Literature context: nti-LC3B (RRID:AB_881433, 1:200), r
The Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) forms the primary site of pathology in several blinding retinopathies. RPE cultures are being continuously refined so that dynamic disease processes in this important monolayer can be faithfully studied outside the eye over longer periods. The RPE substrate, which mimics the supportive Bruch's membrane (BrM), plays a key role in determining how well in-vitro cultures recapitulate native RPE cells. Here, we evaluate how two different types of BrM substrates; (1) a commercially-available polyester transwell membrane, and (2) a novel electrospun scaffold developed in our laboratory, could support the generation of realistic RPE tissues in culture. Our findings reveal that both substrates were capable of supporting long-lasting RPE monolayers with structural and functional specialisations of in-situ RPE cells. These cultures were used to study autofluorescence and barrier formation, as well as activities such as outer-segment internalisation/trafficking and directional secretion of key proteins; the impairment of which underlies retinal disease. Hence, both substrates fulfilled important criteria for generating authentic in-vitro cultures and act as powerful tools to study RPE pathophysiology. However, RPE grown on electrospun scaffolds may be better suited to studying complex RPE-BrM interactions such as the formation of drusen-like deposits associated with early retinal disease.
Literature context: ab48394; RRID:AB_881433 1
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a rare, rapidly progressing childhood leukodystrophy triggered by deficit of the lysosomal enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC) and characterized by the accumulation of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine; PSY) in the nervous system. PSY is a cytotoxic sphingolipid, which leads to widespread degeneration of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, causing demyelination. Here we report on autophagy in the human oligodendrocyte cell line MO3.13 treated with PSY and exploitation of Li as an autophagy modulator to rescue cell viability. We demonstrate that PSY causes upregulation of the autophagic flux at the level of autophagosome and autolysosome formation and LC3-II expression. We show that pretreatment with Li, a drug clinically used to treat bipolar disorders, can further stimulate autophagy, improving cell tolerance to PSY. This Li protective effect is found not to be linked to reduction of PSY-induced oxidative stress and might not stem from a reduction of PSY accumulation. These data provide novel information on the intracellular pathways activated during PSY-induced toxicity and suggest the autophagy pathway as a promising novel therapeutic target for ameliorating the GLD phenotype. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: #ab48394; RRID:AB_881433 Hamster an
Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown. We show that the centriolar satellite protein PCM1 regulates the recruitment of GABARAP to the pericentriolar material. In addition to residing on the pericentriolar material, GABARAP marks a subtype of PCM1-positive centriolar satellites. GABARAP, but not another ATG8 family member LC3B, binds directly to PCM1 through a canonical LIR motif. Loss of PCM1 results in destabilization of GABARAP, but not LC3B, through proteasomal degradation. GABARAP instability is mediated through the centriolar satellite E3 ligase Mib1, which interacts with GABARAP through its substrate-binding region and promotes K48-linked ubiquitination of GABARAP. Ubiquitination of GABARAP occurs in the N terminus, a domain associated with ATG8-family-specific functions during autophagosome formation, on residues absent in the LC3 family. Furthermore, PCM1-GABARAP-positive centriolar satellites colocalize with forming autophagosomes. PCM1 enhances GABARAP/WIPI2/p62-positive autophagosome formation and flux but has no significant effect on LC3B-positive autophagosome formation. These data suggest a mechanism for how centriolar satellites can specifically regulate an ATG8 ortholog, the centrosomal GABARAP reservoir, and centrosome-autophagosome crosstalk.
Dominantly inherited isolated GH deficiency is mainly caused by a heterozygous donor site mutation of intron 3 in the GH1 gene. An exon 3 deletion in GH (del32-71 GH) is produced from a mutant allele, whereas wild-type GH is produced from the other allele. Several studies have demonstrated a dominant negative effect of del32-71 GH on wild-type GH secretion, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that unfolded del32-71 GH accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and causes ER stress and apoptosis in somatotrophs, promoting GH deficiency. To evaluate del32-71 GH-mediated ER stress, we established GH4C1 cell lines with doxycycline (dox)-controlled del32-71 GH expression. In 20 of 23 dox-controlled cell lines, the concentration of wild-type GH in the culture medium significantly decreased with del32-71 GH induction, demonstrating the dominant negative effect of this mutant. Cell viability, mRNA abundance of ER stress-response genes, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated in 5 dox-controlled cell lines selected as cellular models. In 4 of the 5 cell lines, del32-71 GH induction decreased cell viability, increased expression of 3 major ER stress response pathways (PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], activating transcription factor-6 [ATF6], and inositol requirement 1 [IRE1]), and induced caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation. In 1 of the 4 cell lines, DNA fragmentation was demonstrated. Finally, overexpression of XBP1(S), a nuclear transcription factor downstream of IRE1, completely reversed the observed caspase activation. These data suggested that del32-71 GH-mediated ER stress and apoptosis contributed to the decrease in wild-type GH secretion observed in GH deficiency due to the GH1 gene slice-site mutations.