In the presynaptic terminal, the magnitude and location of Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) regulate the efficacy of neurotransmitter release. However, how presynaptic active zone proteins control mammalian VGCC levels and organization is unclear. To address this, we deleted the CAST/ELKS protein family at the calyx of Held, a CaV2.1 channel-exclusive presynaptic terminal. We found that loss of CAST/ELKS reduces the CaV2.1 current density with concomitant reductions in CaV2.1 channel numbers and clusters. Surprisingly, deletion of CAST/ELKS increases release probability while decreasing the readily releasable pool, with no change in active zone ultrastructure. In addition, Ca2+ channel coupling is unchanged, but spontaneous release rates are elevated. Thus, our data identify distinct roles for CAST/ELKS as positive regulators of CaV2.1 channel density and suggest that they regulate release probability through a post-priming step that controls synaptic vesicle fusogenicity.
Literature context: Synaptic Systems Cat# 135 304, RRID:AB_887878 Anti-NeuN, clone A60 antibody M
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial innate immune receptor associated with a lethal form of early, progressive dementia, Nasu-Hakola disease, and with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial defects in phagocytosis of toxic aggregates or apoptotic membranes were proposed to be at the origin of the pathological processes in the presence of Trem2 inactivating mutations. Here, we show that TREM2 is essential for microglia-mediated synaptic refinement during the early stages of brain development. The absence of Trem2 resulted in impaired synapse elimination, accompanied by enhanced excitatory neurotransmission and reduced long-range functional connectivity. Trem2-/- mice displayed repetitive behavior and altered sociability. TREM2 protein levels were also negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms in humans affected by autism. These data unveil the role of TREM2 in neuronal circuit sculpting and provide the evidence for the receptor's involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases.
Literature context: RRID:AB_887878 rabbit anti-SNAP25 Synaptic Sys
Dopamine controls essential brain functions through volume transmission. Different from fast synaptic transmission, where neurotransmitter release and receptor activation are tightly coupled by an active zone, dopamine transmission is widespread and may not necessitate these organized release sites. Here, we determine whether striatal dopamine secretion employs specialized machinery for release. Using super resolution microscopy, we identified co-clustering of the active zone scaffolding proteins bassoon, RIM and ELKS in ∼30% of dopamine varicosities. Conditional RIM knockout disrupted this scaffold and, unexpectedly, abolished dopamine release, while ELKS knockout had no effect. Optogenetic experiments revealed that dopamine release was fast and had a high release probability, indicating the presence of protein scaffolds for coupling Ca2+ influx to vesicle fusion. Hence, dopamine secretion is mediated by sparse, mechanistically specialized active zone-like release sites. This architecture supports spatially and temporally precise coding for dopamine and provides molecular machinery for regulation.
Literature context: Goettingen, Germany, Cat#135304 RRID:AB_887878), anti-vGAT (1:1000; Synaptic S
Despite the characteristic etiologies and phenotypes, different brain disorders rely on common pathogenic events. Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is a pathogenic event shared by different brain disorders. Another event occurring in different brain pathological conditions is the increase of the extracellular ATP levels, which is now recognized as a danger and harmful signal in the brain, as heralded by the ability of P2 receptors (P2Rs) to affect a wide range of brain disorders. Yet, how ATP and P2R contribute to neurodegeneration remains poorly defined. For that purpose, we now examined the contribution of extracellular ATP and P2Rs to glutamate-induced neurodegeneration. We found both in vitro and in vivo that ATP/ADP through the activation of P2Y1R contributes to glutamate-induced neuronal death in the rat hippocampus. We found in cultured rat hippocampal neurons that the exposure to glutamate (100 µM) for 30 min triggers a sustained increase of extracellular ATP levels, which contributes to NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated hippocampal neuronal death through the activation of P2Y1R. We also determined that P2Y1R is involved in excitotoxicity in vivo as the blockade of P2Y1R significantly attenuated rat hippocampal neuronal death upon the systemic administration of kainic acid or upon the intrahippocampal injection of quinolinic acid. This contribution of P2Y1R fades with increasing intensity of excitotoxic conditions, which indicates that P2Y1R is not contributing directly to neurodegeneration, rather behaving as a catalyst decreasing the threshold from which glutamate becomes neurotoxic. Moreover, we unraveled that such excitotoxicity process began with an early synaptotoxicity that was also prevented/attenuated by the antagonism of P2Y1R, both in vitro and in vivo. This should rely on the observed glutamate-induced calpain-mediated axonal cytoskeleton damage, most likely favored by a P2Y1R-driven increase of NMDAR-mediated Ca2+ entry selectively in axons. This may constitute a degenerative mechanism shared by different brain diseases, particularly relevant at initial pathogenic stages.
