Literature context: 003; 1:200, RRID:AB_887730), Lamp-2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnol
KEY POINTS: Despite their immense physiological and pathophysiological importance, we know very little about the biology of dense core vesicle (DCV) trafficking in the intact mammalian brain. DCVs are transported at similar average speeds in the anaesthetized and awake mouse brain compared to neurons in culture, yet maximal speed and pausing fraction of transport were higher. Microtubule plus (+)-end extension imaging visualized microtubular growth at 0.12 μm/s and revealed that DCVs were transported faster in the anterograde direction. DCV transport slowed down upon presynaptic bouton approach, possibly promoting synaptic localization and cargo release. Our work provides a basis to extrapolate DCV transport properties determined in cultured neurons to the intact mouse brain and reveals novel features such as slowing upon bouton approach and brain state-dependent trafficking directionality. ABSTRACT: Neuronal dense core vesicles (DCVs) transport many cargo molecules like neuropeptides and neurotrophins to their release sites in dendrites or axons. The transport properties of DCVs in axons of the intact mammalian brain are unknown. We used viral expression of a DCV cargo reporter (NPY-Venus/Cherry) in the thalamus and two-photon in vivo imaging to visualize axonal DCV trafficking in thalamocortical projections of anaesthetized and awake mice. We found an average speed of 1 μm/s, maximal speeds of up to 5 μm/s and a pausing fraction of ∼11%. Directionality of transport differed between anaesthetized and awake mice. In vivo microtubule +-end extension imaging using MACF18-GFP revealed microtubular growth at 0.12 μm/s and provided positive identification of antero- and retrograde axonal transport. Consistent with previous reports, anterograde transport was faster (∼2.1 μm/s) than retrograde transport (∼1.4 μm/s). In summary, DCVs are transported with faster maximal speeds and lower pausing fraction in vivo compared to previous results obtained in vitro. Finally, we found that DCVs slowed down upon presynaptic bouton approach. We propose that this mechanism promotes synaptic localization and cargo release.
Literature context: body (Synaptic Systems, 160003, RRID:AB_887730), raised against the 1â€“186 amin
Mitochondrial function in neurons is tightly linked with metabolic and signaling mechanisms that ultimately determine neuronal performance. The subcellular distribution of these organelles is dynamically regulated as they are directed to axonal release sites on demand, but whether mitochondrial internal ultrastructure and molecular properties would reflect the actual performance requirements in a synapse-specific manner, remains to be established. Here, we examined performance-determining ultrastructural features of presynaptic mitochondria in GABAergic and glutamatergic axons of mice and human. Using electron-tomography and super-resolution microscopy we found, that these features were coupled to synaptic strength: mitochondria in boutons with high synaptic activity exhibited an ultrastructure optimized for high rate metabolism and contained higher levels of the respiratory chain protein cytochrome-c (CytC) than mitochondria in boutons with lower activity. The strong, cell type-independent correlation between mitochondrial ultrastructure, molecular fingerprints and synaptic performance suggests that changes in synaptic activity could trigger ultrastructural plasticity of presynaptic mitochondria, likely to adjust their performance to the actual metabolic demand.
Literature context: g #160 003, RRID:AB_887730) was from Synaptic Systems; cof
Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased globular-actin (G-actin) at as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of AD (APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide. Further, the F-actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin induced recall deficit after cFC in WT mice, indicating the importance of maintaining F-/G-actin equilibrium for optimal behavioral response. Using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), we show that F-actin depolymerization in spines leads to a breakdown of the nano-organization of outwardly radiating F-actin rods in cortical neurons from APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice. Our results demonstrate that synaptic dysfunction seen as F-actin disassembly occurs very early, before onset of pathological hallmarks in AD mice, and contributes to behavioral dysfunction, indicating that depolymerization of F-actin is causal and not consequent to decreased spine density. Further, we observed decreased synaptosomal F-actin levels in postmortem brain from mild cognitive impairment and AD patients compared with subjects with normal cognition. F-actin decrease correlated inversely with increasing AD pathology (Braak score, Aβ load, and tangle density) and directly with performance in episodic and working memory tasks, suggesting its role in human disease pathogenesis and progression.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic dysfunction underlies cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cytoskeletal protein actin plays a critical role in maintaining structure and function of synapses. Using cultured neurons and an AD mouse model, we show for the first time that filamentous actin (F-actin) is lost selectively from synapses early in the disease process, long before the onset of classical AD pathology. We also demonstrate that loss of synaptic F-actin contributes directly to memory deficits. Loss of synaptosomal F-actin in human postmortem tissue correlates directly with decreased performance in memory test and inversely with AD pathology. Our data highlight that synaptic cytoarchitectural changes occur early in AD and they may be targeted for the development of therapeutics.
Literature context: # 160 003 RRID:AB_887730 Iba1 Wako
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration. Remarkably, cell death was dissociated from tangle formation in this natural 3D model of AD. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we observed upregulation of genes involved in myelination and downregulation of genes related to memory and cognition, synaptic transmission, and neuron projection. This novel chimeric model for AD displays human-specific pathological features and allows the analysis of different genetic backgrounds and mutations during the course of the disease.
Literature context: 160 003, RRID:AB_887730 rat monocl
Mechanisms regulating the surveillance and clearance of synaptic proteins are not well understood. Intriguingly, the loss of the presynaptic active zone proteins Piccolo and Bassoon triggers the loss of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and compromises synaptic integrity. Here we report that the destruction of SVs in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon was associated with the induction of presynaptic autophagy, a process that depended on poly-ubiquitination, but not the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Surprisingly, gain or loss of function (LOF) of Bassoon alone suppressed or enhanced presynaptic autophagy, respectively, implying a fundamental role for Bassoon in the local regulation of presynaptic autophagy. Mechanistically, Bassoon was found to interact with Atg5, an E3-like ligase essential for autophagy, and to inhibit the induction of autophagy in heterologous cells. Importantly, Atg5 LOF as well as targeting an Atg5-binding peptide derived from Bassoon inhibited presynaptic autophagy in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating presynaptic autophagy.
Literature context: AT; 1:1000, IHC)Synaptic Systems160 003Goat anti-mCherry (1:500, WM)Sic
The deep dorsal horn is a poorly characterized spinal cord region implicated in processing low-threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR) information. We report an array of mouse genetic tools for defining neuronal components and functions of the dorsal horn LTMR-recipient zone (LTMR-RZ), a role for LTMR-RZ processing in tactile perception, and the basic logic of LTMR-RZ organization. We found an unexpectedly high degree of neuronal diversity in the LTMR-RZ: seven excitatory and four inhibitory subtypes of interneurons exhibiting unique morphological, physiological, and synaptic properties. Remarkably, LTMRs form synapses on between four and 11 LTMR-RZ interneuron subtypes, while each LTMR-RZ interneuron subtype samples inputs from at least one to three LTMR classes, as well as spinal cord interneurons and corticospinal neurons. Thus, the LTMR-RZ is a somatosensory processing region endowed with a neuronal complexity that rivals the retina and functions to pattern the activity of ascending touch pathways that underlie tactile perception.