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Anti-VGLUT 2 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

VGLUT 2 rat, mouse


Synaptic Systems Go To Vendor

Cat Num

135 404

Proper Citation

(Synaptic Systems Cat# 135 404, RRID:AB_887884)


polyclonal antibody

Host Organism

guinea pig

Atypical Endocannabinoid Signaling Initiates a New Form of Memory-Related Plasticity at a Cortical Input to Hippocampus.

  • Wang W
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2018 Jul 1

Literature context: 1:8000 Synaptic Systems #135404 AB_887884 SYN 1:1000 EMD Millipore MAB525


Endocannabinoids (ECBs) depress transmitter release at sites throughout the brain. Here, we describe another form of ECB signaling that triggers a novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) localized to the lateral perforant path (LPP) which conveys semantic information from cortex to hippocampus. Two cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling cascades were identified in hippocampus. The first is pregnenolone sensitive, targets vesicular protein Munc18-1 and depresses transmitter release; this cascade is engaged by CB1Rs in Schaffer-Commissural afferents to CA1 but not in the LPP, and it does not contribute to LTP. The second cascade is pregnenolone insensitive and LPP specific; it entails co-operative CB1R/β1-integrin signaling to effect synaptic potentiation via stable enhancement of transmitter release. The latter cascade is engaged during LPP-dependent learning. These results link atypical ECB signaling to the encoding of a fundamental component of episodic memory and suggest a novel route whereby endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids affect cognition.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA016602(United States)

Immunolocalization of muscarinic M1 receptor in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

  • Oda S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context: Cat# 135 404, RRID:AB_887884


The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions. Actually, M1R is abundant in mPFC. However, the proportion of somata containing M1R among cortical cellular types, and the precise intracellular localization of M1R remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the precise immunolocalization of M1R in rat mPFC, we examined three major cellular types, pyramidal neurons, inhibitory neurons, and astrocytes. M1R immunopositivity signals were found in the majority of the somata of both pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons. In pyramidal neurons, strong M1R immunopositivity signals were usually found throughout their somata and dendrites including spines. On the other hand, the signal strength of M1R immunopositivity in the somata of inhibitory neurons significantly varied. Some neurons showed strong signals. Whereas about 40% of GAD67-immunopositive neurons and 30% of parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons (PV neurons) showed only weak signals. In PV neurons, M1R immunopositivity signals were preferentially distributed in somata. Furthermore, we found that many astrocytes showed substantial M1R immunopositivity signals. These signals were also mainly distributed in their somata. Thus, the distribution pattern of M1R markedly differs between cellular types. This difference might underlie the cholinergic modulation of higher cognitive functions subserved by mPFC.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30DK056336(United States)

Shared rhythmic subcortical GABAergic input to the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.

  • Viney TJ
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context: 006 J. Neurochem. 99, 1011-1018 RRID:AB_887884 Wfs1 Rb 1:500 Proteintech, 1155


Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum. Extracellularly recording and labeling GABAergic entorhinal-projecting neurons in awake behaving mice show that these subcortical neurons, named orchid cells, fire in long rhythmic bursts during immobility and locomotion. Orchid cells discharge near the peak of hippocampal and entorhinal theta oscillations, couple to entorhinal gamma oscillations, and target subpopulations of extra-hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Thus, orchid cells are a specialized source of rhythmic subcortical GABAergic modulation of 'upstream' and 'downstream' cortico-cortical circuits involved in mnemonic functions.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12024/4()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL083473(United States)
  • Wellcome - 108726/Z/15/Z()

Behavior-Dependent Activity and Synaptic Organization of Septo-hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Selectively Targeting the Hippocampal CA3 Area.

  • Joshi A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context: aptic Systems Cat. No. 135 404; RRID:AB_887884 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb


Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability. Teevra cells synaptically target GABAergic axo-axonic and some CCK interneurons in restricted septo-temporal CA3 segments. The rhythmicity of their firing decreases from septal to temporal termination of individual axons. We hypothesize that Teevra neurons coordinate oscillatory activity across the septo-temporal axis, phasing the firing of specific CA3 interneurons, thereby contributing to the selection of pyramidal cell assemblies at the theta trough via disinhibition. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005237/1(United Kingdom)
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12024/4()
  • Wellcome Trust - MC_UU_12024/3()

Role of primary afferents in the developmental regulation of motor axon synapse numbers on Renshaw cells.

  • Siembab VC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jun 15

Literature context: .135 404; RRID:AB_887884). In Weste


Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development. In other well-studied neurons, such as Purkinje cells, heterosynaptic competition between inputs from different sources shapes synaptic organization. To examine the possibility that sensory afferents modulate synaptic maturation on developing Renshaw cells, we used three animal models in which afferent inputs in the ventral horn are dramatically reduced (ER81(-/-) knockout), weakened (Egr3(-/-) knockout), or strengthened (mlcNT3(+/-) transgenic). We demonstrate that increasing the strength of sensory inputs on Renshaw cells prevents their deselection and reduces motor axon synaptic density, and, in contrast, absent or diminished sensory afferent inputs correlate with increased densities of motor axons synapses. No effects were observed on other glutamatergic inputs. We conclude that the early strength of Ia synapses influences their maintenance or weakening during later development and that heterosynaptic influences from sensory synapses during early development regulates the density and organization of motor inputs on mature Renshaw cells.