Literature context: ; RRID:AB_887878 SOX2 Santa Cruz sc-17320; RRID:
Clinical and genetic heterogeneity associated with retinal diseases makes stem-cell-based therapies an attractive strategy for personalized medicine. However, we have limited understanding of the timing of key events in the developing human retina, and in particular the factors critical for generating the unique architecture of the fovea and surrounding macula. Here we define three key epochs in the transcriptome dynamics of human retina from fetal day (D) 52 to 136. Coincident histological analyses confirmed the cellular basis of transcriptional changes and highlighted the dramatic acceleration of development in the fovea compared with peripheral retina. Human and mouse retinal transcriptomes show remarkable similarity in developmental stages, although morphogenesis was greatly expanded in humans. Integration of DNA accessibility data allowed us to reconstruct transcriptional networks controlling photoreceptor differentiation. Our studies provide insights into human retinal development and serve as a resource for molecular staging of human stem-cell-derived retinal organoids.
Literature context: Synaptic Systems Cat# 135 304; RRID:AB_887878 Mouse anti-Synapsin 1 Synaptic
Because molecular mechanisms underlying refractory focal epilepsy are poorly defined, we performed transcriptome analysis on human epileptogenic tissue. Compared with controls, expression of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) is decreased in epileptogenic tissue. To define the function of CLOCK, we generated and tested the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox and PV-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse lines with targeted deletions of the Clock gene in excitatory and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons, respectively. The Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse line alone has decreased seizure thresholds, but no laminar or dendritic defects in the cortex. However, excitatory neurons from the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse have spontaneous epileptiform discharges. Both neurons from Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse and human epileptogenic tissue exhibit decreased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Finally, video-EEG of Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mice reveals epileptiform discharges during sleep and also seizures arising from sleep. Altogether, these data show that disruption of CLOCK alters cortical circuits and may lead to generation of focal epilepsy.
Literature context: anti-vGluT1Synaptic SystemsCat#135304; Lot#
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to abnormally correlated and coherent activity in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, in parkinsonian mice we found that cortico-STN transmission strength had diminished by 50%-75% through loss of axo-dendritic and axo-spinous synapses, was incapable of long-term potentiation, and less effectively patterned STN activity. Optogenetic, chemogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological interrogation suggested that downregulation of cortico-STN transmission in PD mice was triggered by increased striato-pallidal transmission, leading to disinhibition of the STN and increased activation of STN NMDA receptors. Knockdown of STN NMDA receptors, which also suppresses proliferation of GABAergic pallido-STN inputs in PD mice, reduced loss of cortico-STN transmission and patterning and improved motor function. Together, the data suggest that loss of dopamine triggers a maladaptive shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in the STN, which contributes to parkinsonian activity and motor dysfunction.
Literature context: Systems Cat#135304; RRID:AB_887878 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke. In these mice, a compound able to increase axon conduction, 4-aminopyridine-3-methanol, promotes further improvement in CST-dependent behavioral tasks. Thus, our results demonstrate a potentially translatable strategy for restoring cortical dependent function after injury in the adult.
Literature context: ems, 135 304, guinea pig, RRID:AB_887878). Antibody specificity was deter
INTRODUCTION: With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS: Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer. To test slice integrity, we compared glycogen levels and immunohistochemistry of selected proteins in rat hippocampal slices immediately after dissection and following 2 and 4 hr of incubation. RESULTS: We found that immunoreactivity of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) drastically decreased during this incubation period, whereas immunoreactivity of the glutamate transporter VGlut1 did not significantly change with incubation time. Astrocytic and microglial cell numbers also did not significantly change with incubation time whereas glycogen levels markedly increased during incubation. CONCLUSION: Immunoreactivity of the dendritic marker Map2 quickly decreased after dissection with all the slicing methods. This work highlights a need for caution when using long incubation periods following slice preparation.
