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GFAP antibody

RRID:AB_880202

Antibody ID

AB_880202

Target Antigen

GFAP antibody human, mouse, rat, rat, mouse, human

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab53554, RRID:AB_880202)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-FrFl, sELISA, WB; ELISA; Immunohistochemistry - frozen; Immunohistochemistry; Western Blot; Immunofluorescence; Immunocytochemistry

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Abcam

Biallelic Mutations in MYORG Cause Autosomal Recessive Primary Familial Brain Calcification.

  • Yao XP
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and other brain regions. The genetic basis of this disorder remains unknown in a significant portion of familial cases. Here, we reported a recessive causal gene, MYORG, for PFBC. Compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations of MYORG co-segregated completely with PFBC in six families, with logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 4.91 at the zero recombination fraction. In mice, Myorg mRNA was expressed specifically in S100β-positive astrocytes, and knockout of Myorg induced the formation of brain calcification at 9 months of age. Our findings provide strong evidence that loss-of-function mutations of MYORG cause brain calcification in humans and mice.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI095097(United States)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Form 3D Clusters Following Intraventricular Transplantation.

  • Jungwirth N
  • J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an immune privileged cell type with numerous regeneration-promoting effects. The in vivo behavior of MSC and underlying mechanisms leading to their regenerative effects are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to comparatively investigate the in vivo behavior of canine (cMSC), human (hMSC), and murine MSC (mMSC) following intra-cerebroventricular transplantation. At 7 days post transplantation (dpt), clusters of cMSC, hMSC, and mMSC were detected within the ventricular system. At 49 dpt, cMSC-transplanted mice showed clusters mostly consisting of extracellular matrix lacking transplanted MSC. Similarly, hMSC-transplanted mice lacked MSC clusters at 49 dpt. Xenogeneic MSC transplantation was associated with a local T lymphocyte-dominated immune reaction at both time points. Interestingly, no associated inflammation was observed following syngeneic mMSC transplantation. In conclusion, transplanted MSC formed intraventricular cell clusters and exhibited a short life span in vivo. Xenogeneically in contrast to syngeneically transplanted MSC triggered a T cell-mediated graft rejection indicating that MSCs are not as immune privileged as previously assumed. However, MSC may mediate their effects by a "hit and run" mechanism and future studies will show whether syngeneically or xenogeneically transplanted MSCs exert better therapeutic effects in animals with CNS disease.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - BA 815/14-1,()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - STA 518/4-1()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - TI 309/4-2()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20RR016474(United States)

Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  • Youssef M
  • Hippocampus
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F30 MH111209()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH091844()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH106809()

Dynamic diffusion tensor imaging of spinal cord contusion: A canine model.

  • Liu C
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of changes in spinal cord contusion using a canine model of injury involving rostral and caudal levels. In this study, a spinal cord contusion model was established in female dogs using a custom-made weight-drop lesion device. DTI was performed on dogs with injured spinal cords (n=7) using a Siemens 3.0T MRI scanner at pre-contusion and at 3 h, 24 h, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-injury. The tissue sections were stained for immunohistochemical analysis. Canine models of spinal cord contusion were created successfully using the weight-drop lesion device. The fractional anisotropy (FA) value of lesion epicenter decreased, while the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values increased, and the extent of the curve was apparent gradually. The site and time affected the DTI parameters significantly in the whole spinal cord, ADC (site, P < 0.001 and time, P = 0.077, respectively); FA (site, P < 0.001 and time, P = 0.002, respectively). Immunohistological analysis of GFAP and NF revealed the pathologic changes of reactive astrocytes and axons, as well as the cavity and glial scars occurring during chronic SCI. DTI is a sensitive and noninvasive imaging tool useful to assess edema, hemorrhage, cavity formation, structural damage and reconstruction of axon, and myelin in dogs. The DTI parameters after contusion vary. However, the curves of ADC, MD, and RD were nearly similar and the FA curve was distinct. All the DTI parameters were affected by distance and time.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - P01-HG000205(United States)

Astroglial major histocompatibility complex class I following immune activation leads to behavioral and neuropathological changes.

  • Sobue A
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the central nervous system, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules are mainly expressed in neurons, and neuronal MHCI have roles in synapse elimination and plasticity. However, the pathophysiological significance of astroglial MHCI remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that MHCI expression is up-regulated in astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following systemic immune activation by an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) or hydrodynamic interferon (IFN)-γ gene delivery in male C57/BL6J mice. In cultured astrocytes, MHCI/H-2D largely co-localized with exosomes. To investigate the role of astroglial MHCI, H-2D, or sH-2D was expressed in the mPFC of male C57/BL6J mice using an adeno-associated virus vector under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. The expression of astroglial MHCI in the mPFC impaired sociability and recognition memory in mice. Regarding neuropathological changes, MHCI expression in astrocytes significantly activated microglial cells, decreased parvalbumin-positive cell numbers, and reduced dendritic spine density in the mPFC. A treatment with GW4869 that impairs exosome synthesis ameliorated these behavioral and neuropathological changes. These results suggest that the overexpression of MHCI in astrocytes affects microglial proliferation as well as neuronal numbers and spine densities, thereby leading to social and cognitive deficits in mice, possibly via exosomes created by astrocytes.