Funding information:
  • Intramural FDA HHS - FD999999(United States)

Selective Localization of Shanks to VGLUT1-Positive Excitatory Synapses in the Mouse Hippocampus.

  • Heise C
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2016 May 20

Literature context: # 135 404 RRID:AB_887884), and VGLU


Members of the Shank family of multidomain proteins (Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3) are core components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. At synaptic sites Shanks serve as scaffolding molecules that cluster neurotransmitter receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules attaching them to the actin cytoskeleton. In this study we investigated the synapse specific localization of Shank1-3 and focused on well-defined synaptic contacts within the hippocampal formation. We found that all three family members are present only at VGLUT1-positive synapses, which is particularly visible at mossy fiber contacts. No costaining was found at VGLUT2-positive contacts indicating that the molecular organization of VGLUT2-associated PSDs diverges from classical VGLUT1-positive excitatory contacts in the hippocampus. In light of SHANK mutations in neuropsychiatric disorders, this study indicates which glutamatergic networks within the hippocampus will be primarily affected by shankopathies.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Conserved expression of the GPR151 receptor in habenular axonal projections of vertebrates.

  • Broms J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Feb 15

Literature context: s, 135404, guinea pig polyclonalAB_8878841:1,000Choline acetyltransferase


The habenula is a phylogenetically conserved brain structure in the epithalamus. It is a major node in the information flow between fronto-limbic brain regions and monoaminergic brainstem nuclei, and is thus anatomically and functionally ideally positioned to regulate emotional, motivational, and cognitive behaviors. Consequently, the habenula may be critically important in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. Here we investigated the expression pattern of GPR151, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), whose mRNA has been identified as highly and specifically enriched in habenular neurons by in situ hybridization and translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). In the present immunohistochemical study we demonstrate a pronounced and highly specific expression of the GPR151 protein in the medial and lateral habenula of rodent brain. Specific expression was also seen in efferent habenular fibers projecting to the interpeduncular nucleus, the rostromedial tegmental area, the rhabdoid nucleus, the mesencephalic raphe nuclei, and the dorsal tegmental nucleus. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative colocalization analysis, we found that GPR151-expressing axons and terminals overlap with cholinergic, substance P-ergic, and glutamatergic markers. Virtually identical expression patterns were observed in rat, mouse, and zebrafish brains. Our data demonstrate that GPR151 is highly conserved, specific for a subdivision of the habenular neurocircuitry, and constitutes a promising novel target for psychiatric drug development.

Vesicular glutamate transporter expression level affects synaptic vesicle release probability at hippocampal synapses in culture.

  • Herman MA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Aug 27

Literature context: #135 404 (RRID:AB_887884), Synaptic


The vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) plays an essential role in synaptic transmission by filling vesicles with glutamate. At mammalian synapses, VGLUT expression level determines the amount of glutamate packaged into vesicles, and the specific paralog of VGLUT expressed affects the release probability. In this study, we investigate whether there is a link between the number of VGLUTs on vesicles and release probability. We used a combination of electrophysiology and imaging techniques in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons where the VGLUT expression level has been severely altered. We found that vesicles with drastically reduced VGLUT expression were released with a lower probability. This deficit in release could only be rescued by a functional transporter, suggesting that the transport function, and not the molecular interactions, of the protein affects vesicle release. Based on these data, we propose a novel means of presynaptic vesicle release regulation--the intravesicular glutamate fill state of the vesicle.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG002668(United States)

Inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters are utilized by the projection from the dorsal deep mesencephalic nucleus to the sublaterodorsal nucleus REM sleep induction zone.

  • Liang CL
  • Brain Res.
  • 2014 Jun 3

Literature context: ATG.P.SYSY1310041:1000VGLUT2G.P.SYSY1354041:3000GlyT2G.P.ChemiconAB17731:1


The sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD) in the pons of the rat is a locus supporting short-latency induction of a REM sleep-like state following local application of a GABAA receptor antagonist or kainate, glutamate receptor agonist. One putatively relevant source of these neurotransmitters is from the region of the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DpMe) just ventrolateral to the periaquiductal gray, termed the dorsal DpMe (dDpMe). Here, the amino acid neurotransmitter innervation of SLD from dDpMe was studied utilizing anterograde tract-tracing with biotinylated dextranamine (BDA) and fluorescence immunohistochemistry visualized with laser scanning confocal microscopy. Both markers for inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters were found in varicose axon fibers in SLD originating from dDpMe. Vesicular glutamate transporter2 (VGLUT2) represented the largest number of anterogradely labeled varicosities followed by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). Numerous VGAT and VGLUT2 labeled varicosities were observed apposed to dDpMe-labeled axon fibers indicating both excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic, local modulation within the SLD. Some double-labeled BDA/VGAT varicosities were seen apposed to small somata labeled for glutamate consistent with being presynaptic to the phenotype of REM sleep-active SLD neurons. Results found support the current theoretical framework of the interaction of dDpMe and SLD in control of REM sleep, while also indicating operation of mechanisms with a greater level of complexity.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 100140(United Kingdom)