Literature context: #135 304, RRID:AB_887878) and secon
Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input. However, in absence of direct experimental evidence, the compensatory nature of the cholinergic sprouting and its putative mechanisms remain elusive. Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE4 allele, the main genetic risk factor for sporadic MCI/AD, display impaired cholinergic sprouting after EC lesion. Using these mice as a tool to manipulate cholinergic sprouting in a disease-relevant way, we showed that this sprouting was necessary and sufficient for the acute compensation of EC lesion-induced spatial memory deficit before a slower glutamatergic reinnervation took place. We also found that partial EC lesion generates abnormal hyperactivity in EC/dentate networks. Dentate hyperactivity was abolished by optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic fibers. Therefore, control of dentate hyperactivity by cholinergic sprouting may be involved in functional compensation after entorhinal lesion. Our results also suggest that dentate hyperactivity in MCI patients may be directly related to EC neuronal loss. Impaired sprouting during the MCI stage may contribute to the faster cognitive decline reported in APOE4 carriers. Beyond the amyloid contribution, the potential role of both cholinergic sprouting and dentate hyperactivity in AD symptomatogenesis should be considered in designing new therapeutic approaches. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Currently, curative treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed. The endogenous ability of the brain to cope with neuronal loss probably represents one of the most promising therapeutic targets, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that the mammalian brain is able to manage several deleterious consequences of the loss of entorhinal neurons on hippocampal activity and cognitive performance through a fast cholinergic sprouting followed by a slower glutamatergic reinnervation. The cholinergic sprouting is gender dependent and highly sensitive to the genetic risk factor APOE4 Our findings highlight the specific impact of early loss of entorhinal input on hippocampal hyperactivity and cognitive deficits characterizing early stages of AD, especially in APOE4 carriers.
Literature context: #135 304, RRID:AB_887878), vesicula
Myelination occurs selectively around neuronal axons to increase the efficiency and velocity of action potentials. While oligodendrocytes are capable of myelinating permissive structures in the absence of molecular cues, structurally permissive neuronal somata and dendrites remain unmyelinated. Utilizing a purified spinal cord neuron-oligodendrocyte myelinating co-culture system, we demonstrate that disruption of dynamic neuron-oligodendrocyte signaling by chemical cross-linking results in aberrant myelination of the somatodendritic compartment of neurons. We hypothesize that an inhibitory somatodendritic cue is necessary to prevent non-axonal myelination. Using next-generation sequencing and candidate profiling, we identify neuronal junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitory myelin-guidance molecule. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the somatodendritic compartment directly inhibits myelination and suggest a model in which broadly indiscriminate myelination is tailored by inhibitory signaling to meet local myelination requirements.
Literature context: # 135 304 RRID:AB_887878), VGLUT2 (
Members of the Shank family of multidomain proteins (Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3) are core components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. At synaptic sites Shanks serve as scaffolding molecules that cluster neurotransmitter receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules attaching them to the actin cytoskeleton. In this study we investigated the synapse specific localization of Shank1-3 and focused on well-defined synaptic contacts within the hippocampal formation. We found that all three family members are present only at VGLUT1-positive synapses, which is particularly visible at mossy fiber contacts. No costaining was found at VGLUT2-positive contacts indicating that the molecular organization of VGLUT2-associated PSDs diverges from classical VGLUT1-positive excitatory contacts in the hippocampus. In light of SHANK mutations in neuropsychiatric disorders, this study indicates which glutamatergic networks within the hippocampus will be primarily affected by shankopathies.
Literature context: 135 304, RRID:AB_887878), and poly
There is compelling evidence that glutamate can act as a cotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Interestingly, the third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) is primarily found in neurons that were anticipated to be nonglutamatergic. Whereas the function of VGLUT3 in acetylcholinergic and serotoninergic neurons has been elucidated, the role of VGLUT3 in neurons releasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is not settled. We have previously shown that VGLUT3 is found together with the vesicular GABA transporter (VIAAT) on synaptic vesicle membranes in the hippocampus. Now we provide novel electron microscopic data from the rat hippocampus suggesting that glutamate is enriched in inhibitory nerve terminals containing VGLUT3 compared to those lacking VGLUT3. The opposite was found for GABA; VGLUT3-positive inhibitory terminals contained lower density of GABA labeling compared to VGLUT3-negative inhibitory terminals. In addition, semiquantitative confocal immunofluorescence showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor labeling was present more frequently in VGLUT3-positive/VIAAT-positive synapses versus in VGLUT3-negative/VIAAT-positive synapses. Electron microscopic immunogold data further suggest that NMDA receptors are enriched in VGLUT3 containing inhibitory terminals. Our data reveal new chemical characteristics of a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus. The analyses suggest that glutamate is coreleased with GABA from hippocampal basket cell-synapses to act on NMDA receptors.