Adropin preserves the blood-brain barrier through a Notch1/Hes1 pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

  • Yu L
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adropin is expressed in the CNS and plays a crucial role in the development of stroke. However, little is currently known about the effects of adropin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, the role of adropin in collagenase-induced ICH was investigated in mice. At 1-h post-ICH, mice were administered with recombinant human adropin by intranasal. Brain water +content, BBB permeability, and neurological function were measured at different time intervals. Proteins were quantified using western blot analysis, and the localizations of adropin and Notch1 were visualized via immunofluorescence staining. It is shown that adropin reduced brain water content and improved neurological functions. Adropin preserved the functionality of BBB by increasing N-cadherin expression and reducing extravasation of albumin. Moreover, in vivo knockdown of Notch1 and Hes1 both abolished the protective effects of adropin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that adropin constitutes a potential treatment value for ICH by preserving BBB and improving functional outcomes through the Notch1 signaling pathway.

H3.3K27M Cooperates with Trp53 Loss and PDGFRA Gain in Mouse Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells to Induce Invasive High-Grade Gliomas.

  • Pathania M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gain-of-function mutations in histone 3 (H3) variants are found in a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), often in association with TP53 loss and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) amplification. Here, we describe a somatic mouse model wherein H3.3K27M and Trp53 loss alone are sufficient for neoplastic transformation if introduced in utero. H3.3K27M-driven lesions are clonal, H3K27me3 depleted, Olig2 positive, highly proliferative, and diffusely spreading, thus recapitulating hallmark molecular and histopathological features of pHGG. Addition of wild-type PDGFRA decreases latency and increases tumor invasion, while ATRX knockdown is associated with more circumscribed tumors. H3.3K27M-tumor cells serially engraft in recipient mice, and preliminary drug screening reveals mutation-specific vulnerabilities. Overall, we provide a faithful H3.3K27M-pHGG model which enables insights into oncohistone pathogenesis and investigation of future therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA196539()

Heterogeneous organization and connectivity of the chicken auditory thalamus (Gallus gallus).

  • Wang Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The auditory ascending system contains parallel pathways in vertebrate brains. In chickens (Gallus gallus), three pathways arise from nucleus laminaris (NL), nucleus angularis (NA), and regio intermedius (RI) in the brainstem, innervating three subdivisions of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) in the midbrain. The current study reveals the segregation of these pathways in their subsequent projections to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) in the thalamus. Based on cytoarchitecture and myelin distribution, we identified seven Ov subregions, including five neuronal clusters within the Ov proper, the nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis (SPO), and the circum-ovoidalis (cOv). Immunocytochemistry further revealed that a ventromedial cluster of the Ov proper (Ovvm) contains unique cell types expressing α8 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, while SPO and cOv are characterized with expression of calcitonin-gene-related peptide and cholecystokinin. Tract tracing studies demonstrated that Ovvm is a major target of the NL-recipient zone of MLd, while the RI-recipient zone of MLd predominantly projects to a ventrolateral cluster of the Ov proper. Afferent inputs to the remaining regions of the Ov proper mostly arise from the NA-recipient zone of MLd. SPO and cOv receive a projection from the surrounding areas of MLd, named the nucleus intercollicularis. Importantly, the Ov proper, SPO and cOv all project to the Field L2 in the forebrain, the avian auditory cortex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the avian auditory thalamus is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous structure, implicating an important role in generating novel representations for specific acoustic features.

Glial activation in the periaqueductal gray promotes descending facilitation of neuropathic pain through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  • Ni HD
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VL-PAG) is a key component that mediates pain modulation. Although spinal cord glial cells appear to play an important role in chronic pain development, the precise mechanisms involving descending facilitation pathways from the PAG following nerve injury are poorly understood. This study shows that cellular events that occur during glial activation in the VL-PAG may promote descending facilitation from the PAG during neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI) was induced by ligature construction of the sciatic nerve in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Behavioral responses to noxious mechanical (paw withdrawal threshold; PWT) and thermal (paw withdrawal latency; PWL) stimuli were evaluated. After CCI, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of microglia and astrocytes in the VL-PAG showed morphological and quantitative changes indicative of activation in microglia and astrocytes. Intra-VL-PAG injection of microglial or astrocytic inhibitors attenuated PWT and PWL at days 7 and 14, respectively, following CCI. We also evaluated the effects of intra-VL-PAG administration of the phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) inhibitor SB 203580 at day 7 after CCI. This treatment abolished microglial activation and produced a significant time-dependent attenuation of PWT and PWL. Western blot analysis showed localized expression of p-p38 in the VL-PAG after CCI. P-p38 was expressed in labeled microglia of the VL-PAG but was not present in astrocytes and neurons on day 7 after CCI. These results demonstrate that CCI-induced neuropathic pain is associated with glial activation in the VL-PAG, which likely participates in descending pain facilitation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA173903(United States)