG. Subsets of these EGFP(+) cells expressed Sox2 and Musashi-1, characteristic of neural stem cells. By P10, EGFP(+) cells assumed positions within the DG and expressed immature neuronal markers. By P20, many EGFP(+) cells expressed the homeobox prospero-like protein Prox1, an early and specific granule cell marker in the CNS, and extended mossy fiber projections into the CA3. A subset of non-neuronal EGFP(+) cells in the dentate gyrus acquired the morphology of astrocytes. Another subset included EGFP(+)/RIP(+) oligodendrocytes that migrated into the fimbria, corpus callosum, and cerebral cortex. Retroviral injections on P15 labeled very few cells, suggesting depletion of HSVZ progenitors by this age. These findings suggest that the early postnatal HSVZ progenitors are multipotent and migratory, and contribute to both dentate gyrus neurogenesis as well as forebrain gliogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK065806(United States)

Localization of the mouse alpha1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) in the brain: alpha1AAR is expressed in neurons, GABAergic interneurons, and NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitors.

  • Papay R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are not well defined in the central nervous system. The particular cell types and areas that express these receptors are uncertain because of the lack of high avidity antibodies and selective ligands. We have developed transgenic mice that either systemically overexpress the human alpha(1A)-AR subtype fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or express the EGFP protein alone under the control of the mouse alpha(1A)-AR promoter. We confirm our transgenic model against the alpha(1A)-AR knockout mouse, which expresses the LacZ gene in place of the coding region for the alpha(1A)-AR. By using these models, we have now determined cellular localization of the alpha(1A)-AR in the brain, at the protein level. The alpha(1A)-AR or the EGFP protein is expressed prominently in neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pontine olivary nuclei, trigeminal nuclei, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The types of neurons were diverse, and the alpha(1A)-AR colocalized with markers for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Recordings from alpha(1A)-AR EGFP-expressing cells in the stratum oriens of the hippocampal CA1 region confirmed that these cells were interneurons. We could not detect expression of the alpha(1A)-AR in mature astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or cerebral blood vessels, but we could detect the alpha(1A)-AR in oligodendrocyte progenitors. We conclude that the alpha(1A)-AR is abundant in the brain, expressed in various types of neurons, and may regulate the function of oligodendrocyte progenitors, interneurons, GABA, and NMDA receptor containing neurons.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003224(United States)