Literature context: s, 135304, guinea pig polyclonalAB_8878781:1,000Vesicular glutamate trans
The habenula is a phylogenetically conserved brain structure in the epithalamus. It is a major node in the information flow between fronto-limbic brain regions and monoaminergic brainstem nuclei, and is thus anatomically and functionally ideally positioned to regulate emotional, motivational, and cognitive behaviors. Consequently, the habenula may be critically important in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. Here we investigated the expression pattern of GPR151, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), whose mRNA has been identified as highly and specifically enriched in habenular neurons by in situ hybridization and translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). In the present immunohistochemical study we demonstrate a pronounced and highly specific expression of the GPR151 protein in the medial and lateral habenula of rodent brain. Specific expression was also seen in efferent habenular fibers projecting to the interpeduncular nucleus, the rostromedial tegmental area, the rhabdoid nucleus, the mesencephalic raphe nuclei, and the dorsal tegmental nucleus. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative colocalization analysis, we found that GPR151-expressing axons and terminals overlap with cholinergic, substance P-ergic, and glutamatergic markers. Virtually identical expression patterns were observed in rat, mouse, and zebrafish brains. Our data demonstrate that GPR151 is highly conserved, specific for a subdivision of the habenular neurocircuitry, and constitutes a promising novel target for psychiatric drug development.
Literature context: # 135 304 RRID:AB_887878 1:500 (FI
Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional RNA-/DNA-binding protein, which is involved in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A common hallmark of these disorders is the abnormal accumulation of mutated FUS protein in the cytoplasm. Under normal conditions FUS is confined to the nuclear compartment, in neurons, however, additional somatodendritic localization can be observed. In this study, we carefully analyzed the subcellular localization of endogenous FUS at synaptic sites of hippocampal neurons which are among the most affected cell types in FTD with FUS pathology. We could confirm a strong nuclear localization of FUS as well as its prominent and widespread neuronal expression throughout the adult and developing rat brain, particularly in the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the outer layers of the cortex. Intriguingly, FUS was also consistently observed at synaptic sites as detected by neuronal subcellular fractionation as well as by immunolabeling. To define a pre- and/or postsynaptic localization of FUS, we employed super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy. FUS was found to be localized within the axon terminal in close proximity to the presynaptic vesicle protein Synaptophysin1 and adjacent to the active zone protein Bassoon, but well separated from the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Having shown the presynaptic localization of FUS in the nervous system, a novel extranuclear role of FUS at neuronal contact sites has to be considered. Since there is growing evidence that local presynaptic translation might also be an important mechanism for plasticity, FUS - like the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP - might act as one of the presynaptic RNA-binding proteins regulating this machinery. Our observation of presynaptic FUS should foster further investigations to determine its role in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and FTD.
Literature context: # 135304, RRID:AB_887878) as primar
Spasticity obstructs motor function recovery post-stroke, and has been reported to occur in spinal cord injury and electrophysiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess spinal cord circuit spasticity in post-stroke mice. At 3, 7, 21, and 42 d after photothrombotic ischemic cortical injury in C57BL/6J mice, we observed decreased rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) in the affected forelimb of mice compared with the limbs of sham mice and the non-affected forelimb. This finding suggests a hyper-excitable stretch reflex in the affected forelimb. We then performed immunohistochemical and western blot analyses to examine the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and phosphorylation of the KCC2 serine residue, 940 (S940), since this is the main chloride extruder that affects neuronal excitability. We also performed immunohistochemical analyses on the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1)-positive boutons to count the number of Ia afferent fibers that connect to motoneurons. Western bolts revealed that, compared with sham mice, experimental mice had significantly reduced KCC2 expression at 7 d post-stroke, and dephosphorylated S940 at 3 and 7 d post-stroke in motoneuron plasma membranes. We also observed a lower density of KCC2-positive areas in the plasma membrane of motoneurons at 3 and 7 d post-stroke. However, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there were no differences between groups 21 and 42 d post-stroke, respectively. In addition, at 7 and 42 d post-stroke, experimental mice exhibited a significant increase in vGluT1 boutons compared with sham mice. Our findings suggest that both the down-regulation of KCC2 and increases in Ia afferent fibers are involved in post-stroke spasticity.
Literature context: lyclonal; RRID:AB_887878 1:5000
Synaptic excitation by sacrocaudal afferent (SCA) input of sacral relay neurons projecting rostrally through the ventral white matter funiculi (VF neurons) is a potent activator of the hindlimb central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodent spinal cords lacking descending supraspinal control. Using electrophysiological recordings from the sacral and lumbar spinal segments, we show that the motor output of the lumbar segments produced by SCA stimulation is enhanced by exposing the sacral segments of the neonatal rat spinal cord to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor edrophonium (EDR). Histochemical and immunostaining of the sacral cord reveals expression of acetylcholinesterase activity, ability to synthesize acetylcholine, and/or innervation by cholinergic synaptic inputs in significant proportions of fluorescently back-labeled sacral VF neurons. Moreover, the majority of the VF neurons express M2 muscarinic receptors, raising the possibility that the elevated acetylcholine levels resulting from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase act on such receptors. Indeed, sacral application of atropine or the M2 -type receptor antagonist methoctramine was found to reverse the effects of EDR. We suggest that variations in the sacral level of acetylcholine modulate the SCA-induced locomotor rhythm via muscarinic receptor-dependent mechanisms and that the modified activity of sacral VF neurons in the presence of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be partially ascribed to the cholinergic components associated with them. Thus, pharmacological manipulations of the sacral cholinergic system may be used to modulate the locomotor-related motor output in the absence of descending supraspinal control.
