The antitumor effector T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells represent two T cell paradigms: short-lived cytolytic Th1 cells and "stem cell-like" memory Th17 cells. We report that Th9 cells represent a third paradigm-they are less-exhausted, fully cytolytic, and hyperproliferative. Only tumor-specific Th9 cells completely eradicated advanced tumors, maintained a mature effector cell signature with cytolytic activity as strong as Th1 cells, and persisted as long as Th17 cells in vivo. Th9 cells displayed a unique Pu.1-Traf6-NF-κB activation-driven hyperproliferative feature, suggesting a persistence mechanism rather than an antiapoptotic strategy. Th9 antitumor efficacy depended on interleukin-9 and upregulated expression of Eomes and Traf6. Thus, tumor-specific Th9 cells are a more effective CD4+ T cell subset for adoptive cancer therapy.
Genetic mutations of CARD14 (encoding CARMA2) are observed in psoriasis patients. Here we showed that Card14E138A/+ and Card14ΔQ136/+ mice developed spontaneous psoriasis-like skin inflammation, which resulted from constitutively activated CARMA2 via self-aggregation leading to the enhanced activation of the IL-23-IL-17A cytokine axis. Card14-/- mice displayed attenuated skin inflammation in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis model due to impaired IL-17A signaling in keratinocytes. CARMA2, mainly expressed in keratinocytes, associates with the ACT1-TRAF6 signaling complex and mediates IL-17A-induced NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway activation, which leads to expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Thus, CARMA2 serves as a key mediator of IL-17A signaling and its constitutive activation in keratinocytes leads to the onset of psoriasis, which indicates an important role of NF-κB activation in keratinocytes in psoriatic initiation.
The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.