Literature context: #135304, RRID:AB_887878), mouse an
In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking and priming of synaptic vesicles. Vertebrate ELKS proteins are enriched at presynaptic active zones, but their functions are not well understood. ELKS proteins are produced by two genes in vertebrates, and each gene contributes ∼50% to total brain ELKS. We generated knock-out mice for ELKS1 and found that its constitutive removal causes lethality. To bypass lethality, and to circumvent redundancy between ELKS1 and ELKS2 in synaptic transmission, we used a conditional genetic approach to remove both genes in cultured hippocampal neurons after synapses are established. Simultaneous removal of ELKS1 and ELKS2 resulted in a 50% decrease of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses, paralleled by a reduction in release probability. Removal of ELKS did not affect synapse numbers or their electron microscopic appearance. Using Ca(2+) imaging, we found that loss of ELKS caused a 30% reduction in single action potential-triggered Ca(2+) influx in inhibitory nerve terminals, consistent with the deficits in synaptic transmission and release probability. Unlike deletion of the active zone proteins RIM, RIM-BP, or bruchpilot, ELKS removal did not lead to a measurable reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) channel levels. Our results reveal that ELKS is required for normal Ca(2+) influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.
Cortical and subcortical inputs to the striatum are functionally highly organized and they obey to some extent striatal patch-matrix topography. Whether this organization is reflected in the density of various glutamatergic endings is unknown. We therefore mapped boutons expressing the vesicular glutamate transporters VGluT1 and VGluT2, together with boutons immunoreactive for vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) in patch and matrix throughout the striatum. We used triple-immunofluorescence staining followed by multichannel, high-magnification confocal laser scanning and 3D object recognition. Densities of VGluT1 and VGluT2 boutons were on average higher in matrix than in patches in all striatal sectors. The dorsal one-third of the striatum contained the highest densities of VGluT1 boutons. Subsequent 3D surface plotting revealed patterns of density "valleys" in the dorsomedial striatum coinciding with patch locations in the patch-matrix mapping. The density of VGluT1 boutons increased along three axes: ventrolateral-to-dorsomedial, ventral-to-dorsal, and lateral-to-medial. In contrast, VGluT2 showed a global increase in density from lateral to medial and a relatively high density in the ventral striatum. VGAT appeared more evenly distributed in the striatal patch-matrix than the VGluTs, with a tendency of bouton density to increase from medial to lateral. We noted a good correlation between the high VGluT1 bouton density dorsomedially with inputs from dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and related thalamic regions, and the enhanced VGluT2 input ventromedially with input from ventral medial prefrontal cortex and thalamic, amygdaloid, and hippocampal sources.
The diversity of premotor interneurons in the mammalian spinal cord is generated from a few phylogenetically conserved embryonic classes of interneurons (V0, V1, V2, V3). Their mechanisms of diversification remain unresolved, although these are clearly important to understand motor circuit assembly in the spinal cord. Some Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs) and all Renshaw cells (RCs) derive from embryonic V1 interneurons; however, in adult they display distinct functional properties and synaptic inputs, for example proprioceptive inputs preferentially target IaINs, while motor axons target RCs. Previously, we found that both inputs converge on RCs in neonates, raising the possibility that proprioceptive (VGLUT1-positive) and motor axon synapses (VAChT-positive) initially target several different V1 interneurons populations and then become selected or deselected postnatally. Alternatively, specific inputs might precisely connect only with predefined groups of V1 interneurons. To test these hypotheses we analyzed synaptic development on V1-derived IaINs and compared them to RCs of the same age and spinal cord levels. V1-interneurons were labeled using genetically encoded lineage markers in mice. The results show that although neonatal V1-derived IaINs and RCs are competent to receive proprioceptive synapses, these synapses preferentially target the proximal somato-dendritic regions of IaINs and postnatally proliferate on IaINs, but not on RCs. In contrast, cholinergic synapses on RCs are specifically derived from motor axons, while on IaINs they originate from Pitx2 V0c interneurons. Thus, motor, proprioceptive, and even some interneuron inputs are biased toward specific subtypes of V1-interneurons. Postnatal strengthening of these inputs is later superimposed on this initial preferential targeting.